Anterior Cingulate Cortex (anterior + cingulate_cortex)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion

Thilo Deckersbach Ph.D.
Abstract Factor-analytic approaches to human personality have consistently identified several core personality traits, such as Extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Consciousness, and Openness. There is an increasing recognition that certain personality traits may render individuals vulnerable to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and depression. Our purpose in this study was to explore correlates between the personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion as assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and resting regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) in healthy control subjects. Based on the anxiety and depression literatures, we predicted correlations with a network of brain structures, including ventral and medial prefrontal cortex (encompassing anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), insular cortex, anterior temporal pole, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. Twenty healthy women completed an 18FFDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography (PET) scan at rest and the NEO-FFI inventory. We investigated correlations between scores on NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Extraversion and rCMRglu using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Within a priori search territories, we found significant negative correlations between Neuroticism and rCMRglu in the insular cortex and positive correlations between Extraversion and rCMRglu in the orbitofrontal cortex. No significant correlations were found involving anterior cingulate, amygdala, or ventral striatum. Neuroticism and Extraversion are associated with activity in insular cortex and orbitofrontal cortex, respectively. Depression and Anxiety 23:133,138, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic and pharmacological studies of GluR5 modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice

Long-Jun Wu
Abstract In the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), GluR5-containing kainate receptor mediated the small portion of excitatory postsynaptic current. However, little is known about its role in modulation of neurotransmitter release in this brain region. In the present study, we address this question by using selective GluR5 agonist and antagonist, as well as GluR5,/, mice. Our results showed that activation of GluR5 induced action potential-dependent GABA release, which is also required for the activation of voltage-dependent calcium channel and Ca2+ influx. The effect of GluR5 activation is selective to the GABAergic, but not glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Endogenous activation of GluR5 also enhanced GABA release to ACC pyramidal neurons and the corresponding postsynaptic tonic GABA current. Our results suggest the somatodendritic, but not presynaptic GluR5, in modulation of GABA release. The endogenous GluR5 activation and the subsequent tonic GABA current may play an inhibitory role in ACC-related brain functions. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 67: 146,157, 2007. [source]

RESEARCH FOCUS ON COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOUR IN ANIMALS: Compulsive alcohol drinking in rodents

Valentina Vengeliene
ABSTRACT Upon prolonged alcohol exposure, the behaviour of an individual can gradually switch from controlled to compulsive. Our review is focused on the neurobiological mechanisms that might underlie this transition as well as the factors that are influencing it. Animal studies suggest that temporally increased alcohol consumption during post-abstinence drinking is accompanied by a loss of flexibility of the behaviour and therefore, could serve as a model for compulsive alcohol drinking. However, studies using different alcohol-preferring rat lines in the post-abstinence drinking model suggest that high alcohol consumption does not necessarily lead to the development of compulsive drinking. This indicates the significance of genetic predisposition to compulsive behaviour. Neuroimaging data show that chronic alcohol consumption affects the activity of several brain regions such as the extrapyramidal motor system and several areas of the prefrontal cortex including the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. Similar changes in brain activity is seen in patients suffering from obsessive,compulsive disorder at baseline conditions and during provocation of obsessive thoughts and urge to perform compulsive-like rituals. This indicates that dysfunction of these regions may be responsible for the expression of compulsive components of alcohol drinking behaviour. Several brain neurotransmitter systems seem to be responsible for the switch from controlled to compulsive behaviour. In particular, hypofunctioning of monoaminergic systems and hyperfunctioning of glutamatergic systems may play a role in compulsive alcohol drinking. [source]

Does the medial orbitofrontal cortex have a role in social valuation?

M. P. Noonan
Abstract It has been claimed that social behaviour changes after lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, lesions in humans are rarely restricted to a well defined cortical area. Although vmPFC lesions usually include medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), they typically also affect subgenual and/or perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of mOFC in social valuation and decision-making. We tested four macaque monkeys prior to and after focal lesions of mOFC. Comparison of the animals' pre- and postoperative performance revealed that, unlike lesions of anterior cingulate gyrus (ACCg), lesions of mOFC did not induce alterations in social valuation. MOFC lesions did, however, induce mild impairments in a probabilistic two-choice decision task, which were not seen after ACCg lesions. In summary, the double dissociation between the patterns of impairment suggest that vmPFC involvement in both decision-making and social valuation may be mediated by distinct subregions centred on mOFC and ACCg respectively. [source]

