LDH Activity (ldh + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Hydrocarbon-induced changes to metabolic and detoxification enzymes of the Australian crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

Carmel A. Pollino
Abstract The toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to marine aquatic organisms has been widely investigated; however, the effects on freshwater environments have largely been ignored. Selected biomarkers were measured in a freshwater species, the crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis). Fish were exposed to either a water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil or a dispersed crude oil water-accommodated fraction (DCWAF) for 3 days and were depurated for 14 days. Generally, biomarkers were altered following the short-term exposures but recovered after 14 days of depuration. Metabolic enzymes measured in gill tissue were citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). As a result of WAF and DCWAF exposures, citrate synthase and LDH activities increased. Enzyme activities returned to control levels following depuration. Subsequent to the WAF exposure, hepatic ethoxyresorufin- O -deethylase (EROD) activity levels were higher than controls and they returned to control levels during depuration. For the DCWAF exposure, EROD was induced by a TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) concentration of 14.5 mg/L; however, after depuration the 14.5 mg/L TPH group had lower EROD activity than did controls. There were no changes in liver- to body-weight ratios or the histopathological organization of gill or liver tissues. As the majority of biomarkers returned to control levels after 14 days of depuration, rainbowfish were able to recover from short-term exposures to crude oil and dispersed crude oil. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 21,28, 2003. [source]

Protective effect of non-mitogenic human acidic fibroblast growth factor on hepatocyte injury

Hua Xu
Aim:, To study whether non-mitogenic human acidic fibroblast growth factor (nm-haFGF) has protective effects on H2O2 -induced hepatocyte injury in vitro and CCl4 -induced hepatocyte injury in vivo. Methods:, (i) HL-7702 hepatocytes were incubated with different concentrations of nm-haFGF for 12 h, and then the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in culture medium was detected, and genomic DNA electrophoresis analysis was observed after being exposed to H2O2 (8 mmol/L) for 4 h. Proximately, apoptotic rates and protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax of HL-7702 cell were detected after being exposed to H2O2 (0.2 mmol/L) for 20 h. (ii) Being injected intraperitoneally with nm-haFGF, mice were treated with CCl4 intraperitoneally to induce hepatic injury. Twenty-four hours later, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and histopathologic changes were evaluated. Results:, (i) In vitro tests: LDH activities and apoptotic rates decreased, the protein expression of Bcl-2 increased and Baxdecreased in nm-haFGF-treated groups at the concentrations of 100 150 and 200 ng/mL, compared with that in the model control group, which was treated with H2O2 alone. The genomic DNA remained nearly intact at the concentrations of 150 and 200 ng/mL. (ii) In vivo tests: serum ALT and AST in nm-haFGF-treated groups (10 ,g/kg and 20 ,g/kg) were much lower as compared to the model control group, which was treated with CCl4 alone. Histological examination showed that nm-haFGF markedly ameliorated hepatocytes vacuolation, cloudy swelling and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by CCl4. Conclusion:, nm-haFGF had protective effects against H2O2 -induced hepatocyte injury in vitro and CCl4 -induced acute liver injury in vivo. [source]

Influence of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on serum marker enzymes and erythrocyte and tissue antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation in rats

Ismail Celik
Abstract This study aims to investigate the effects of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), antioxidant defense systems (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)), and lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. 50 and 100 ppm of PGRs as drinking water were administered orally to rats (Sprague,Dawley albino) ad libitum for 25 days continuously. The PGRs treatment caused different effects on the serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defense systems, and the MDA content in experimented rats compared to controls. Results showed that TIBA caused a significant decrease in serum AST activity with both the dosage whereas serum CPK was significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of TIBA. Meanwhile, serum AST, CPK, and LDH activities were significantly increased with both dosage of NAA and 2,4-D. The lipid peroxidation end-product MDA significantly increased in the all tissues treated with both dosages of PGRs without any change in the brain and erythrocyte of rats treated with both the dosages of 2,4-D. The GSH depletion in the kidney and brain tissues of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs was found to be significant. Furthermore, the GSH depletion in the erythrocyte of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs except 50 ppm dosage of 2,4-D was significant too. Also, the GSH level in the liver was significantly depleted with 50 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA, whereas the GSH depletion in the same tissue did not significantly change with the treatment. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was also seriously affected by PGRs; SOD significantly decreased in the liver, heart, kidney, and brain of rats treated with both dosages of NAA, whereas the SOD activity in the erythrocytes, liver, and heart was either significantly decreased or not changed with two doses of 2,4-D and TIBA. Although the CAT activity significantly increased in the erythrocyte and brain of rats treated with both doses of PGRs, it was not changed in the liver, heart, and kidney. Meanwhile, the ancillary enzyme GR activity significantly increased in the brain, heart, and liver but decreased in the erythrocyte and kidney of rats treated with both doses of PGRs. The drug-metabolizing enzyme GST activity significantly increased in the heart and kidney but decreased in the brain and erythrocytes of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs. As a conclusion, the results indicate that PGRs might affect antioxidant potential enzymes, the activity of hepatic damage enzymes, and lipid peroxidation dose independently. Also, the rats resisted to oxidative stress via antioxidant mechanism but the antioxidant mechanism could not prevent the increases in lipid peroxidation in rat's tissues. These data, along with the determined changes, suggest that PGRs produced substantial systemic organ toxicity in the erythrocyte, liver, brain, heart, and kidney during the period of a 25-day subacute exposure. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 20:174,182, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.20134 [source]

