Metastatic Foci (metastatic + focus)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Metastatic acinic cell carcinoma in a neurofibroma mistaken for carcinosarcoma

Michael L. Cohn MD
Abstract Background. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is a rare, but well-recognized, entity most commonly involving metastatic carcinoma to a mesenchymal neoplasm. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland metastatic to a neurofibroma. Methods and Results. A 55-year-old man with a history of a high-grade acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid was seen with a mass at the surgical site and metastatic foci in the scalp 10 months postoperatively. The resection specimen revealed a spindle cell lesion with metastatic foci of high-grade adenocarcinoma, initially diagnosed as a carcinosarcoma. The bland morphology and S-100,positive expression of the spindle cell lesion confirmed the diagnosis of neurofibroma. The high-grade features of the carcinomatous foci and their similarity to the primary tumor confirmed the presence of a tumor-to-tumor metastasis. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acinic cell carcinoma metastatic to a neurofibroma, an important entity in the differential diagnosis of biphasic tumors of the head and neck. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck27: 76,80, 2005 [source]

Expression of X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes metastasis and tumor recurrence,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Ying-Hong Shi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Despite significantly improved diagnosis and treatment in recent years, the long-term therapeutic effect is compromised by the frequent recurrence and metastasis, of which the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Our initial studies in established HCC cell lines with different metastatic capabilities indicated a correlation of metastasis with the resistance to apoptosis and therefore the ability to survive in stressed conditions. Subsequent investigation revealed that increased expression of X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein (XIAP) was correlated with the resistance to apoptosis and enhanced invasiveness in vitro, which could contribute to increased metastatic foci in vivo. Furthermore, we found that nearly 90% of clinical samples from advanced HCC patients expressed high levels of XIAP. Patients with XIAP-positive tumors had a significantly increased risk of relapse, which resulted from metastasis after total liver resection and orthotopic liver transplantation. Indeed, XIAP expression could be an independent prognostic factor for predicting disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate of these patients. XIAP expression was also highly correlated with advanced cases that exceeded the Milan criteria and could be a prognostic factor for disease-free survival in these patients as well. Conclusion: Our studies have shown an important molecule in controlling HCC metastasis, defined a biomarker that can be used to predict HCC recurrence and patient survival after treatment, and suggest that XIAP can be a molecular target subject to intervention to reduce metastasis and recurrence. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;48:497,507.) [source]

Rapid detection of metastasis of gastric cancer using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

Daisuke Horibe
Abstract Tailor-made surgeries for patients with solid malignancies have been under consideration on the basis of the development of new approaches for minor metastatic foci of malignant tumors. Accurate and reliable methods to detect metastases in biopsy specimens with certain rapidity are essential for the performance of these surgeries. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and practical method to detect metastasis in specimens from patients with gastric carcinoma with the use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) reaction, a novel technique for detecting mRNA expressions of targeted sequences with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity under isothermal conditions. RT-LAMP primers to detect cytokeratin19 (CK19) mRNA were generated and 92 lymph nodes (LNs) obtained from 9 patients with gastric cancer were tested for tumor metastases with this technique. Among 92 LNs, 15 were metastasis-positive by routine histopathological examination. RT-LAMP reaction detected CK19 expression in all of the pathologically positive LNs and in 16 of 77 negative LNs. Nested RT-PCR assay for CK19 expression was also performed on 2 of the 9 cases including 32 LNs. The agreement rate of CK19 expression detection by RT-LAMP and RT-PCR analysis was 31/32 (97%). The RT-LAMP technique showed similar sensitivity to detect metastases as nested RT-PCR assay, with a rapidity comparable to that of intraoperative histopathological examination with frozen sectioning and hematoxylin and eosin staining. This method is expected to play an essential role in the performance of tailor-made surgeries in the near future. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits peritoneal metastasis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells

Hiroki Kuniyasu
Abstract The effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on peritoneal metastasis was examined by in vitro treatment of cancer cells and mouse peritoneal metastasis models. First, cell growth of MKN28 human gastric cancer cells and Colo320 human colon cancer cells was suppressed by CLA in a dose-dependent manner with an increment in apoptosis. CLA significantly inhibited invasion into type IV collagen-coated membrane of MKN28 and Colo320 cells (p < 0.05). CLA-induced growth inhibition was recovered by the exposure to antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-, in both cell lines. BALB/c nu-nu mice were inoculated with MKN28 and Colo320 cells into their peritoneal cavity, and administrated with CLA intraperitoneally (weekly, 4 times). CLA treatment did not affect food intake or weight gain of mice. CLA treatment significantly decreased metastatic foci of both cells in the peritoneal cavity (p < 0.005). Survival rate in mice inoculated with MKN28 or Colo320 cells was significantly recovered by CLA treatment (p = 0.0025 and 0.0052, respectively). Protein production in MKN28 and Colo320 cells treated with CLA showed a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-, and an increase in Bax. These findings suggest that CLA inhibits metastasis of human gastric and colon cancer cells. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Increased metastatic potential of tumor cells in von Willebrand factor-deficient mice