Cortical control of thermoregulatory sympathetic activation

M. Fechir
Abstract Thermoregulation enables adaptation to different ambient temperatures. A complex network of central autonomic centres may be involved. In contrast to the brainstem, the role of the cortex has not been clearly evaluated. This study was therefore designed to address cerebral function during a whole thermoregulatory cycle (cold, neutral and warm stimulation) using 18-fluordeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET). Sympathetic activation parameters were co-registered. Ten healthy male volunteers were examined three times on three different days in a water-perfused whole-body suit. After a baseline period (32°C), temperature was either decreased to 7°C (cold), increased to 50°C (warm) or kept constant (32°C, neutral), thereafter the PET examination was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism was increased in infrapontine brainstem and cerebellar hemispheres during cooling and warming, each compared with neutral temperature. Simultaneously, FDG uptake decreased in the bilateral anterior/mid-cingulate cortex during warming, and in the right insula during cooling and warming. Conjunction analyses revealed that right insular deactivation and brainstem activation appeared both during cold and warm stimulation. Metabolic connectivity analyses revealed positive correlations between the cortical activations, and negative correlations between these cortical areas and brainstem/cerebellar regions. Heart rate changes negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the middle frontal gyrus/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and changes of sweating with glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex. In summary, these results suggest that the cerebral cortex exerts an inhibitory control on autonomic centres located in the brainstem or cerebellum. These findings may represent reasonable explanations for sympathetic hyperactivity, which occurs, for example, after hemispheric stroke. [source]

Preference judgements involve a network of structures within frontal, cingulate and insula cortices

Amir M. Chaudhry
Abstract Environmental stimuli constantly compete for human attention and in many cases decisions are made based on the affective meaning they convey. Although the network of structures involved in processing affective value has been well described, the specific contribution of these structures to the process by which affective value guides decision making is less well understood and is the focus of the present study. Thus, subjects read descriptions of individually tailored holidays, varying in incentive value and then made preference judgements, cognitive judgements or no decision. Choices made from an affective perspective, compared with those made from a cognitive perspective, activated a region of the anterior insula/operculum and also the anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, activity in perigenual, anterior cingulate cortex was correlated with subjective ratings of incentive value. In contrast, medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and a region of posterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), bordering on the insula, were found to be more active when affective stimuli guided response selection than when no selection was made. However, only the activity in the ventrolateral PFC was specific to response selection based on affective compared with cognitive judgements. It is proposed that the necessary introspection required to make subjective preference judgements is provided by the insula and cingulate cortices, while the medial OFC and posterior ventrolateral PFC/insula cortices contribute to stimulus evaluation and motivational aspects of response selection, respectively. [source]

Dissociable neural activity to self- vs. externally administered thermal hyperalgesia: a parametric fMRI study

C. Mohr
Abstract Little is known regarding how cognitive strategies help to modulate neural responses of the human brain in ongoing pain syndromes to alleviate pain. Under pathological pain conditions, any self-elicited contact with usually non-painful stimuli may become painful. We examined whether the human brain is capable of dissociating self-controlled from externally administered thermal hyperalgesia in the experimental capsaicin model. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 17 male subjects were investigated in a parametric design with heat stimuli at topically capsaicin-sensitized skin. In contrast to external stimulation, self-administered pain was controllable. For both conditions application trials without noticeable thermal stimulation were introduced and used as high-level baseline (HLB) to account for the capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and other covariables. Following subtraction of the HLB, the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) but not the somatosensory cortices maintained parametric neural responses to thermal hyperalgesia. A stronger pain-related activity increase during self-administered stimuli was observed in the posterior insula. In contrast, prefrontal cortex showed stronger increases to uncontrollable external heat stimuli. In the state of ongoing pain (capsaicin), pain-intensity-encoding regions (anterior insula, ACC) but not those with sensory discriminative functions (SI, SII) showed graded, pain-intensity-related neural responses in thermal hyperalgesia. Some areas were able to dissociate between self- and externally administered stimuli in thermal hyperalgesia, which might be related to differences in perceived controllability. Thus, neural mechanisms maintain the ability to dissociate external from self-generated states of injury in thermal hyperalgesia. This may help to understand how cognitive strategies potentially alleviate chronic pain syndromes. [source]

Individual differences in socioaffective skills influence the neural bases of fear processing: The case of alexithymia

Lydia Pouga
Abstract Being exposed to fear signals makes us feel threatened and prompts us to prepare an adaptive response. In our previous studies, we suggested that amygdala (AMG) and premotor cortex (PM) play a role in the preparation of the observers' motor response required by the situation. The present experiment aimed at assessing how interindividual differences in alexithymia,a personality trait associated with deficits in emotional reactivity and regulation,influence the neural network associated with the perception of fear. Using fMRI, we scanned 34 healthy subjects while they were passively observing fearful body expressions. Applying a dimensional approach, we performed correlation analyses between fear-related brain areas and alexithymia scores among all participants. Using a categorical approach, we conducted a between-group comparison (13 high vs. 12 low-alexithymia subjects). Our results were threefold. First, the right AMG activity in response to fearful stimuli was negatively correlated with the level of difficulty to identify emotions. Second, PM activity was linked to reduced subjective emotional reactivity. Third, the between-group comparison revealed greater activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for high than low-alexithymia scorers. Moreover, the relationship between ACC and PM was in opposite direction in individuals with high (negative link) and low (positive link) alexithymia. Therefore, compared to our previous findings, we hereby further reveal how ACC interacts with PM to sustain self-regulation of one's own emotional state in response to threatening social signals. Moreover, this neural mechanism could account for the description of the "cold-blooded" personality of individuals with alexithymia. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Two systems of resting state connectivity between the insula and cingulate cortex