,-Glucuronidase inhibitor tectorigenin isolated from the flower of Pueraria thunbergiana protects carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

Hae-Woong Lee
Abstract Background/Aim: To understand the relationship between the fluctuation in serum ,-glucuronidase and hepatotoxicity, an inhibitor of ,-glucuronidase was isolated from the flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana and its hepatoprotective activity was measured. Method: Tectorigenin was isolated from the flowers of pueria thunbergiana as an inhibitor of ,-glucuronidase, and serum ALT, AST and biological parameters as markers for its hepatoprotective activity were measured on CCl4 -induced liver injury in mice. The relationship between serum ,-glucuronidase and hepatoprotective activities in mice was measured. Results: When tectorigenin at a dose of 100 mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered on CCl4 -induced liver injury in mice, it significantly inhibited the increase of plasma ALT, AST and LDH activities. The inhibitory effect of tectorigenin is much more potent than that of dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (DDB), which has been used as a commercial hepatoprotective agent. When tectoridin transformed to tectorigenin by intestinal bacteria was orally administered to mice, it showed hepatoprotective activity. However, when tectoridin was intraperitoneally administrated to mice, it did not exhibit hepatoprotective activity. Moreover, orally administered tectoridin not only inhibited ,-glucuronidase but also increased GSH content and GST activity on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity of mice. Conclusion: We insist that an inhibitor of ,-glucuronidase tectorigenin may be hepatoprotective and tectoridin should be a prodrug transformed to tectorigenin. [source]

Utilization of citrate and lactate through a lactate dehydrogenase and ATP-regulated pathway in boar spermatozoa

Antonio Medrano
Abstract Incubation of boar spermatozoa in Krebs,Ringer,Henseleit medium with either 10 mM lactate or 10 mM citrate induced a fast and robust increase in the intracellular levels of ATP in both cases, which reached a peak after 30 sec of incubation. Utilization of both citrate and lactate resulted in the export of CO2 to the extracellular medium, indicating that both substrates were metabolized through the Krebs cycle. Incubation with citrate resulted in the generation of extracellular lactate, which was inhibited in the presence of phenylacetic acid. This indicates that lactate is produced through the pyruvate carboxylase step. In addition, there was also a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation induced by both citrate and lactate. Boar sperm has a sperm-specific isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), mainly located in the principal piece of the tail. Kinetic studies showed that boar sperm has at least two distinct LDH activities. The major activity (with an estimated Km of 0.51 mM) was located in the supernatants of sperm extracts. The minor LDH activity (with an estimated Km of 5.9 mM) was associated with the nonsoluble fraction of sperm extracts. Our results indicate that boar sperm efficiently metabolizes citrate and lactate through a metabolic pathway regulated by LDH. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pharmacokinetics and residues in milk of oxytetra-cyclines administered parenterally to dairy goats

