Anthocyanin Concentration (anthocyanin + concentration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Crop thinning (hand versus mechanical), grape maturity and anthocyanin concentration: outcomes from irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) in a warm climate

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 1 2006
PAUL R. PETRIE
Abstract Crop thinning subsequent to fruit set can help regulate yield and improve fruit composition at harvest. Accordingly, an experiment was established in two vineyards (Site 1 Riverland District of South Australia; Site 2 Sunraysia District of Victoria) to investigate effects of crop removal after fruit set (when berries were pea size) using a machine harvester. Specific zones of the canopy were targeted for thinning to remove a predetermined percentage of the fruit and avoid over-thinning. Cropping responses to mechanical thinning were compared with control (un-thinned) vines, and with hand thinned vines (where fruit was removed from a similar portion of the canopy as for mechanical thinning). In a fourth treatment, bunches damaged by mechanical thinning were removed by hand. Inclusion of hand thinning treatments enabled us to distinguish between the potential benefits of reduced yield and the potential damage caused by the mechanical harvester to foliage and/or remaining fruit. Both the mechanical and the hand thinning treatments reduced bunch number as well as yield by a similar amount (approximately 24% on Site 1 and approximately 45% on Site 2) and advanced fruit maturity (soluble solids accumulation at harvest), relative to un-thinned controls, by approximately 1.6 % and 1.7% respectively. Soluble solids accumulated at a similar rate for all treatments at sites, despite differences in yield, implying that the impact of thinning treatments originated prior to veraison. Berry weight was increased by hand thinning at Site1, and by all thinning treatments at Site 2. Anthocyanin concentration (berry fresh weight basis) was higher in fruit from the mechanically thinned vines compared to controls (un-thinned). Mechanical thinning successfully reduced crop level to the target yield, and improved fruit quality. Mechanical thinning, via modified use of a machine harvester, thus offers some potential to regulate yield over large and minimally pruned vineyards, in a timely and cost-effective fashion. [source]


STORAGE STABILITY OF STRAWBERRY JAM COLOR ENHANCED WITH BLACK CARROT JUICE CONCENTRATE

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 5 2007
EGÜL KIRCA
ABSTRACT Black carrot juice concentrate was added to enhance the color of strawberry jams prepared from two locally grown cultivars, Osmanl, and Kara. Compared to other cultivars processed to jams, these two cultivars are lightly colored but very aromatic. Color and pigment stability of colored and noncolored (control) strawberry jams were studied during storage. The use of black carrot concentrate as a source of natural colorant stabilized the color of strawberry jam. The stabilization was more noticeable for jams prepared from Osmanl, cultivar. Monomeric anthocyanin degradation was fitted to a first-order reaction model. Storage temperature had a strong influence on anthocyanin degradation. As the storage temperature increased, the stability of anthocyanins decreased significantly in both colored and noncolored jams. Parallel to decrease in monomeric anthocyanins, hue (h°) values of all jam samples increased throughout the storage. However, increase in h° values was much smaller in colored samples than in noncolored samples. High correlation was found between h° value and anthocyanin concentration at 22C (r = 0.910,0.978) and 37C (r = 0.931,0.981). [source]


Berry anthocyanins: isolation, identification and antioxidant activities,

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 14 2003
Marja P Kähkönen
Abstract Anthocyanins from bilberry, blackcurrant and cowberry were isolated for antioxidant evaluation. Individual compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC and HPLC/ESI,MS techniques. Antioxidant and radical-scavenging capacities of the isolates were studied in emulsified methyl linoleate and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. The total anthocyanin contents in the phenolic extracts of bilberry, blackcurrant and cowberry were 6000, 2360 and 680 mg kg,1 fresh weight respectively. There were four dominant compounds in blackcurrant (glucosides and rutinosides of cyanidin and delphinidin), three in cowberry (monoglycosides of cyanidin) and 15 in bilberry (monoglycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin and petunidin). Quantification as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents gave markedly lower results regarding the total anthocyanin concentration and the content of individual delphinidin and malvidin compounds compared with quantification based on corresponding standard compounds. Berry anthocyanins were highly active radical scavengers in the DPPH test and effective antioxidants in emulsion and human LDL. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Factors influencing anthocyanin content in red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata L f rubra (L) Thell)

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 13 2002
Roberta Piccaglia
Abstract In North and Central Italy an experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to optimise the anthocyanin yield of red cabbage. Two hybrids (,Roxy' and ,Gradur') were grown under a factorial combination of increasing rates of potassium sulphate (0, 50, 100,kg K ha,1) and superphosphate (0, 39, 78,kg P ha,1) applied before planting. Cabbages were transplanted at the beginning of August and harvested in winter. Anthocyanins were extracted from cabbage heads with HCl in methanol (1% v/v solution) and quantified by absorption spectrophotometry at 530,nm. Results showed that red cabbage can give high yields of anthocyanins (more than 90,kg,ha,1) which are characterised by strong acylation and therefore, presumably, by good stability. However, differences over sites and years were marked. In the first year, yields in North Italy were reduced by a heavy infection of soft rot disease. The choice of variety, linked to a different anthocyanin content in the heads, appeared to be the major factor for a successful crop. P and K fertilisation had only a small influence. On clay soils in Central Italy the highest rates of both elements had a negative effect on the anthocyanin concentration in cabbage heads. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Red ,Anjou' pear has a higher photoprotective capacity than green ,Anjou'

PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, Issue 3 2008
Pengmin Li
Photoprotective function of anthocyanins along with xanthophyll cycle and antioxidant system in fruit peel was investigated in red ,Anjou' vs green ,Anjou' pear (Pyrus communis) during fruit development and in response to short-term exposure to high light. The sun-exposed peel of red ,Anjou' had higher maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (FV/FM) than that of green ,Anjou' and both the sun-exposed peel and the shaded peel of red ,Anjou' had smaller decreases in FV/FM after 2-h high light (photon flux density of 1500 ,mol m,2 s,1) treatment than those of green ,Anjou'. At the middle and late developmental stages, the xanthophyll cycle pool size on a chlorophyll basis, the activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) and the level of reduced ascorbate and total ascorbate pool in the sun-exposed peel were either the same or lower in red ,Anjou' than in green ,Anjou', whereas the xanthophyll cycle pool size on a chlorophyll basis and the activity of APX, catalase, MDAR, DHAR and GR in the shaded peel were higher in red ,Anjou' than in green ,Anjou'. It is concluded that red ,Anjou' has a higher photoprotective capacity in both the sun-exposed peel and the shaded peel than green ,Anjou'. While the higher anthocyanin concentration along with the larger xanthophyll cycle pool size and the higher activity of some antioxidant enzymes may collectively contribute to the higher photoprotective capacity in the shaded peel of red ,Anjou', the higher photoprotective capacity in the sun-exposed peel of red ,Anjou' is mainly attributed to its higher anthocyanin concentration. [source]


Crop thinning (hand versus mechanical), grape maturity and anthocyanin concentration: outcomes from irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) in a warm climate

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 1 2006
PAUL R. PETRIE
Abstract Crop thinning subsequent to fruit set can help regulate yield and improve fruit composition at harvest. Accordingly, an experiment was established in two vineyards (Site 1 Riverland District of South Australia; Site 2 Sunraysia District of Victoria) to investigate effects of crop removal after fruit set (when berries were pea size) using a machine harvester. Specific zones of the canopy were targeted for thinning to remove a predetermined percentage of the fruit and avoid over-thinning. Cropping responses to mechanical thinning were compared with control (un-thinned) vines, and with hand thinned vines (where fruit was removed from a similar portion of the canopy as for mechanical thinning). In a fourth treatment, bunches damaged by mechanical thinning were removed by hand. Inclusion of hand thinning treatments enabled us to distinguish between the potential benefits of reduced yield and the potential damage caused by the mechanical harvester to foliage and/or remaining fruit. Both the mechanical and the hand thinning treatments reduced bunch number as well as yield by a similar amount (approximately 24% on Site 1 and approximately 45% on Site 2) and advanced fruit maturity (soluble solids accumulation at harvest), relative to un-thinned controls, by approximately 1.6 % and 1.7% respectively. Soluble solids accumulated at a similar rate for all treatments at sites, despite differences in yield, implying that the impact of thinning treatments originated prior to veraison. Berry weight was increased by hand thinning at Site1, and by all thinning treatments at Site 2. Anthocyanin concentration (berry fresh weight basis) was higher in fruit from the mechanically thinned vines compared to controls (un-thinned). Mechanical thinning successfully reduced crop level to the target yield, and improved fruit quality. Mechanical thinning, via modified use of a machine harvester, thus offers some potential to regulate yield over large and minimally pruned vineyards, in a timely and cost-effective fashion. [source]


Berry size and vine water deficits as factors in winegrape composition: Anthocyanins and tannins

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 2 2004
GASPAR ROBY
Abstract Soluble solids, seed tannin, skin tannin, and skin anthocyanin were measured in fruit from Cabernet Sauvignon vines that had experienced either High, Control or Low water status during ripening. Berries from each treatment were segregated into 6 size categories at harvest in order to test independently for relationships due to size compared with those due to water deficits. Berry content of all solutes increased approximately in proportion to the increase in berry size. Deviations from proportionality caused Brix and anthocyanin concentration (mg per unit berry fresh mass) to decrease, and the concentration of skin tannin to remain unchanged or decrease slightly with increasing berry size. The concentration of seed tannin did not decrease and appeared to increase with berry size in multiple-seeded berries. In comparison with skin tannin or anthocyanin content, seed tannin content varied more with berry size and less with vine water status. In addition to decreasing berry size, water deficits increased the amount of skin tannin and anthocyanin per berry and the concentrations of skin tannin and anthocyanins, but did not significantly affect the content or concentration of seed tannin. The results show that there are effects of vine water status on fruit composition that arise independently of the resultant differences in fruit size. The effect of vine water status on the concentration of skin tannin and anthocyanin was greater than the effect of fruit size on those same variables. However, the increases in skin tannin and anthocyanin that accompanied water deficits appear to result more from differential growth sensitivity of inner mesocarp and exocarp than direct effects on phenolic biosynthesis. [source]