Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Antrum

  • gastric antrum

  • Terms modified by Antrum

  • antrum isolation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Naturally Occurring Regulatory T cells (CD4+, CD25high, FOXP3+) in the Antrum and Cardia are Associated with Higher H. pylori Colonization and Increased Gene Expression of TGF-,1

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2008
    Arne Kandulski
    Abstract Background:Helicobacter pylori causes gastric inflammation. Despite the induction of H. pylori -specific B- and T cells, the immune response is not sufficient to clear the infection. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) suppress the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells and mediate immunologic tolerance. FOXP3 was shown to be expressed in a subset of Treg cells known as ,naturally occurring Treg cells'. These cells have not been sufficiently studied in context to H. pylori -induced inflammation in human gastric mucosa. Materials and methods: The study included 76 patients stratified according to the presence of H. pylori. Gene expression levels of FOXP3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-,1, and interleukin-10 were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in biopsies from gastric antrum, corpus, and cardia. FOXP3 expression was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Differences in expression levels were analyzed by comprehensive statistical analyses and correlated with clinical and histomorphologic parameters. Results:H. pylori -positive patients revealed a 19- to 25-fold induction of FOXP3 transcript levels in antrum and cardia (p < .02). FOXP3 transcript levels correlated positively with inflammation (p < .04) and TGF-,1 transcript levels (p < .001). Furthermore, a positive correlation between FOXP3+ Treg cells and H. pylori colonization was demonstrated. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that H. pylori -induced gastritis is associated with a recruitment of naturally occurring FOXP3+ Treg cells that correlates with the degree of bacterial colonization and mucosal TGF-,1 expression. Together, these data support the hypothesis that naturally FOXP3+ Treg cells play a role in the lifelong persistence of H. pylori infection in humans. [source]

    Effects of motilin on intracellular free calcium in cultured smooth muscle cells from the antrum of neonatal rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    P. Fang
    Abstract Aim:, The aim of this study was to determine the effects of motilin on [Ca2+]i regulation and its underlying molecular mechanism in cultured antral smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Methods:, Antral cells were isolated and cultured from neonatal rats, and then the [Ca2+]i in these cells was evaluated by calcium fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM on a laser scanning confocal microscope. Results:, We show that motilin dose-dependently increased [Ca2+]i concentration in cultured ASMCs. Pre-incubation of cells with either the calcium antagonist verapamil (10,5 mol L,1) or the calcium chelator Egtazic (EGTA, 0.1 mmol L,1) significantly suppressed motilin (10,6 mol L,1) induced [Ca2+]i increase as indicated by fluorescent intensity. Interestingly, after mixing with the non-selective intracellular calcium release blocker TMB-8 (10,5 mol L,1), guanosine triphosphate regulatory protein antagonist NEM (10,5 mol L,1), phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor compound 48/80 (1.2 ,g mL,1) and ryanodine at high concentration (10,5 mol L,1), the motilin-induced [Ca2+]i increase was only partially blocked. The protein kinase C inhibitor d -sphingosine (10,6 mol L,1), however, did not show any inhibitory effect on motilin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. Conclusions:, Our study suggests that motilin-stimulated [Ca2+]i elevation in ASMCs is probably due to sustained extracellular Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release from Ca2+ stores via inositol tris-phosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors. Specifically, motilin-induced [Ca2+]i release is accompanied with guanosine triphosphate-binding protein-coupled receptor,PLC,inositol tris-phosphate signalling cascades. [source]


    Tsutomu Namikawa
    We report a rare case of early gastric cancer confined to the mucosal layer with extensive duodenal invasion, curatively removed with distal gastrectomy. An 84-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital with gastric cancer. A barium meal examination and esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed an irregular nodulated lesion measuring 6.5 x 5.5 cm in the gastric antrum and an aggregation of small nodules in the duodenal bulb. A biopsy specimen showed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent distal gastrectomy with partial resection of the duodenal region containing the tumor and regional lymph node dissection, with no complication. Histological examination of the resected tissue confirmed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma limited to the mucosal layer and without lymph node metastasis. The cancer extended into the duodenum as far as 38 mm distant from the pyloric ring, and the resected margins were free of cancer cells. Gastric cancer located adjacent to the pyloric ring thus has the potential for duodenal invasion, even when tumor invasion is confined to the mucosal layer. In such cases, care should be taken during examinations to detect duodenal invasion, and the distal surgical margin must be negative given sufficient duodenal resection. [source]

    Antiplatelet agents and bleeding time after endoscopic biopsy of the gastric antrum in Japanese patients

    Takatsugu Yamamoto
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Shuji Kochi
    We found a small gastric cancer in a 25-year-old woman with nodular gastritis. Endoscopically, the cancer was identified as a whitish area in the gastric antrum. There was also a miliary pattern in the gastric antrum and corpus. In addition, serology and histology revealed the patient to have been infected by Helicobacter pylori. Histological examination of the resected stomach showed that the cancer was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cell restricted to the mucosal layer. In the surrounding mucosa, there were chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates and enlarged lymphoid follicles with germinal centers. Our case suggests that nodular gastritis may be at a high risk for the development of gastric cancer of poorly differentiated type. [source]