Objective To determine for two commercial preparations of oxytetracycline (OTC) the pharmacokinetic behaviour, the presence of detectable milk residues and the penetration in milk of OTC administered by intravenous (IV) (conventional formulation [CF]) and intramuscular (IM) routes (CF and long-acting [LA] formulations) in goats producing milk. The effects of these formulations on plasma activity values of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also determined as indicators of tissue damage. Procedure Five healthy lactating goats producing 1.5 ± 0.5 L/d milk and weighing 56.0 ± 4.8 kg were used. Single doses of OTC chlorhydrate (CF) were administered (20 mg OTC/kg) by IV (Trial 1 IV) and IM (Trial 1 IM) routes and OTC dehydrate (LA) by the IM route. The same goats were first given IV CF, then IM CF followed by IM LA with 3 weeks between each treatment. Blood and milk samples were taken. The quantification of OTC was performed by HPLC and the plasma activities of CK and LDH enzymes were determined by spectrophotometry. The presence of OTC residues in milk was determined by a commercial reagent. The plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a two-compartment model. Results Estimates of kinetic variables following IV administration were: Vss= 400.0 ± 120.0 mL/kg and CL= 110.0 ± 14.0 (mL/h)/kg. The tfi for IV= 3.0 ± 0.3 h; IM, CF = 10.5 ± 2.1 h and IM, LA = 15.1 ± 3.1 h. The concentration of OTC in milk at 48 h was: IV= 0.6 ± 0.4; IM CF= 1.1 ± 0.2 and at 72 h (IM LA)= 0.6 ± 0.1 ,g/mL and the penetration in milk of OTC was: IV= 70.0 ± 18.0; IM CF= 79.0 ± 14.0 and IM LA= 66.0 ± 6.0 %. The areas under the curve of CK and LDH activities in plasma were calculated by the trapezoidal method. Values of CK and LDH IM, LA were greater (P < 0.05) than those observed for IM, CF at 2 and 3 days after administration of the antibiotic. Finally, the bioavailability of OTC CF = 92.0± 22.0 and LA= 78.0 ± 23.0 % was suitable for its usage by the IM route in lactating goats. Conclusion Plasma concentration-time values of OTC administered parenterally in production dairy goats showed similar bioavailability for the two pharmaceutical preaprations. The presence of detectable residues in milk indicates that milk should not be used for human consumption for 2 and 3 days after administration of conventional and long-acting formulations, respectively. The increments in CK and LDH activities after the IM administration of LA are consistent with the presence of tissue damage provoked by the pharmaceutical preparations at the injection site. [source]

Chronic toxicity and responses of several important enzymes in Daphnia magna on exposure to sublethal microcystin-LR

Wei Chen
Abstract In the current study, the toxicological mechanisms of microcystin-LR and its disadvantageous effects on Daphnia magna were examined. Survival rate, number of newborn, activity of several important enzymes [glutathione S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphatases, and glutathione], accumulated microcystins, and ultrastructural changes in different organs of Daphnia were monitored over the course of 21-day chronic tests. The results indicated that low concentrations of dissolved microcystin had no harmful effect on Daphnia. On the contrary, stimulatory effects were detected. In the presence of toxin at high dosage and for long-term exposure, GST and glutathione levels decreased significantly. The decreased enzyme activity in the antioxidant system probably was caused by detoxification reactions with toxins. And these processes of detoxification at the beginning of chronic tests may enable phosphatases in Daphnia magna to withstand inhibition by the toxins. At the same time, we also found that the LDH activity in test animals increased with exposure to microcystin-LR, indicating that adverse effects occurred in Daphnia. With microcystin given at a higher dosage or for a longer exposure, the effect on Daphnia magna was fatal. In the meantime, microcystin began to accumulate in Daphnia magna, and phosphatase activity started to be inhibited. From the ultrastructure results of cells in D. magna, we obtained new information: the alimentary canal may be the target organ affected by exposure of microcystins to D. magna. The results of the current study also suggested that the oxidative damage and PPI (protein phosphatase inhibition) mechanisms of vertebrates also are adapted to Daphnia. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 20: 323,330, 2005. [source]

Chronic Hypoxia Delays Myocardial Lactate Dehydrogenase Maturation in Young Rats

Z. Daneshrad
The effect of exposure to hypobaric hypoxia for 4 weeks (oxygen pressure = 106 hPa), equivalent to 5500 m in altitude) on myocardial total lactate dehydrogenase (tLDH) activity and isoform (H and M) composition was comparatively studied in growing (4.5 weeks old) and in adult (4.5 months old) male rats. The consequences of the hypoxia-induced anorexia were checked in growing rats using a pair-fed group. Exposure to hypoxia induced a significant decrease in the H/tLDH ratio in the left (LV) and right ventricle (RV) of growing and adult rats. In adult rats this alteration was mainly a consequence of the significant increase in the specific activity of the M isomer, which resulted in an increase in the overall LDH activity. In contrast, in the LV of young rats exposed to hypoxia, the specific activity of the M isomer was similar to that of normoxic animals while the H isomer activity was significantly lower than in normoxic rats, and the overall LDH activity remained unchanged. These effects were specifically due to hypoxia per se since no significant alterations were observed in pair-fed animals. In the hypertrophied RV, the alteration of H and M isomers following hypoxia was similar to that observed in adults (i.e. no change in H and an increase in M isoform). We conclude that the well-known hypoxia-induced decrease in the H/tLDH ratio is governed by different age-dependent mechanisms. In adult rats, hypoxia may induce in both ventricles a stimulating effect on M isomer expression. In the LV of growing rats this stress could inhibit the H isomer maturation without any effect on the M isomer. In the RV of growing rats this effect could have been counteracted by the growth effect of the hypertrophying process. [source]