Keri S. Taylor
Abstract The insula and cingulate cortices are implicated in emotional, homeostatic/allostatic, sensorimotor, and cognitive functions. Non-human primates have specific anatomical connections between sub-divisions of the insula and cingulate. Specifically, the anterior insula projects to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the anterior and posterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC and pMCC); the mid-posterior insula only projects to the posterior MCC (pMCC). In humans, functional neuroimaging studies implicate the anterior insula and pre/subgenual ACC in emotional processes, the mid-posterior insula with awareness and interoception, and the MCC with environmental monitoring, response selection, and skeletomotor body orientation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that distinct resting state functional connectivity could be identified between (1) the anterior insula and pACC/aMCC; and (2) the entire insula (anterior, middle, and posterior insula) and the pMCC. Functional connectivity was assessed from resting state fMRI scans in 19 healthy volunteers using seed regions of interest in the anterior, middle, and posterior insula. Highly correlated, low-frequency oscillations (< 0.05 Hz) were identified between specific insula and cingulate subdivisions. The anterior insula was shown to be functionally connected with the pACC/aMCC and the pMCC, while the mid/posterior insula was only connected with the pMCC. These data provide evidence for a resting state anterior insula,pACC/aMCC cingulate system that may integrate interoceptive information with emotional salience to form a subjective representation of the body; and another system that includes the entire insula and MCC, likely involved in environmental monitoring, response selection, and skeletomotor body orientation. Human Brain Mapp 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnormalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures

Simone Grimm
Abstract Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) often show a tendency to strongly introspect and reflect upon their self, which has been described as increased self-focus. Although subcortical-cortical midline structures have been associated with reflection and introspection of oneself in healthy subjects, the neural correlates of the abnormally increased attribution of negative emotions to oneself, i.e. negative self-attribution, as hallmark of the increased self-focus in MDD remain unclear. The aim of the study was, therefore, to investigate the neural correlates during judgment of self-relatedness of positive and negative emotional stimuli thereby testing for emotional self-attribution. Using fMRI, we investigated 27 acute MDD patients and compared them with 25 healthy subjects employing a paradigm that focused on judgment of self-relatedness when compared with mere perception of the very same emotional stimuli. Behaviourally, patients with MDD showed significantly higher degrees of self-relatedness of specifically negative emotional stimuli when compared with healthy subjects. Neurally, patients with MDD showed significantly lower signal intensities in various subcortical and cortical midline regions like the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), supragenual anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, ventral striatum (VS), and the dorsomedial thalamus (DMT). Signal changes in the DMPFC correlated with depression severity and hopelessness whereas those in the VS and the DMT were related to judgment of self-relatedness of negative emotional stimuli. In conclusion, we present first evidence that the abnormally increased negative self-attribution as hallmark of the increased self-focus in MDD might be mediated by altered neural activity in subcortical-cortical midline structures. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

fMRI evidence for multisensory recruitment associated with rapid eye movements during sleep

Charles Chong-Hwa Hong
Abstract We studied the neural correlates of rapid eye movement during sleep (REM) by timing REMs from video recording and using rapid event-related functional MRI. Consistent with the hypothesis that REMs share the brain systems and mechanisms with waking eye movements and are visually-targeted saccades, we found REM-locked activation in the primary visual cortex, thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), ,visual claustrum', retrosplenial cortex (RSC, only on the right hemisphere), fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and the oculomotor circuit that controls awake saccadic eye movements (and subserves awake visuospatial attention). Unexpectedly, robust activation also occurred in non-visual sensory cortices, motor cortex, language areas, and the ascending reticular activating system, including basal forebrain, the major source of cholinergic input to the entire cortex. REM-associated activation of these areas, especially non-visual primary sensory cortices, TRN and claustrum, parallels findings from waking studies on the interactions between multiple sensory data, and their ,binding' into a unified percept, suggesting that these mechanisms are also shared in waking and dreaming and that the sharing goes beyond the expected visual scanning mechanisms. Surprisingly, REMs were associated with a decrease in signal in specific periventricular subregions, matching the distribution of the serotonergic supraependymal plexus. REMs might serve as a useful task-free probe into major brain systems for functional brain imaging. Hum Brain Mapp 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A voxel-based morphometry study of frontal gray matter correlates of impulsivity,