    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomata observed simultaneously in the stomach and colon are rare. We report concurrent gastric and colonic low-grade MALT lymphomata that originated from the same clone in a 58-year-old Japanese man without Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy showed multiple erosive lesions in the gastric body and antrum, and a single flat elevation with an irregular margin in the sigmoid colon. Histopathological findings of both lesions suggested low-grade MALT lymphoma. Lymphoepithelial lesions were evident in the gastric lesions, but not in the colonic lesion. Southern blot analysis of lymphoma cells revealed the same immunoglobulin heavy-chain rearrangement pattern. The chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) was also observed. After six courses of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and predonisolone, the gastric lesions disappeared endoscopically, while the colonic lesion persisted. A sigmoidectomy was consequently performed. The chromosomal translocation may be related to the pathogenesis of the present MALT lymphoma case without H. pylori infection. It is interesting that the gastric and colonic lesions differed in response to treatment and in their endoscopic and histologic features, despite having the same origin. [source]

    Endoscopic classification of chronic gastritis based on a pilot study by the research society for gastritis

    Michio Kaminishi
    Background:,Various types of classification of gastritis have been proposed, but no plausible classification has been available until now. The Research Society for Gastritis performed a pilot study to establish an endoscopic classification, taking into consideration the following: (i) ease of use; (ii) permitting everyone the common image; and (iii) presence of histopathological evidence. Methods:,One hundred and fifty-five patients were enrolled and underwent gastroscopy. Eight basic endoscopic and histological types of gastritis (superficial, hemorrhagic, erosive, verrucous, atrophic, metaplastic, hyperplastic and special types) were defined. Gastritis was endoscopically diagnosed according to the definition of the endoscopic types of gastritis. Four or more biopsy specimens were obtained from the lesser and the greater curvatures of the antrum and the corpus of each patient, and the histological findings of gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection were assessed. The histological diagnosis of gastritis was made according to the definition of histology types of gastritis. The endoscopic and the histological diagnoses were then compared in a blinded fashion. Results:,Endoscopic diagnosis was 62% as sensitive as histological diagnosis for erosive gastritis, 67% for verrucous gastritis and 84% for atrophic gastritis in the antrum. In superficial gastritis, sensitivity was approximately 25% in the corpus, but only 8% in the antrum. Metaplastic and hyperplastic gastritis were correctly diagnosed only in severe cases. Conclusion:,Five basic types of gastritis (superficial, erosive, verrucous, atrophic and special types) should be employed for the new endoscopic gastritis classification. Metaplastic and hyperplastic gastritis are considered to be subtypes of atrophic gastritis and they should be excluded from the basic endoscopic classification. A new definition of gastritis in the antrum accompanied by redness still remains to be investigated. [source]

    Whole stomach with antro-pyloric nerve preservation as an esophageal substitute: an original technique

    J.-M. Collard
    SUMMARY., The paper describes an original technique of gastric tailoring in which the two-thirds of the lesser curvature proximal to the crow's foot are denuded flush with the gastric wall, leaving both nerves of Latarjet and the hepatic branches of the left vagus nerve intact. Maintenance of the vagal supply to the antro-pyloric segment in two patients resulted in the presence of peristaltic contractions sweeping over the antrum on simple observation of the antral wall at the end of the procedure and on both upper G-I series and intragastric manometry tracings 6 weeks postoperatively. Gastric exposure to bile on 24-h gastric bile monitoring was normal 6 weeks after the operation. Neither patient had any gastrointestinal symptoms with the exception of early sensations of postprandial fullness when overeating. [source]

    Fundal gastritis as a potential cause of reflux oesophagitis

    M. Newton
    The transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations which allow reflux may be due to altered afferent pathways from the fundus. We aimed to determine whether fundal inflammation is the underlying cause. Two endoscopic biopsies were taken from each of the gastric antrum and fundus in 25 asymptomatic controls with a normal endoscopy (median age 54 range 13,83 years), and 33 patients with erosive oesophagitis (median age 52, 11,78 years). No patient had taken acid suppression therapy or antibiotics for at least 1 month. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa stain and examined in a blinded fashion by one pathologist for the presence of gastritis (Sydney classification) and Helicobacter pylori. Chronic gastritis was common in both groups, but was usually mild. In Helicobacter pylori -negative subjects, there was significantly less chronic gastritis in the antrum and the fundus in oesophagitis patients than in controls (p < 0.05). When present, gastric atrophy was usually antral and mild in severity. There was no difference in the incidence of gastric atrophy in patients with oesophagitis compared with controls (24% compared with 40%; p > 0.05). Chronic gastritis is not more common in patients with oesophagitis, and is unlikely to play a part in the pathogenesis of this disease. [source]

    Relationships between cagA, vacA, and iceA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori and DNA damage in the gastric mucosa

    Marcelo S.P. Ladeira
    Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is believed to predispose carriers to gastric cancer by inducing chronic inflammation. The inflammatory processes may result in the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that damage DNA. In this study, we investigated the relationships between DNA damage in the gastric mucosa and cagA, vacA, and iceA genotypes of H. pylori. The study was conducted with biopsies from the gastric antrum and corpus of 98 H. pylori -infected and 26 uninfected control patients. H. pylori genotypes were determined by PCR and DNA damage was measured in gastric mucosal cells by the Comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis). All patients were nonsmokers, not abusing alcohol, and not using prescription or recreational drugs. Levels of DNA damage were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the H. pylori -infected patients than in uninfected patients. In comparison with the level of DNA damage in the uninfected controls, the extent of DNA damage in both the antrum (OR = 8.45; 95% CI = 2.33,37.72) and the corpus (OR = 6.55; 95% CI = 2.52,17.72) was related to infection by cagA+/vacAs1m1 and iceA1 strains. The results indicate that the genotype of H. pylori is related to the amount of DNA damage in the gastric mucosa. These genotypes could serve as biomarkers for the risk of extensive DNA damage and possibly gastric cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 44:91,98, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    EP1 and EP4 Receptors Mediate Exocytosis Evoked by Prostaglandin E2 in Guinea-Pig Antral Mucous Cells