Chill injury in the eggs of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): the time-temperature relationship with high-temperature interruption

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2005
Abstract Mortality of the overwintering egg of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L., was attributed to chill injury because of its occurrence well above the egg's super cooling point. In this study, two parameters, upper limit of chill injury zone (ULCIZ) and sum of the injurious temperature (SIT), were used to examine the locust egg's cold hardiness. The value of ULCIZ for the locust egg is 1.06 ± 0.54°C, and the SIT is -329.7 (hour · degree). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities changed dramatically after cold stress, indicating that oxygen and hydroxide free radicals are probably efficiently detoxified at low temperatures. It was suggested that the nature of chill injury in locust egg might be a complex of metabolic disorder and a non-proportional decrease in enzymatic reaction and transports, because the LDH activity at low temperature increased significantly and the ATPase activity decreased with prolonged duration of exposure to low temperatures. The results from high temperature interruption revealed that the high temperature intervals significantly increased the survival of locust eggs. [source]

Protective role of Panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in rats

Fathia Mannaa
Abstract Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial neurotoxic chemical that has been recently found in carbohydrate-rich foods cooked at high temperatures. ACR was designated as a probable human carcinogen by IARC (1994) and USEPA (1988). Panax ginseng extract has efficacies such as anticancer, antihypertension, antidiabetes and antinociception. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of Panax ginseng extract against ACR-induced toxicity in rats. Sixty adult Sprague Dawley female rats were divided into six groups included a control group, a group treated orally with ACR (50 mg kg,1 body weight; b.w.) for 11 days, a group treated orally with Panax ginseng extract (20 mg kg,1 b.w.) for 11 days and groups treated orally with Panax ginseng for 11 days before, during or after 11 days of ACR treatment. The results indicated that treatment with ACR alone resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and LDH activity in brain homogenate as well as in serum CK activity, whereas it caused a significant decrease in SOD activity and a small but statistically insignificant decrease in Na+K+ -ATPase activity in brain homogenate. Serum serotonin, corticosterone, T3, T4, TSH, estradiol, progesterone and plasma adrenaline were significantly decreased in ACR-treated rats. Treatment with Panax ginseng before, during or after ACR treatment reduced or partially antagonized the effects induced by ACR towards the normal values of controls. It could be concluded that Panax ginseng extract exhibited a protective action against ACR toxicity and it is worth noting that treatment with Panax ginseng extract before or at the same time as ACR treatment was more effective than when administered after ACR treatment. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of selected alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors on human hepatic lactate dehydrogenase activity , an in vitro study

Jaroslaw Dudka
Abstract Metabolic acidosis severely complicates methanol and ethylene glycol intoxications. Acidosis is caused by acid metabolites and can be intensified by lactate elevation. Lactate concentration depends on the NADH2/NAD ratio. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, E.C. supplies more lactate when the level of NADH2 is elevated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibitors and substrates: cimetidine, EDTA, 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP), Ukrain and ethanol on LDH activity. The activity of LDH was determined spectrophotometrically in human liver homogenates incubated with cimetidine, EDTA, 4-MP and Ukrain at concentrations of 2 × 10,6, 10,5 and 5 × 10,5m as well as ethanol at concentrations of 12.50, 25.00, 50.00 mm. The LDH activity was significantly increased by 10,5 and 5 × 10,5m concentrations of cimetidine and 4-MP, and by all concentrations of ethanol. The most effective change of LDH activity of about 26% (P < 0.01) was observed at the highest concentration of ethanol. Ukrain inhibited LDH activity at both concentrations, i.e. 10,5 and 5 × 10,5m (P < 0.05). However, EDTA did not significantly influence LDH activity. The data showed that ethanol and 4-MP, the main antidotes in methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, may increase liver LDH activity , an undesirable effect during the therapy of patients intoxicated with these alcohols. On the other hand, the decrease of LDH activity in the presence of Ukrain is a promising finding but definitely requires further investigation. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Diphenyl diselenide protects against hematological and immunological alterations induced by mercury in mice