Koji Matsuo
Abstract Impulsivity is a personality trait exhibited by healthy individuals, but excessive impulsivity is associated with some mental disorders. Lesion and functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the ventromedial prefrontal region (VMPFC), including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala may modulate impulsivity and aggression. However, no morphometric study has examined the association between VMPFC and impulsivity. We hypothesized that healthy subjects with high impulsivity would have smaller volumes in these brain regions compared with those with low impulsivity. Sixty-two healthy subjects were studied (age 35.4 ± 12.1 years) using a 1.5-T MRI system. The Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS) was used to assess impulsivity. Images were processed using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol. We calculated the correlations between BIS scale scores and the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes of VMPFC and amygdala. GM volumes of the left and right OFC were inversely correlated with the BIS total score (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Left ACC GM volumes had a tendency to be inversely correlated with the BIS total score (P = 0.05). Right OFC GM volumes were inversely correlated with BIS nonplanning impulsivity, and left OFC GM volumes were inversely correlated with motor impulsivity. There were no significant WM volume correlations with impulsivity. The results of this morphometry study indicate that small OFC volume relate to high impulsivity and extend the prior finding that the VMPFC is involved in the circuit modulating impulsivity. Hum Brain Mapp 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cortical and subcortical correlates of functional electrical stimulation of wrist extensor and flexor muscles revealed by fMRI

Armin Blickenstorfer
Abstract The main scope of this study was to test the feasibility and reliability of FES in a MR-environment. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is used in the rehabilitation therapy of patients after stroke or spinal cord injury to improve their motor abilities. Its principle lies in applying repeated electrical stimulation to the relevant nerves or muscles for eliciting either isometric or concentric contractions of the treated muscles. In this study we report cerebral activation patterns in healthy subjects undergoing fMRI during FES stimulation. We stimulated the wrist extensor and flexor muscles in an alternating pattern while BOLD-fMRI was recorded. We used both block and event-related designs to demonstrate their feasibility for recording FES activation in the same cortical and subcortical areas. Six out of fifteen subjects repeated the experiment three times within the same session to control intraindividual variance. In both block and event-related design, the analysis revealed an activation pattern comprising the contralateral primary motor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and premotor cortex; the ipsilateral cerebellum; bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex, the supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate cortex. Within the same subjects we observed a consistent replication of the activation pattern shown in overlapping regions centered on the peak of activation. Similar time course within these regions were demonstrated in the event-related design. Thus, both techniques demonstrate reliable activation of the sensorimotor network and eventually can be used for assessing plastic changes associated with FES rehabilitation treatment. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The timing of cognitive control in partially incongruent categorization

Antao Chen
Abstract We designed a novel task, partially incongruent categorization (PIC), to examine the timing of cognitive control. In the PIC task, participants categorized the probe stimulus according to a specific concept, and the number of features corresponding to the concept was varied. When there was one feature (c1 condition), the probe would elicit only categorization, but when there was more than one feature (c2 and c3 conditions), the probe would also elicit cognitive control. Here, the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) was utilized to investigate the temporal patterns of activity during conflict detection and control. Cognitive control elicited a N2 that was much larger in response to c2 and c3 than c1 in stimulus-locked waveforms, and no difference was evident between c2 and c3. The N2 was followed by a P3 that was much less on c2 and c3 than c1 trials, with no difference between c2 and c3. A dipole source analysis for two difference waves, c2,c1 and c3,c1, further showed that the corresponding dipoles of the N2 and P3 in the cognitive control conditions were in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively. Taken together, the present findings support that ERP components in response to the PIC task reflect the time course of cognitive control: the N2 responds to conflict information and subsequently activates the P3 to control this conflict. The connection between the ACC and PFC is supported by their sequential activation within trials. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Frontoparietal cortical activity of methamphetamine-dependent and comparison subjects performing a delay discounting task