    Atsuko Ohnishi
    Effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on exocytosis of mucin were studied in mucous cells isolated from guinea-pig antrum using video-microscopy. Stimulation with PGE2 elicited a sustained increase in the frequency of exocytotic events in a dose-dependent manner, which was under regulation by both Ca2+ and cAMP. Stimulation with a selective prostanoid EP4 receptor agonist (ONO-AEI-329, 10 ,M), which activates cAMP signals, elicited a sustained increase in the frequency of exocytotic events (30% of that evoked by 1 ,M PGE2). Stimulation with an EP1 agonist (17-P-T-PGE2, 1 ,M), which activates Ca2+ signals, increased the frequency of exocytotic events to a lesser extent (5% of that evoked by 1 ,M PGE2), while addition of an EP1 antagonist (ONO-8713, 10 ,M) decreased the frequency of exocytotic events (approximately 40% of that evoked by 1 ,M PGE2). However, addition of the EP1 agonist potentiated the frequency of exocytotic events evoked by the EP4 agonist or forskolin (which elevates cAMP levels) and increased the sensitivity of the exocytotic events to forskolin. These results suggest that the Ca2+ signal activated via the EP1 receptor potentiates the cAMP-regulated exocytotic events activated via the EP4 receptor during PGE2 stimulation, by increasing the sensitivity of the exocytotic response to cAMP. In conclusion, exocytotic events in PGE2 -stimulated antral mucous cells were regulated by interactions between EP1 and EP4 receptors. [source]

    Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 is strongly associated with intensity of chronic inflammation, particularly in antrum mucosa: an extension of an 18-year follow-up study of chronic gastritis in Saaremaa, Estonia

    Tamara Vorobjova
    Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis and leads to development of atrophy in some cases. There is evidence that the heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of H. pylori is involved in induction of chronic inflammation. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori HSP60 in an adult cohort from Saaremaa, Estonia (68 persons, median age 57 years), with a high prevalence of antibodies to cell surface proteins of H. pylori (92%) and a well characterized dynamics of chronic gastritis in an 18-year follow-up study, was tested using purified H. pylori HSP60 at a concentration of 1 ,g ml,1 with ELISA. The state of the gastric mucosa and the presence of H. pylori in histological sections in the samples of 1979 and 1997 were assessed in accordance with the Sydney system. Seropositivity for H. pylori HSP60 was 65%. Immunological response to H. pylori HSP60 is associated with the morphological presence of H. pylori in the antrum and corpus (P=0.01) and is strongly correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation, particularly in the antrum mucosa (r=0.34; P=0.003; OR=5.97 (95% CI 1.21,29.3)), but is not associated with development of atrophy during 18 years of follow-up, or with the activity of gastritis. This finding supports the evidence that immunological response to H. pylori HSP60 may play a role in triggering of the inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa. [source]

    Biopsy Strategies for Endoscopic Surveillance of Pre-malignant Gastric Lesions

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2010
    Annemarie C. De Vries
    Abstract Background:, Endoscopic surveillance of pre-malignant gastric lesions may add to gastric cancer prevention. However, the appropriate biopsy regimen for optimal detection of the most advanced lesions remains to be determined. Therefore, we evaluated the yield of endoscopic surveillance by standardized and targeted biopsy protocols. Materials and Methods:, In a prospective, multi-center study, patients with intestinal metaplasia (IM) or dysplasia (DYS) underwent a surveillance gastroscopy. Both targeted biopsies from macroscopic lesions and 12 non-targeted biopsies according to a standardized protocol (antrum, angulus, corpus, cardia) were obtained. Appropriate biopsy locations and the yield of targeted versus non-targeted biopsies were evaluated. Results:, In total, 112 patients with IM (n = 101), or low-grade (n = 5) and high-grade DYS (n = 6) were included. Diagnosis at surveillance endoscopy was atrophic gastritis (AG) in one, IM in 77, low-grade DYS in two, high-grade DYS in three, and gastric cancer in one patient. The angulus (40%), antrum (35%) and lesser curvature of the corpus (33%) showed the highest prevalence of pre-malignant conditions. Non-targeted biopsies from the lesser curvature had a significantly higher yield as compared to the greater curvature of the corpus in diagnosing AG and IM (p = .05 and p = .03). Patients with extensive intragastric IM, which was also present at the cardia were at high risk of a concurrent diagnosis of dysplasia or gastric cancer. High-grade DYS was detected in targeted biopsies only. Conclusions:, At surveillance endoscopies, both targeted and non-targeted biopsies are required for an appropriate diagnosis of (pre-)malignant gastric lesions. Non-targeted biopsies should be obtained in particular from the antrum, angulus and lesser curvature of the corpus. [source]

    Naturally Occurring Regulatory T cells (CD4+, CD25high, FOXP3+) in the Antrum and Cardia are Associated with Higher H. pylori Colonization and Increased Gene Expression of TGF-,1