Summary.,Background:,The key role played by von Willebrand factor (VWF) in platelet adhesion suggests a potential implication in various pathologies, where this process is involved. In cancer metastasis development, tumor cells interact with platelets and the vessel wall to extravasate from the circulation. As a potential mediator of platelet,tumor cell interactions, VWF could influence this early step of tumor spread and therefore play a role in cancer metastasis.Objectives:,To investigate whether VWF is involved in metastasis development.Methods:,In a first step, we characterized the interaction between murine melanoma cells B16-BL6 and VWF in vitro. In a second step, an experimental metastasis model was used to compare the formation of pulmonary metastatic foci in C57BL/6 wild-type and VWF-null mice following the injection of B16-BL6 cells or Lewis lung carcinoma cells.Results:,In vitro adhesion assays revealed that VWF is able to promote a dose-dependent adhesion of B16-BL6 cells via its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence. In the experimental metastasis model, we found a significant increase in the number of pulmonary metastatic foci in VWF-null mice compared with the wild-type mice, a phenotype that could be corrected by restoring VWF plasma levels. We also showed that increased survival of the tumor cells in the lungs during the first 24 h in the absence of VWF was the cause of this increased metastasis.Conclusion:,These findings suggest that VWF plays a protective role against tumor cell dissemination in vivo. Underlying mechanisms remain to be investigated. [source]

Dynamics of global gene expression changes during brain metastasis formation

Norihiko Saito
As methods of cancer diagnosis and treatment improve, interest in metastatic brain tumors continues to increase. In the present study, we attempted to characterize genetically the dynamic changes occurring during brain metastasis formation by DNA microarray, and attempted to compare these findings with histological observations. Lewis lung carcinoma cells were injected into C57BL/6Ncrj mice carotid arteries. The mice were sacrificed at days 1,9 after injection. We performed histological observation and genome-wide expression profiling using a DNA microarray. In histological observation, tumor cells were observed in capillary vessels at day 1 after injection. At day 3, the tumor cells had begun to proliferate. At day 6, the metastatic foci showed "perivascular proliferations". Next, we performed a pairwise comparison of gene expression microarray data from day 1 to day 9 after injection. The first major change occurred between Phase Two and Phase Three. When hierarchical clustering was performed between different samples using the 867 genes, they could be classified into identical clusters for days 1 and 2, identical clusters for day 3 to day 5, and identical clusters for day 6 to day 9. For time course analysis, we extracted 623 genes by the pairwise comparison. By using the quality threshold (QT) nonhierarchical clustering method, we identified 37 expression patterns. These patterns can be separated into eight clusters by using the k-means method. The microarray results reported here strongly suggest that a large number of genes exhibit a spike pattern, which is tantamount to phase-specific expression. [source]

From tumor lymphangiogenesis to lymphvascular niche

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
Satoshi Hirakawa
Metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes indicates the initial spread of tumors from a primary site. The recent discovery of tumor-associated growth of lymphatic vessels clarified that tumor lymphangiogenesis actively promotes enhanced draining/sentinel lymph node metastasis. Studies of experimental carcinogenesis have further established that tumors continue to induce lymphangiogenesis in metastatic foci such as draining lymph nodes. Lymphangiogenesis within draining lymph nodes probably contributes to enhanced distant lymph node and distant organ metastases. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis has recently been identified in several human malignancies, such as cutaneous malignant melanoma. Tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis thus has potential significance not only at the primary site, but also in lymph nodes. Primary tumors induce new lymphatic vessel growth in draining lymph nodes before metastasis. The remarkable enlargement of sinusoidal lymphatic endothelium might facilitate tumor cell transport to the lymph nodes, and potentially contribute to the migration, residence, and/or survival of metastatic tumor cancer stem cells by inducing a specific tumor microenvironment. Therefore, the novel concept of ,lymphvascular niche' is proposed herein to explain lymphatic network expansion. This concept might help to improve understanding of the molecular mechanism of lymph node metastasis, and change therapeutic approaches to treating cancer metastasis. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 983,989) [source]

Isolation of Differentiated Squamous and Undifferentiated Spindle Carcinoma Cell Lines with Differing Metastatic Potential from a 4-Nitroquinoline N-Oxide-induced Tongue Carcinoma in a F344 Rat

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 12 2000
Shinichi Takeuchi
One differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line (RSC3-E2) and two undifferentiated tumor cell lines (RSC3-LM and RSC3-E2R) with different metastatic potential were established from a 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4NQO)-induced differentiated SCC in F344 rat tongue. The RSC3-E2 subline was isolated from a parental cell line (RSC3-P) by single cell cloning in vitro, whereas the RSC3-LM subline was isolated from a lung metastatic focus after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of RSC3-P cells. The RSC3-E2R cell line was isolated from a lung metastatic focus following s.c. injection of RSC3-E2 cells after X-irradiation in vitro. The RSC3-E2 cell line is keratinpositive and grows as a keratinizing tumor in nude mice, whereas RSC3-LM and RSC3-E2R cells are keratin-negative, vimentin-positive and form undifferentiated tumors. When s.c. injected into nude mice, the RSC3-E2 cell line proved to be non-metastatic, while the RSC3-LM cell line was metastatic by both hematogenous and lymphogenous routes, and the RSC3-E2R cell line was metastatic only hematogenously. In vitro relative growth rates and in vitro invasion activity of these cell lines were in the order RSC3-LM>RSC3-E2R>RSC3-E2. Chromosome analysis revealed two peaks with modal chromosome numbers of 83 and 78 for RSC3-P cells and single peaks at 83, 78 and 56 for RSC3-LM, RSC3-E2 and RSC3-E2R cell lines, respectively. Common structural abnormalities on chromosome 11 were shared by all cell lines. Mutation analysis of the p53 gene using a yeast functional assay demonstrated RSC3-LM cell line to have a point mutation at codon 269, whereas RSC3-E2 and RSC3-E2R had double mutations at codons 106 and 170 on each allele. These results suggest that the two undifferentiated RSC3-LM and RSC3-E2R tumor cell lines with different metastatic potential were generated from differentiated SCC cells via different genetic pathways as a consequence of tumor progression in vivo and in vitro, respectively. These cell lines should provide a useful model for understanding mechanisms of hematogenous and lymphogenous metastasis, as well as tumor progression of oral SCCs. [source]