John R. Monterosso
Abstract Relative to individuals who do not have addictive disorders, drug abusers exhibit greater devaluation of rewards as a function of their delay ("delay discounting"). The present study sought to extend this finding to methamphetamine (MA) abusers and to help understand its neural basis. MA abusers (n = 12) and control subjects who did not use illicit drugs (n = 17) participated in tests of delay discounting with hypothetical money rewards. We then used a derived estimate of each individual's delay discounting to generate a functional magnetic resonance imaging probe task consisting of three conditions: "hard choices," requiring selections between "smaller, sooner" and "larger, later" alternatives that were similarly valued given the individual's delay discounting; "easy choices," in which alternatives differed dramatically in value; and a "no choice" control condition. MA abusers exhibited more delay discounting than control subjects (P < 0.05). Across groups, the "hard choice > no choice" contrast revealed significant effects in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and areas surrounding the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). With group comparisons limited to these clusters, the "hard choice > easy choice" contrast indicated significant group differences in task-related activity within the left DLPFC and right IPS; qualitatively similar nonsignificant effects were present in the other clusters tested. Whereas control subjects showed less recruitment associated with easy than with hard choices, MA abusers generally did not. Correlational analysis did not indicate a relationship between this anomaly in frontoparietal recruitment and greater degree of delay discounting exhibited by MA abusers. Therefore, while apparent inefficiency of cortical processing related to decision-making in MA abusers may contribute to the neural basis of enhanced delay discounting by this population, other factors remain to be identified. Hum. Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Odor processing in multiple chemical sensitivity

Lena Hillert
Abstract Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the mechanisms behind the reported hypersensitivity are unknown. Using the advantage of the well-defined trigger (odor), we investigated whether subjects with MCS could have an increased odor-signal response in the odor-processing neuronal circuits. Positron emission tomography (PET) activation studies with several different odorants were carried out in 12 MCS females and 12 female controls. Activation was defined as a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during smelling of the respective odorant compared to smelling of odorless air. The study also included online measurements of respiratory frequency and amplitude and heart rate variations by recording of R wave intervals (RR) on the surface electrocardiogram. The MCS subjects activated odor-processing brain regions less than controls, despite the reported, and physiologically indicated (decreased RR interval) distress. In parallel, they showed an odorant-related increase in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and cuneus-precuneus. Notably, the baseline rCBF was normal. Thus, the abnormal patterns were observed only in response to odor signals. Subjects with MCS process odors differently from controls, however, without signs of neuronal sensitization. One possible explanation for the observed pattern of activation in MCS is a top-down regulation of odor-response via cingulate cortex. Hum. Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A developmental fMRI study of self-regulatory control

Rachel Marsh
Abstract We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of self-regulatory control across development in healthy individuals performing the Stroop interference task. Proper performance of the task requires the engagement of self-regulatory control to inhibit an automatized response (reading) in favor of another, less automatic response (color naming). Functional MRI scans were acquired from a sample of 70 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 57 years. We measured task-related regional signal changes across the entire cerebrum and conducted correlation analyses to assess the associations of signal activation with age and with behavioral performance. The magnitude of fMRI signal change increased with age in the right inferolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area [BA] 44/45) and right lenticular nucleus. Greater activation of the right inferolateral prefrontal cortex also accompanied better performance. Activity in the right frontostriatal systems increased with age and with better response inhibition, consistent with the known functions of frontostriatal circuits in self-regulatory control. Age-related deactivations in the mesial prefrontal cortex (BA 10), subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24), and posterior cingulate cortex (BA 31) likely represented the greater engagement of adults in self-monitoring and free associative thought processes during the easier baseline task, consistent with the improved performance on this task in adults compared with children. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that age-related changes in reading ability or in the strategies used to optimize task performance were responsible for our findings, the correlations of brain activation with performance suggest that changes in frontostriatal activity with age underlie the improvement in self-regulatory control that characterizes normal human development. Hum Brain Mapp, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A comparison of label-based review and ALE meta-analysis in the Stroop task

Angela R. Laird
Abstract Meta-analysis is an important tool for interpreting results of functional neuroimaging studies and is highly influential in predicting and testing new outcomes. Although traditional label-based review can be used to search for agreement across multiple studies, a new function-location meta-analysis technique called activation likelihood estimation (ALE) offers great improvements over conventional methods. In ALE, reported foci are modeled as Gaussian functions and pooled to create a statistical whole-brain image. ALE meta-analysis and the label-based review were used to investigate the Stroop task in normal subjects, a paradigm known for its effect of producing conflict and response inhibition due to subjects' tendency to perform word reading as opposed to color naming. Both methods yielded similar activation patterns that were dominated by response in the anterior cingulate and the inferior frontal gyrus. ALE showed greater involvement of the anterior cingulate as compared to that in the label-based technique; however, this was likely due to the increased spatial level of distinction allowed with the ALE method. With ALE, further analysis of the anterior cingulate revealed evidence for somatotopic mapping within the rostral and caudal cingulate zones, an issue that has been the source of some conflict in previous reviews of the anterior cingulate cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 25:6,21, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Feature uncertainty activates anterior cingulate cortex,