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2008
    Arne Kandulski
    Abstract Background:Helicobacter pylori causes gastric inflammation. Despite the induction of H. pylori -specific B- and T cells, the immune response is not sufficient to clear the infection. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) suppress the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells and mediate immunologic tolerance. FOXP3 was shown to be expressed in a subset of Treg cells known as ,naturally occurring Treg cells'. These cells have not been sufficiently studied in context to H. pylori -induced inflammation in human gastric mucosa. Materials and methods: The study included 76 patients stratified according to the presence of H. pylori. Gene expression levels of FOXP3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-,1, and interleukin-10 were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in biopsies from gastric antrum, corpus, and cardia. FOXP3 expression was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Differences in expression levels were analyzed by comprehensive statistical analyses and correlated with clinical and histomorphologic parameters. Results:H. pylori -positive patients revealed a 19- to 25-fold induction of FOXP3 transcript levels in antrum and cardia (p < .02). FOXP3 transcript levels correlated positively with inflammation (p < .04) and TGF-,1 transcript levels (p < .001). Furthermore, a positive correlation between FOXP3+ Treg cells and H. pylori colonization was demonstrated. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that H. pylori -induced gastritis is associated with a recruitment of naturally occurring FOXP3+ Treg cells that correlates with the degree of bacterial colonization and mucosal TGF-,1 expression. Together, these data support the hypothesis that naturally FOXP3+ Treg cells play a role in the lifelong persistence of H. pylori infection in humans. [source]

    Four Modes of Adhesion are Used During Helicobacter pylori Binding to Human Mucins in the Oral and Gastric Niches

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2008
    Sara K. Lindén
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and the oral cavity is likely to serve as a reservoir for this pathogen. We investigated the binding of H. pylori to the mucins covering the mucosal surfaces in the niches along the oral to gastric infection route and during gastric disease and modeled the outcome of these interactions. Materials and Methods:, A panel of seven H. pylori strains with defined binding properties was used to identify binding to human mucins from saliva, gastric juice, cardia, corpus, and antrum of healthy stomachs and of stomachs affected by gastritis at pH 7.4 and 3.0 using a microtiter-based method. Results:,H. pylori binding to mucins differed substantially with the anatomic site, mucin type, pH, gastritis status, and H. pylori strain all having effect on binding. Mucins from saliva and gastric juice displayed the most diverse binding patterns, involving four modes of H. pylori adhesion and the MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC5AC mucins as well as the salivary agglutinin. Binding occurred via the blood-group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), the sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA), a charge/low pH-dependent mechanism, and a novel saliva-binding adhesin. In the healthy gastric mucus layer only BabA and acid/charge affect binding to the mucins, whereas in gastritis, the BabA/Leb -dependent binding to MUC5AC remained, and SabA and low pH binding increased. Conclusions:, The four H. pylori adhesion modes binding to mucins are likely to play different roles during colonization of the oral to gastric niches and during long-term infection. [source]

    Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA by a Simple Stool PCR Method in Adult Dyspeptic Patients

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2005
    ABSTRACT Introduction.,Helicobacter pylori is the major agent causing peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) gastric lymphoma. A simple stool polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was performed and compared with the gold standards for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Material and methods., A total of 54 adult patients (mean age, 46.41 ± 13.12 years) with dyspeptic symptoms from Gastroenterology at Dokuz Eylül University Hospital between May and November 2003 were included. Two antrum and corpus biopsies were taken from each patient. Infection by H. pylori was defined as positivity and negativity of the gold standards. DNA extraction of stool specimens was done using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN) and PCR conditions included amplification and reamplification steps using the H. pylori ureA gene specific primers (HPU1, HPU2) and were visualized on 1% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Results., Forty-six of 54 patients (85.2%) were diagnosed positive and eight (14.8%) were negative for H. pylori infection by the gold standard methods. Thirty-two patients were positive (59.3%) and 22 of them (40.7%) were detected negative by stool PCR method. The stool PCR method and gold standard methods showed a statistical difference for the detection of H. pylori infection (p < .0001). Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and positive and negative predictive values were 65.22%, 75%, 2.61%, 93.75%, and 27.7%, respectively. Discussion., The PCR on the stool specimens resulted as being a very specific test. We suggest that a simple stool PCR method that we developed can be used to detect H. pylori, virulence genes, and in drug resistance studies either first line diagnostic methods in the laboratory or in the clinical management of dyspeptic patients. [source]

    Gastric Acidity in Patients with Follicular Gastritis is Significantly Reduced, but Can be Normalized After Eradication for Helicobacter pylori

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 3 2005
    Tomohiko Shimatani
    ABSTRACT Background., Follicular gastritis is thought to be caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the pathophysiology of it remains unclear. Materials and methods., We assessed gastric acidity in 15 patients with follicular gastritis, aged 20,37 years, using a 24-hour intragastric pH-metry, as well as by histologic and serologic evaluations; and compared it with that in other age-matched groups: 18 cases of H. pylori -positive antrum-predominant gastritis, 12 of pangastritis, and 24 H. pylori -negative normals. In eight cases with follicular gastritis, it was re-assessed 6 months after the eradication therapy for H. pylori. Results., During nighttime, the percentage of time with intragastric pH above 3.0 in follicular gastritis was significantly higher than that in normals (p < .0001), and in antrum-predominant gastritis (p < .001), but was comparable with that in pangastritis. In the daytime period, this parameter in follicular gastritis was significantly higher than that in normal (p < .001), in antrum-predominant gastritis (p < .001), and in pangastritis (p < .05). Marked mononuclear cell and neutrophil infiltration but no apparent glandular atrophy were observed in both the antrum and corpus. Serum pepsinogen I/II ratio was significantly lower in follicular gastritis than that in normals (p < .0001) and in antrum-predominant gastritis (p < .001), whereas serum gastrin was significantly higher than that in normals (p < .0001), in antrum-predominant gastritis (p < .01) and in pangastritis (p < .05). After eradication for H. pylori, all of the parameters in follicular gastritis were altered to the same ranges as those in normals. Conclusions., In follicular gastritis, gastric acidity is significantly reduced, but can be normalized by eradication of H. pylori. It can thus be speculated that inflammatory cytokines or H. pylori -infection,induced prostaglandins might strongly inhibit gastric acid secretion in follicular gastritis. [source]

