Metaphase I (metaphase + i)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Behaviors of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors during maturation of bovine oocytes in vitro

Gabbine Wee
The mammalian oocyte undergoes dynamic changes in chromatin structure to reach complete maturation. However, little known is about behaviors of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ACRFs) during meiosis. Here, we found that respective ACRFs may differently behave in the process of oocyte maturation in the bovine. All ACRFs interacted with oocytic chromatin at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Mi-2 and hSNF2H disappeared from GV-chromatin within 1,hr of in vitro culture whereas Brg-1 and BAF-170 were retained throughout germinal vesicle break down (GVBD). Brg-1 was localized on the condensed chromatin outside, whereas BAF-170 was entirely excluded from condensed chromatin. Thereafter, Brg-1 and BAF-170 interacted with metaphase I and metaphase II chromosomes. These results imply that Mi-2 and hSNF2H may initiate the meiotic resumption, and Brg-1 and BAF-170 may support chromatin condensation during meiosis. In addition, DNA methylation and methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) seem to be constantly retained in the oocyte chromatin throughout in vitro maturation. Inhibition of ACRF activity by treatment with the inhibitor apyrase led to retarded chromatin remodeling in bovine oocytes, thereby resulting in poor development of fertilized embryos. Therefore, these results indicate that precise behaviors of ACRFs during meiosis are critical for nuclear maturation and subsequent embryonic development in the bovine. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 77: 126,135, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Changes in global histone acetylation pattern in somatic cell nuclei after their transfer into oocytes at different stages of maturation

Helena Fulka
Abstract In our study, we have examined the pattern of global histone modification changes in somatic cell nuclei after their transfer into mouse oocytes at different stages of maturation or after their parthenogenetic activation. While germinal vesicle (GV) staged immature oocytes are strongly labeled with anti-acetylated histone H3 and H4 antibodies, the signal is absent in both metaphase I and metaphase II oocytes (MI, MII). In contrast, the oocytes of all maturation stages show a presence of trimethylated H3/K4 in their chromatin. When somatic cells were fused to intact or enucleated GV oocytes, both the GV and the somatic cell nucleus showed a very strong signal for all the antibodies used. On the other hand, when somatic cells nuclei that are AcH3 and AcH4 positive before fusion are introduced into either intact or enucleated MI or MII oocytes, their acetylation signal decreased rapidly and was totally absent after a prolonged culture. This was not the case when anti-trimethyl H3/K4 antibody was used. The somatic cell chromatin showed only a slight decrease in the intensity of labeling after its transfer into MI or MII oocytes. This decrease was, however, evident only after a prolonged culture. These results suggest not only a relatively higher stability of the methylation modification but also some difference between the oocyte and somatic chromatin. The ability to deacetylate the chromatin of transferred somatic nuclei disappears rapidly after the oocyte activation. Our results indicate that at least some reprogramming activity appears in the oocyte cytoplasm almost immediately after GV breakdown (GVBD), and that this activity rapidly disappears after the oocyte activation. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 556,564, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Asymmetric division of spindle microtubules and microfilaments during bovine meiosis from metaphase I to metaphase III

Guang-Peng Li
Abstract The kinetics of spindle and chromosomes during bovine oocyte meiosis from meiosis I to meiosis III is described. The results of this study showed that (1) oocytes began to extrude the first polar body (Pb1) at the early anaphase I stage and the Pb1 totally separated from the mother cell only when oocytes reach the MII stage; (2) the morphology of the spindle changed from barrel-shaped at the metaphase stage to cylinder-shaped at early anaphase, and then to a thin, long triangle-shaped cone at late anaphase and telophase stages; (3) chromosome morphology went from an individual visible stage at metaphase to a less defined chromatin state during anaphase and telophase stages, and then back to visible individual chromosomes at the next metaphase; (4) chromatin that connected with the floor of the cone became the polar bodies and expelled, and almost all of the microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs) composing the spindles moved towards and contributed to the polar bodies; and (5) the size of the metaphase I (MI) spindle was larger than the metaphase II (MII) and metaphase III (MIII) spindles. The MII spindle, however, is more barrel-shaped than the MI spindle. This study suggests that spindle MTs and MFs during bovine oocyte meiosis are asymmetrically divided into the polar bodies. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 71: 220,226, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of meiosis-inhibiting agents and equine chorionic gonadotropin on nuclear maturation of canine oocytes