Szabolcs Kéri
Abstract In visual discrimination tasks, the relevant feature to discriminate is defined before stimulus presentation. In feature uncertainty tasks, a cue about the relevant feature is provided after stimulus offset. We used 15O-butanol positron emission tomography (PET) in order to investigate brain activation during a feature uncertainty task. There was greater activity during the feature uncertainty task, compared with stimulus detection and discrimination of orientation and spatial frequency, in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, the cuneus, superior temporal and inferior parietal cortex, cortical motor areas, and the cerebellum. The most robust and consistent activation was observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area 32; x = 0 y = 16, z = 40). The insula, located near the claustrum (x = ,38, y = 8, z = 4), was activated during the discrimination tasks compared with the feature uncertainty condition. These results suggest that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex is important in feature uncertainty conditions, which include divided attention, expectancy under uncertainty, and cognitive monitoring. Hum. Brain Mapp. 21:26,33, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Different activation dynamics in multiple neural systems during simulated driving

Vince D. Calhoun
Abstract Driving is a complex behavior that recruits multiple cognitive elements. We report on an imaging study of simulated driving that reveals multiple neural systems, each of which have different activation dynamics. The neural correlates of driving behavior are identified with fMRI and their modulation with speed is investigated. We decompose the activation into interpretable pieces using a novel, generally applicable approach, based upon independent component analysis. Some regions turn on or off, others exhibit a gradual decay, and yet others turn on transiently when starting or stopping driving. Signal in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area often associated with error monitoring and inhibition, decreases exponentially with a rate proportional to driving speed, whereas decreases in frontoparietal regions, implicated in vigilance, correlate with speed. Increases in cerebellar and occipital areas, presumably related to complex visuomotor integration, are activated during driving but not associated with driving speed. Hum. Brain Mapping 16:158,167, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Neural correlates of verbal episodic memory in patients with MCI and Alzheimer's disease,,a VBM study

Dirk T. Leube
Abstract Objective The hippocampus is a key area for episodic memory processes. Hippocampal atrophy is a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used a new and automatized morphometric technique to better characterize brain atrophy in subjects with different levels of cognitive deficit. Methods In this study 21 participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), 12 patients with early AD and 29 elderly control subjects were subjected to high resolution MRI and a neuropsychological test battery. Brain volume across participants, measured by voxel-based morphometry (VBM), was correlated with verbal memory capacity, measured with a verbal memory test (VLMT). Results Atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, the ento- and perirhinal cortex as well as the parahippocampal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex correlated closely with episodic memory performance. Conclusions These brain areas are known to subserve episodic encoding of verbal material. The data contribute to a better understanding of atrophic brain processes in subjects at risk for AD. A combination of neuropsychological testing and voxel-based morphometry may serve as a diagnostic tool in the future. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Anterior cingulate dysfunction in geriatric depression

George S. Alexopoulos
Abstract Background Although several brain abnormalities have been identified in geriatric depression, their relationship to the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the development and perpetuation of this syndrome remain unclear. Methods This paper reviews findings on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function and on the relationship of ACC abnormalities to the clinical presentation and the course of geriatric depression in order to elucidate the pathophysiological role of ACC in this disorder. Results The ACC is responsible for conflict detection and emotional evaluation of error and is connected to brain structures that regulate mood, emotional valence of thought and autonomic and visceral responses, which are functions disturbed in depression. Geriatric depression often is accompanied by abnormalities in some executive functions and has a clinical presentation consistent with ACC abnormalities. Indices of ACC dysfunction are associated with adverse outcomes of geriatric depression. Conclusions Converging findings suggest that at least some ACC functions are abnormal in depression and these abnormalities are pathophysiologically meaningful. Indices of ACC dysfunction may be used to identify subgroups of depressed elderly patients with distinct illness course and treatment needs and serve as the theoretical background for novel treatment development. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Neuropathological evidence for ischemia in the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in late-life depression

Alan J. Thomas
Abstract Background Signal hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging in late-life depression are associated with treatment resistance and poor outcome. These lesions are probably vascular in origin and proposed sites for vascular damage include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Methods We therefore examined white matter in these areas for microvascular disease and evidence of ischemia using intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). We obtained postmortem tissue from elderly depressed (n,=,20) and control (n,=,20) subjects and blindly rated microvascular disease and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 amount using quantitative image analysis in sections of the DLPFC, ACC and occipital cortex (OC; control area). Results We found a significant increase in ICAM-1 in the deep white matter of the DLPFC in the depressed group (p,=,0.01) and a trend towards an increase for VCAM-1 (p,=,0.10). In the gyral white matter there was a trend towards significance for both molecules (p,=,0.07 and 0.10). No differences were found in the ACC or OC or for microvascular disease in any area. Conclusions These findings are consistent with white matter ischemia in the DLPFC and lend support to the ,vascular depression' hypothesis. They implicate the DLPFC as an important site in the pathogenesis of late-life depression and have major implications for the understanding and management of late-life depression and raise the possibility of novel treatments being introduced in the future. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Topographical and laminar distribution of cortical input to the monkey entorhinal cortex