    Geographic Pathology of Helicobacter pylori Gastritis

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2005
    Yi Liu
    ABSTRACT Background and aim.,Helicobacter pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis and gastric cancer. There are significant geographical differences between the clinical manifestation of H. pylori infections. The aim of this study was to compare gastric mucosal histology in relation to age among H. pylori -infected patients from different geographical areas using the same grading system. The prevalence of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were also compared with the respective gastric cancer incidence in the different countries. Methods., A total of 1906 patients infected with H. pylori from seven countries were evaluated. Entry criteria included H. pylori positive cases with antral and corpus biopsies between the ages of 18 and 75 years. The minimum number of cases required from a country was 100. Hematoxylin-eosin stained biopsies from antrum and corpus were scored semiquantitatively using the parameters suggested by the Sydney Classification System. Statistical evaluation was performed using Krusakal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank correlation test. Results., The severity of gastric atrophy varied among the different groups with the highest scores being present in Japan. The lowest scores were found in four European countries and in Thailand. The scores for intestinal metaplasia were low in general except for Xi-an, Japan, and Shanghai. For all the countries, the presence of atrophy in the antrum correlated well (r = 0.891) with the incidence of gastric cancer. Conclusion., Using a standardized grading system in a large study of H. pylori -related geographic pathology, we found major differences in the overall prevalence and severity of H. pylori gastritis in relation to age. These differences mirrored the respective incidences of gastric cancer in those geographical areas. [source]

    Helicobacter pylori -Associated Chronic Gastritis and Unexplained Iron Deficiency Anemia: a Reliable Association?

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2003
    Stéphane Nahon
    Abstract Background and aim., About 35% of iron deficiency anemia cases remain unexplained after a gastrointestinal evaluation. An association between Helicobacter pylori and iron malabsorption has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether H. pylori -associated chronic gastritis is linked to unexplained iron deficiency anemia in adults. Methods., From 1996 to 2001, we identified 105 patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia after upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, small bowel radiographic examination and duodenal biopsies. Two biopsies were obtained from the gastric antrum and two from the corpus of each patient. Gastritis status was described according to the Sydney System and H. pylori infection was assessed by an immunohistochemical test on biopsy specimens. This group was compared to a control group matched for sex and age. Results., There were 76 women and 29 men (mean age 57.4 ± 21.4 years) examined in the study. A H. pylori -associated chronic gastritis was identified in 63 cases (60%) vs. 45 cases (43%) cases in the control group (p < .01). Atrophic gastritis was significantly associated with iron deficiency anemia compared with the control group [16 (15%) vs. 6 (6%); p < .03]. In the unexplained iron deficiency anemia group, (1) patients with chronic gastritis were significantly younger (52 ± 22 vs. 64 ± 20 years; p < .005), and (2) chronic gastritis was not linked to sex [sex ratio (male/female): 0.5 vs. 0.34, p = .34]. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was similar between premenopausal and postmenopausal women [28 (27%) vs. 26 (25%); p = .7] with iron deficiency anemia. Conclusion.,H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis, especially atrophic gastritis, are significantly associated with unexplained iron deficiency anemia. Relationships between H. pylori -associated chronic gastritis and unexplained iron deficiency anemia should be considered. [source]

    Mucosal Production of Antigastric Autoantibodies in Helicobacter pylori Gastritis

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 3 2000
    Gerhard Faller
    Background. Apart form bacterial virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori, certain host factors influence the pathogenesis of H. pylori gastritis. In particular, antigastric autoantibodies that are detectable in the sera of a substantial proportion of H. pylori were shown to correlate with the development of gastric atrophy. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible antigastric autoimmune response in H. pylori gastritis at the site where the action is, i.e., in the gastric mucosa. Material and Methods. Gastric biopsy specimens from antrum and corpus mucosa of 24 H. pylori,infected and of 33 noninfected patients were cultured for 3 days, and tissue culture supernatants were analyzed for the amount of locally produced IgA and IgG. Antigastric autoantibodies were screened in the sera and in the supernatants by means of immunohistochemistry. Results. The infected patients had significantly higher concentrations of locally produced IgA, whereas the IgG concentrations were virtually the same in infected and noninfected patients. IgG or IgA antigastric autoantibodies, or both, were detectable only in the sera (38%) and supernatants (17%) of infected patients. Interestingly, the patient with the strongest local autoimmune response showed body-predominant H. pylori gastritis, with destruction of gastric glands and atrophy of the body mucosa. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that antigastric autoimmune reactions are detectable at the site of the disease and might be relevant for the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa atrophy in H. pylori gastritis. [source]

    Different Helicobacter pylori Strains Colonize the Antral and Duodenal Mucosa of Duodenal Ulcer Patients