N. Songsasen
Abstract Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of meiosis-inhibiting-agents and gonadotropins on nuclear maturation of canine oocytes. The culture medium was TCM199,+,10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor supplemented with 25 ,M ,-mercaptoethanol, 0.25 mM pyruvate, and 1.0 mM L-glutamine (Basal TCM). Initially, oocytes were cultured in Basal TCM alone or in Basal TCM,+,dibutylryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (0.5, 1, 5, or 10 mM dbcAMP) for 24 hr. Dibutylryl cAMP inhibited resumption of meiosis in a dose-dependent manner; 60% of oocytes remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after being cultured for 24 hr in 5 mM dbcAMP. The meiosis-inhibitory effect of dbcAMP appeared to be reversible, as the oocytes resumed meiosis and completed nuclear maturation after being cultured for an additional 48 hr in its absence. Oocytes were then cultured in Basal TCM alone or in Basal TCM,+,roscovitine (12.5, 25, or 50 ,M) for 24 hr. Although ,60% of oocytes cultured in 25 ,M roscovitine remained at the GV stage, this percentage was not significantly different from the 48% that also remained at the GV stage when cultured in its absence. Oocytes were cultured in Basal TCM,+ 25 ,M roscovitine for 17 hr, exposed briefly to equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), and then cultured in Basal TCM for 48 hr. Short exposure of oocytes to eCG was beneficial, as it significantly increased the proportion of oocytes developing beyond germinal vesicle breakdown (P,<,0.05) with ,20,30% of these were metaphase I (MI) oocytes. Study of the kinetics of nuclear maturation demonstrated that large numbers of oocytes remained at MI even after being cultured for 52 hr following brief exposure to eCG. This study showed that in vitro maturation of canine oocytes can be somewhat improved by short exposure of oocytes to eCG. However, further studies are still required to derive effective methods to mature canine oocytes in vitro. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 65: 435,445, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Production and characterization of an amphiploid between common wheat and Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng ex Kuo

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2009
H. Y. Kang
Abstract Wide crosses and synthetic amphiploids have played an important role in introgressing desirable traits from related species into cultivated wheat. Hybrids between Triticum aestivum cv. ,J-11' and Psathyrostachys huashanica were treated with colchicine, to produce a new intergeneric amphiploid (PHW-SA). The morphological characteristics of PHW-SA resembled the parent ,J-11'. PHW-SA plants have purple internodes and pubescence in the basal spikelet, inherited from the P. huashanica parent. Somatic chromosome numbers varied from 2n = 51 to 2n = 56, with 70.59% of plants having 56 chromosomes. At metaphase I, PHW-SA (2n = 56) plants showed an average of 1.15 univalents, 27.34 bivalents, 0.03 trivalents and 0.02 tetravalents per cell; complete chromosome pairing occurred in 50% of the pollen mother cells. A survey of disease resistances revealed that the stripe rust resistance from P. huashanica was expressed, but powdery mildew resistance was suppressed. The fertility of PHW-SA was 60%. [source]

Cytogenetics of species of Chamaecrista (Leguminosae , Caesalpinioideae) native to southern Brazil

Chromosome numbers, karyotypes, meiotic behaviour and pollen analysis are presented for species of Chamaecrista Moench (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cassieae) native to southern Brazil: C. nictitans ssp. patellaria, C. nictitans ssp. disadena, C. repens, C. rotundifolia, C. flexuosa, C. vestita and C. desvauxii. Meiotic behaviour is reported for the first time for all the taxa and was very regular; only bivalents were formed at diakinesis and metaphase I, chromosome disjunction and segregation were regular at anaphases I and II, meiotic indexes were over 99% and pollen fertility was over 92%. Pollen grains were subprolate in C. flexuosa and C. vestita and prolate,spheroidal in the other taxa. Karyotypes were symmetrical in all six species and the data are original, except for C. nictitans ssp. patellaria. Chromosome number is presented for the first time for C. repens (2n = 16) and has been confirmed for the other taxa: 2n = 14 for C. desvauxii, 2n = 32 for the tetraploid C. nictitans ssp. patellaria and C. nictitans ssp. disadena, and 2n = 16 for the other species. These two basic numbers found in the genus, x = 7 and x = 8, point to chromosome evolution by dysploidy, which has also been accompanied by polyploidy. 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 150, 429,439. [source]