A. Mohedano-Moriano
Abstract Hippocampal formation plays a prominent role in episodic memory formation and consolidation. It is likely that episodic memory representations are constructed from cortical information that is mostly funnelled through the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus. The entorhinal cortex returns processed information to the neocortex. Retrograde tracing studies have shown that neocortical afferents to the entorhinal cortex originate almost exclusively in polymodal association cortical areas. However, the use of retrograde studies does not address the question of the laminar and topographical distribution of cortical projections within the entorhinal cortex. We examined material from 60 Macaca fascicularis monkeys in which cortical deposits of either 3H-amino acids or biotinylated dextran-amine as anterograde tracers were made into different cortical areas (the frontal, cingulate, temporal and parietal cortices). The various cortical inputs to the entorhinal cortex present a heterogeneous topographical distribution. Some projections terminate throughout the entorhinal cortex (afferents from medial area 13 and posterior parahippocampal cortex), while others have more limited termination, with emphasis either rostrally (lateral orbitofrontal cortex, agranular insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, perirhinal cortex, unimodal visual association cortex), intermediate (upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus, unimodal auditory association cortex) or caudally (parietal and retrosplenial cortices). Many of these inputs overlap, particularly within the rostrolateral portion of the entorhinal cortex. Some projections were directed mainly to superficial layers (I,III) while others were heavier to deep layers (V,VI) although areas of dense projections typically spanned all layers. A primary report will provide a detailed analysis of the regional and laminar organization of these projections. Here we provide a general overview of these projections in relation to the known neuroanatomy of the entorhinal cortex. [source]

Differential interictal activity of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex revealed by resting state functional MRI at 3T in generalized vs.

Partial seizure
Abstract Purpose To characterize, using functional MRI (fMRI), the pattern of active brain regions in the resting state in patients with epilepsy. Materials and Methods We studied 28 patients with epilepsy, divided into a partial seizure (PS; N = 9) and a generalized seizure group (GS; N = 19), and 34 control subjects. Resting state fMRI was performed using a GE 3T scanner by collecting 200 volumes of echo-planar imaging (EPI) images with subjects relaxed, eyes closed. Data were processed using a modification of the method of Fransson (Hum Brain Mapp 2005;26:15,29), which reveals information on regional low-frequency Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal oscillations in the resting state without any a priori hypothesis. The significant active areas in brain were identified with both individual and group analysis. Results Controls showed active regions in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), theregions associated with the brain "default mode." Similar active regions were observed in PS, whereas GS showed no significant activation of precuneus/PCC. Conclusion In GS, the lack of activation in precuneus/PCC may partly account for their more severe interictal deficits, compared to PS, in cognitive functions such as concentration and memory. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008;27:1214,1220. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Increased Activation of the ACC During a Spatial Working Memory Task in Alcohol-Dependence Versus Heavy Social Drinking

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2010
Sabine Vollstädt-Klein
Background:, Activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in a spatial working memory task has been associated with risk factors for alcohol use disorders such as low alcohol effects and positive alcohol expectations in adolescents. To transfer these results into adults, we used the same task in adults. Methods:, During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 12 light social, 7 heavy social, and 11 non-abstinent-dependent alcohol drinkers performed a spatial working memory task and completed measures of automatic alcohol-related thoughts and behavior (Obsessive,Compulsive Drinking Scale,OCDS), alcohol use of the last 90 days, and general intelligence. Results:, Behavioral performance in the spatial working memory task was not significantly different in all 3 groups. Controlling for differences in general intelligence alcohol-dependent participants showed a higher task-related activation of the dorsal ACC (dACC) in comparison with light and heavy social drinkers. Measures of the OCDS were positively correlated with the activation in the left hippocampus and right thalamus in all participants. Conclusions:, Our results support the findings of increased dACC activation during a spatial working memory task as a risk factor for alcohol dependence. Increased task-related activation in the dACC was only observed in alcohol-dependent participants and not in heavy social drinkers with comparable alcohol consumption. Furthermore, the absence of behavioral performance differences between groups as well as an association between dACC activation and working memory performance indicates subtle working memory deficits. Low capacity of working memory has been linked to more automatic and less self-regulated behavior in studies on natural reward processing. Therefore, additional neural activation during performance of the non-alcohol-related working memory task in participants with higher OCDS values in the left hippocampus and the right thalamus may be a consequence of decreased neural capacity because of distracting alcohol-related thoughts. [source]

Blunted Rostral Anterior Cingulate Response During a Simplified Decoding Task of Negative Emotional Facial Expressions in Alcoholic Patients