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2000
    Ann-Catrin E. Thoreson
    Background. We have investigated the possibility that the same patients may be colonized by Helicobacter pylori strains of different genotypes or phenotypes in the antrum as compared to in the duodenum. The strains were typed for DNA fingerprints, different lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and Lewis antigen expression on the O,side chains of LPS. Materials and Methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications using primer sequences (i.e., the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus [ERIC]) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) elements were performed to asses chromosomal DNA diversity between H. pylori strains. The expression of different LPS types and Lewis antigens in the various H. pylori isolates were determined by whole bacterial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using monoclonal antibodies. Results. Duodenal ulcer patients had different H. pylori genotypes in the duodenum as compared to in the antrum as shown by ERIC-PCR (44%) and by RAPD-PCR (75%). Different DNA patterns were found among the strains that were isolated from various regions of the duodenum in 4 of 16 patients (25%) as shown by ERIC-PCR and in 8 of 16 patients (50%) as shown by RAPD-PCR. Sixty-three percent of the duodenal ulcer patients had H. pylori strains with a different Lewis antigen phenotype in the duodenum as compared to in the antrum, and 3 of 16 patients (19%) had strains with different Lewis antigens expressed by strains from different duodenal biopsies from the same patient. Conclusion. The results suggest that a mixed population of different H. pylori strains with marked variation, both genotypically and phenotypically, colonize the same patient. [source]

    Negative Association Between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Reflux Esophagitis in Older Patients: Case-Control Study in Japan

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2000
    Ken Haruma
    Background. Recent studies have clarified a close association between H. pylori infection and gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer, but there is little information concerning the relationship between H. pylori infection and reflux esophagitis (RE). We investigated the relationship between H. pylori, RE, and corpus gastritis. Subjects and Methods. Ninety-five patients with RE and 190 sex- and age-matched asymptomatic healthy controls demonstrating no localized lesions in the upper GI tract were studied and evaluated for H. pylori infection, histologic gastritis, serum gastrin, and pepsinogens (PGs). Results.H. pylori infection was significantly lower in RE patients than in asymptomatic controls (41% vs. 76%, p < .01). Histologic gastritis of both the antrum and corpus was significantly less frequent (antrum; p < .01, corpus; p < .01), and serum levels of PGI and the PG I/II ratio were significantly higher in RE patients than in controls (PGI; p < .05, PG I/II ratio; p < .01). When the subjects were divided into two age groups (59 years of age and younger and 60 years of age and older), a significant difference was found only among patients over 60 years of age (29% vs. 85%, p < .01). Among subjects in this age group, gastritis in both the antrum and corpus were significantly milder in RE patients than in controls. Although the prevalence of H. pylori infection was similar between the two groups of patients under 59 years of age, corpus gastritis was significantly milder in patients than in controls (p < .05). Conclusions. A significantly low prevalence of H. pylori infection was found in RE patients over 60 years of age but not in those under 59 in comparison with sex- and age-matched controls. The relative lack of corpus gastritis might play a role in the pathogenesis of RE in our population through preservation of the acid secretion area. [source]

    Disease-specific Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors: The Unfulfilled Promise

    HELICOBACTER, Issue S1 2000
    David Y. Graham
    A number of putative virulence factors for Helicobacter pylori have been identified including cagA, vacA and iceA. The criteria for a true virulence factor includes meeting the tests of biologically plausibility with the associations being both experimentally and epidemiologically consistent. Although disease-specific associations have been hypothesized/claimed, there are now sufficient data to conclusively state that none of these putative virulence factors have disease specificity. CagA has been claimed to be associated with increased mucosal IL-8 and inflammation, increased density of H. pylori in the antrum, duodenal ulcer (DU), gastric cancer, and protection against Barrett's cancer. Only the increase in IL-8/inflammation is direct and substantiated. Different H. pylori strains with functional cag pathogenicity islands do not vary in virulance as it has been shown that mucosal IL-8 levels are proportional to the number of cagA +H. pylori independent of the disease from which the H. pylori were obtained. It is now known that the density of either cagA + and cagA,H. pylori in the antrum of patients with H. pylori gastritis is the same. In contrast, the mean density of H. pylori in the antrum in DU is greater than in the antrum of patients with H. pylori gastritis. Of interest, the density of H. pylori is higher in the corpus of patients with H. pylori gastritis than those with DU, suggesting that acid secretion plays a critical role in these phenomena. The presence of a functional cag pathogenicity island increases inflammation and it is likely that any factor that results in an increase in inflammation also increases the risk of a symptomatic outcome. Nevertheless, the presence of a functional cag pathogenicity island has no predictive value for the presence, or the future development of a clinically significant outcome. The hypothesis that iceA has disease specificity has not been confirmed and there is currently no known biological or epidemiological evidence for a role for iceA as a virulence factor in H. pylori -related disease. The claim that vacA genotyping might prove clinically useful, e.g. to predict presentation such as duodenal ulcer, has been proven wrong. Analysis of the worldwide data show that vacA genotype s1 is actually a surrogate for the cag pathogenicity island. There is now evidence to suggest that virulence is a host-dependent factor. The pattern of gastritis has withstood the test of time for its relation to different H. pylori -related diseases (e.g. antral predominant gastritis with duodenal ulcer disease). The primary factors responsible for the different patterns of gastritis in response to an H. pylori infection are environmental (e.g. diet), with the H. pylori strain playing a lesser role. Future studies should work to eliminate potential bias before claiming disease associations. Controls must exclude regional or geographic associations related to the common strain circulation and not to the outcome. The authors must also control for both the presence of the factor and for the disease association. The study should be sufficiently large and employ different diseases and ethnic groups for the results to be robust. The findings in the initial sample (data derived hypothesis) should be tested in a new group (hypothesis testing), preferably from another area, before making claims. Finally, it is important to ask whether the results are actually a surrogate for another marker (e.g. vacA s1 for cagA) masquerading for a new finding. Only the cag pathogenicity island has passed the tests of biological plausibility (increased inflammation) and experimental and epidemiological consistency. [source]