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2007
Jasmin B. Salloum
Background:, Alcoholism is characterized by deficits in emotional functioning as well as by deficits in cognitive functioning. However, most brain imaging research on alcoholism has focused on cognition rather than emotion. Method:, We used an event-related functional magnetic imaging approach to examine alcoholics' brain blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response to evaluation of emotional stimuli and to compare their response to that of nonalcoholic controls. The task used was a simplified variant of a facial emotion-decoding task in which subjects determined the intensity level of a target emotion displayed as a facial expression. Facial expressions of happy, sad, anger, disgust, and fear were used as stimuli. Results:, Alcoholics and controls did not differ in accurately identifying the intensity level on the simple emotional decoding task but there were significant differences in their BOLD response during evaluation of facial emotion. In general, alcoholics showed less brain activation than nonalcoholic controls. The greatest differences in activation were during decoding of facial expressions of fear and disgust during which alcoholics had significantly less activation than controls in the affective division of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Alcoholics also had significantly less activation than controls in the affective division of the ACC, while viewing sad faces. Only to facial expressions of anger did the alcoholics show significant activation in the affective ACC and in this case, their BOLD response did not significantly differ from that of the controls. Conclusion:, Alcoholics show a deficit in the function of the affective division of the ACC during evaluation of negative facial emotions that can serve as cues for flight or avoidance. This deficit may underlie some of the behavioral dysfunction in alcoholism. [source]

Effects of psychological stress on the cerebral processing of visceral stimuli in healthy women

C. Rosenberger
Abstract, The aim of the study was to analyse effects of psychological stress on the neural processing of visceral stimuli in healthy women. The brain functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent response to non-painful and painful rectal distensions was recorded from 14 healthy women during acute psychological stress and a control condition. Acute stress was induced with a modified public speaking stress paradigm. State anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory; chronic stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. During non-painful distensions, activation was observed in the right posterior insular cortex (IC) and right S1. Painful stimuli revealed activation of the bilateral anterior IC, right S1, and right pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. Chronic stress score was correlated with activation of the bilateral amygdala, right posterior IC (post-IC), left periaqueductal grey (PAG), and right dorsal posterior cingulate gyrus (dPCC) during non-painful stimulation, and with activation of the right post-IC, right PAG, left thalamus (THA), and right dPCC during painful distensions. During acute stress, state anxiety was significantly higher and the acute stress , control contrast revealed activation of the right dPCC, left THA and right S1 during painful stimulation. This is the first study to demonstrate effects of acute stress on cerebral activation patterns during visceral pain in healthy women. Together with our finding that chronic stress was correlated wit the neural response to visceral stimuli, these results provide a framework for further studies addressing the role of chronic stress and emotional disturbances in the pathophysiology of visceral hyperalgesia. [source]

Reduced gray matter volume of dorsal cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive,compulsive disorder: A voxel-based morphometric study

Ryohei Matsumoto MD
Aims:, Previous morphometric studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revealed structural brain abnormalities in obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations in brain structure of patients with OCD using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. Methods:, Sixteen patients with OCD free of comorbid major depression, and 32 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects underwent MRI using a 1.5-T MR scanner. OCD severity was assessed with the Yale,Brown Obsessive,Compulsive Scale (mean ± SD: 22 ± 7.6; range: 7,32). MR images were spatially normalized and segmented using the VBM5 package ( Statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping software. Results:, Significant reductions in regional gray matter volume were detected in the left caudal anterior cingulate cortex and right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex in the patients with OCD as compared to healthy controls (uncorrected, P < 0.001). No significant differences in white matter volumes were observed in any brain regions of the patients. No significant correlation between Yale,Brown Obsessive,Compulsive Scale score and regional gray matter or white matter volume was observed. Conclusions:, Regional gray matter alteration in the dorsal cingulate cortex, which is suggested to play a role in non-emotional cognitive processes, may be related to the pathophysiology in OCD. [source]

Neural correlates of memory in depression measured by brain perfusion SPECT at rest

Hideki Azuma md
Aim:, Brain metabolism activated studies have indicated associations between memory and the anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in patients with depression. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate memory function, measured as performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale,Revised (WMS-R), and its relationship to brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at rest in patients with depression. Methods:, The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) and WMS-R were measured for 17 patients with depression by an independent clinical evaluation team. Voxel-based correlation analyses were performed with statistical parametric mapping at an extent threshold of 200 voxels. Associations were controlled for state and trait factors. Results:, WMS-R measurements of verbal, visual, and general memory were inversely correlated with brain perfusion in the right anterior cingulate cortex, left premotor cortices, and both regions, respectively. The HAMD directly correlated with brain perfusion in the right anterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion:, Brain perfusion SPECT measurements of the anterior cingulate cortex at rest were associated with the severity of depression and immediate memory scores measured with the WMS-R. [source]