    Gastrin suppresses the interdependent expression of p16 and anion exchanger 1 favoring growth inhibition of gastric cancer cells

    Hua Tian
    Abstract Our previous studies demonstrated that expression and interaction of p16 with anion exchanger 1 (AE1) in gastric cancer cells is correlated with progression and shorter survival of the cancer. In this article, the effects of gastrin on p16 and AE1 and its implication in prevention and treatment of gastric cancer were studied by molecular biology techniques, animal experiment and clinical analysis. The results showed that expression of p16 in human gastric body carcinoma was downregulated along with the progression of the cancer, suggesting the reverse correlations between gastrin and p16 in vivo. Further experiments indicated that gastrin suppressed the expression of p16 via the p16 promoter and thereafter resulted in the degradation of AE1 in gastric cancer cells. Silencing of AE1 or p16 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. Using a xenograft tumor model in nude mice, we showed that experimental systemic hypergastrinemia induced by the administration of omeprazole led to decreased expression of AE1 and p16 as well as to a marked growth inhibition of SGC7901 tumors. It is concluded that a moderate plasma gastrin level is beneficial to the growth inhibition of gastric cancer by suppressing the expression of AE1 and p16. This finding may have an important implication for the prevention and treatment of cancers arise in the gastric antrum. [source]

    The Relationship Between Endocardial Voltage and Regional Volume in Electroanatomical Remodeled Left Atria in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Comparison of Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Images and Voltage Mapping

    Background: Long-standing atrial fibrillation (AF) changes left atrial (LA) morphology, and the LA size is related to recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). We hypothesize that LA morphology, based on embryological origin, affects the outcome of RFCA. Methods: We analyzed 3D computed tomographic (CT) images of LA in 70 patients with AF (54 males, 55.6 ± 10.5 years old, paroxysmal AF (PAF):persistent AF (PeAF) = 32:38) who underwent RFCA. Each LA image was divided into venous atrium (VA), anterior LA (ALA), LA appendage (LAA), and both antrum. Absolute and relative volumes were calculated, and the lengths of linear ablation sites were measured. Results: (1) In patients with the mean LA voltage , 2.0 mV, LA volume, especially ALA, was larger (P < 0.01) compared to those with LA voltage > 2.0 mV. (2) The total LA volume was significantly larger (P < 0.01) and LAA voltages (P < 0.05) and conduction velocities (P < 0.05) were lower in patients with PeAF than in those with PAF. (3) In patients with recurrence, LA volume was generally larger (P < 0.01) than in those without recurrence. In PAF patients with recurrence, the relative volume of ALA was significantly larger (P < 0.01) than those without recurrence. Conclusions Morphologically remodeled LA has low endocardial voltage, and enlargement of ALA is more significant in electroanatomically remodeled LA. The disproportional enlargement of ALA was observed more often in PAF patients with recurrence after ablation than those without recurrence. [source]

    Cryoballoon Pulmonary Vein Isolation Guided by Transesophageal Echocardiography: Novel Aspects on an Emerging Ablation Technique

    Background: Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation using a balloon-mounted cryoablation system is a new technology for the percutaneous treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) allows real-time visualization of cryoballoon positioning and successful vein occlusion via color Doppler. We hypothesized that PV mechanical occlusion monitored with TEE could predict effective electrical isolation. Methods: We studied 124 PVs in 30 patients. Under continuous TEE assessment, a cryoballoon was placed in the antrum of each PV aiming for complete PV occlusion as documented by color Doppler. At the end of the procedure, PV electrical isolation was evaluated using a circumferential mapping catheter. Results: Of the 124 PVs studied, 123 (99.2%) could be visualized by TEE: the antrum was completely visualized in 80 of them (64.5%), partially in 36 (29.0%), and only disappearance of proximal flow could be observed in the remaining 7 PVs (5.7%). Vein occlusion could be achieved in 111 of the 123 (90.2%) visualized PVs. Postinterventional mapping demonstrated electrical isolation in 109 of 111 occluded PVs (positive predictive value 98.2%) and only in 1 of 12 nonoccluded PVs (negative predictive value 91.7%, P < 0.001). After a mean follow-up of 7.4 ± 3.7 months, 73.3% of patients remained in sinus rhythm without antiarrhythmic drugs. Conclusion: Color Doppler documented PV occlusion during cryoballoon ablation can predict effective electrical isolation. [source]

    Randomized Comparison Between Open Irrigation Technology and Intracardiac-Echo-Guided Energy Delivery for Pulmonary Vein Antrum Isolation: Procedural Parameters, Outcomes, and the Effect on Esophageal Injury

    Introduction: We performed a prospective study to compare efficacy and safety of both open irrigation tip (OIT) technology with intracardiac echo (ICE)-guided energy delivery in patients presenting for PVAI. Methods and Results: Fifty-three patients presenting for PVAI were randomized to ablation using an OIT catheter (Group 1, 26 patients; temperature and power were set at 50° and 50 W, respectively, with a saline pump flow rate of 30 mL/min) or radiofrequency (RF) energy delivery under ICE guidance (Group 2, 27 patients; energy was titrated based on microbubbles formation). The mean procedure time and fluoroscopy exposure were lower in Group 1 (164 ± 42 min and 7,560 ± 2,298 ,Graym2 vs 204 ± 47 min and 12,240 ± 4,356 ,Graym2; P = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). Moreover, the durations of RF lesions applied per PV antrum was lower in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (5.1 ± 2.2 min vs 9.2 ± 3.2 min, P = 0.03, respectively). Within 24 hours after PVAI in 35.7% (all erythema) of Group 1 and 57.1% (21.4% erythema and 35.7% necrosis) of Group 2, patients' esophageal wall changes were documented. After 14 ± 2 months of follow up, recurrences were documented in 19.2% of Group 1 and 22.2% of Group 2 patients. Conclusion: Although both OIT and ICE-guided energy delivery possess a similar effect in treating AF, OIT seems to be superior in terms of achieving isolation and shortening fluoroscopy exposure. Moreover, a lower incidence of esophageal wall injury was observed utilizing OIT for PVAI. [source]

    Thickening of the gastric wall on transabdominal sonography: A sign of gastric cancer

    Ki Tae Suk MD
    Abstract Purpose. To determine the value of a thickened gastric wall detected during transabdominal sonography (TAS) in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Method. This prospective study comprised 312 patients who underwent both TAS and endoscopy. Transverse TAS scanning was performed using a 3.5-MHz curved transducer to measure gastric wall thickness in the antrum and body of the stomach. Based on endoscopic and histologic findings, we classified the patients into 3 groups: normal or benign disease (BD), early gastric cancer (EGC), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC). TAS findings were then compared. Results. The thickness of the gastric wall was 4.9 ± 1.6 mm in 262 patients with BD, 5.6 ± 2.4 mm in 21patients with EGC, and 10.3 ± 4.7 mm in 29 patients with AGC (p < 0.01). A gastric wall thickness of greater than 7 mm had a 75.0% sensitivity, 92.6% specificity, 50.0% positive predictive value, and 97.4% negative predictive value in the diagnosis of AGC. Conclusion. Although not suitable as a screening method for gastric cancer, a thickening of the gastric wall of >7 mm may be a marker for AGC. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2008. [source]

    Biopsy site for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer

    Chan Gyoo Kim
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori eradication is recommended in post-gastric cancer resection, but premalignant changes may prevent the detection of H. pylori. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate biopsy site for detecting H. pylori in gastric cancer patients. Materials and Methods:, Consecutive patients (194) with gastric adenocarcinoma were prospectively enrolled. Helicobacter pylori was evaluated by serology, histology and rapid urease test. Biopsy sites included antrum lesser curvature, upper body lesser curvature (UBLC) and upper body greater curvature (UBGC). Two biopsy specimens were obtained from each site for histological examination. One additional specimen was obtained from UBGC for the rapid urease test. Results:, The overall infection rate of H. pylori was 84.0% (95% CI 78.9,89.2). The sensitivity of histology for detecting H. pylori at various sites was: antrum (54.9%; 95% CI 45.7,63.9), UBLC (80.3%; 95% CI 72.2,87.0) and UBGC (95.1%; 95% CI 89.6,98.2). Specificities of all three biopsy sites were more than 95%. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid urease test performed at UBGC were 96% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivities of histology decreased in correlation with increasing severity of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (both P < 0.001 using the chi-square test for trend). The proportions of moderate to marked atrophy/intestinal metaplasia at UBGC (12.8%/14.7%) were significantly lower than those at antrum (50.0%/57.8%, P < 0.001 respectively) or UBLC (40.0%/48.9%, P < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions:, The UBGC side is the most sensitive and specific biopsy site to detect H. pylori in gastric cancer patients due to less frequent atrophy and intestinal metaplasia than at the antrum or UBLC side. [source]

    Role of intestinal metaplasia subtyping in the risk of gastric cancer in Korea

    Kyung P Kang
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Gastric cancer is believed to develop by a multistage process. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is regarded as a premalignant condition; it is classified into subtypes I, II and III. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the subtypes of IM were associated with progression to gastric cancer. Methods:, The study cohort consisted of 861 subjects, categorized as controls, gastric ulcers, dysplasia and cancer. The IM was scored histologically using the Sydney classification for the antrum and the body of the stomach. The biopsies were stained with high iron diamine and alcian blue (pH 2.5) (HID-AB2.5), and the IM was subtyped as I, II or III. Results:, The proportion of IM subtypes I, II and III were 14.5%, 47.2% and 38.3% in the antrum, and 28.1%, 57.8% and 14.1% in the body of the stomach, respectively. These distributions did not show significant differences depending on disease or Helicobacter pylori positivity. In cases that were H. pylori -positive, the prevalence of IM subtype II in the cancer and dysplasia groups was higher than in the control group in the body of the stomach (P < 0.05). The proportion of IM subtype III in the antrum increased in proportion with age (P = 0.036). Conclusions:, IM subtyping was not found to play a major role in the prediction of gastric cancer development in Korea. IM subtype III was associated with aging, and IM subtype II appeared to be related to gastric carcinogenesis in the presence of H. pylori infection. [source]