Ricardo Brandão
Abstract Mercury is a heavy metal that can cause a variety of toxic effects on the organism, such as hematological and immunological alterations. In the present investigation, deleterious effects of mercury-intoxication in mice and a possible protective effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 were studied. Male adult Swiss albino mice received daily a pretreatment with (PhSe)2 (15.6 mg/kg, orally) for 1 week. After this week, mice received daily mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for 2 weeks. A number of hematological (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes, and leukocytes differential) and immunological (immunoglobulin G and M plasma concentration) parameters were evaluated. Another biomarker of tissue damage, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was also determined. The results demonstrated that mercury exposure caused a reduction in the erythrocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte, and platelet counts and an increase in the reticulocyte percentages. (PhSe)2 was effective in protecting against the reduction in hematocrit, hemoglobin, and leukocyte levels. (PhSe)2 ameliorated reticulocyte percentages increased by mercury. However, (PhSe)2 was partially effective in preventing against the decrease in erythrocyte and platelet counts. Immunoglobulin G and M concentrations and LDH activity were increased by mercury exposure, and (PhSe)2 was effective in protecting against these effects. In conclusion, (PhSe)2 was effective in protecting against hematological and immunological alterations induced by mercury in mice. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 22:311,319, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.20242 [source]

Endogenous endothelin in a rat model of acute colonic mucosal injury

Masamitsu Sugimachi
Abstract Background: Endothelin (ET) is involved in various biologic activities in non-vascular and vascular tissues. While ET has some significant effects on gastrointestinal functions, the possible role of endogenous ET in the host response to mucosal injury has not been well clarified. Methods: The present study describes an investigation of the effects of an endothelin A receptor antagonist, BQ-123, on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), mucus and albumin flux into the perfusate in a rat model of acute colonic injury, induced by acetic acid perfusion. The present study also examined localization of ET in damaged rat colons by using immunohistochemistry. Results: A 4% acetic acid treatment induced mild mucosal damage of perfused rat colon and increased LDH as well as albumin and protein-bound hexose release into the perfusate. Pretreatment with BQ-123 significantly reduced LDH activity and protein-bound hexose concentration in the perfusate and delayed the reduction of albumin leakage from damaged mucosa. Vascular endothelial, neural and surface epithelial cells of the colon showed strong ET-like immunoreactivity. Mucosal damage markedly influenced ET expression by epithelial cells. Mild mucosal damage decreased the ET expression by surface epithelial cells while moderate mucosal damage induced a mosaic location of ET-positive epithelial cells in the crypt. Severe mucosal damage abolished the ET expression by epithelial cells. Conclusions: Endothelin may play a role in the host response to acute mucosal damage. Mucosal ET production is significantly affected by mucosal injury. [source]

Blood biochemical indicators in young and adult Cebus apella of both sexes

H. Núñez
Abstract Background, A frequent drawback in physiology of non-human primates is that normal values for a variety of indicators (haematological, biochemical and others) are scant. Methods, We report here the blood values in a series of 92 healthy Cebus apella (divided by sex, age and pregnancy status). Health check-ups indicated that animals were healthy for the month prior to and after the sampling. Dietary intake was estimated on the basis of two semi-balance studies. Results, Values of haematological indicators, serum LDH activity, micronutrient indicators (serum copper, iron and serum ceruloplasmin concentrations, Zn,Cu-superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes) agreed with previous results and provide some values that were not available. Activities of liver enzymes were lower than some previously reported. Conclusions, These results provide valuable information that help understanding the physiology of C. apella. [source]

Solute crystallization in mannitol,glycine systems,implications on protein stabilization in freeze-dried formulations

Abira Pyne
Abstract The use of mannitol in combination with glycine has resulted in stable freeze-dried protein formulations. Our objectives were to (1) study solute crystallization in ternary systems containing mannitol, glycine, and water during all the stages of freeze drying as a function of processing conditions and formulation variables; (2) investigate the effect of sodium phosphate buffer salts on the crystallization of both mannitol and glycine and vice versa; and (3) investigate the effects of these excipients in a freeze-dried lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) formulation. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the frozen aqueous solutions. Phase transitions during primary and secondary drying were monitored by simulating the entire freeze-drying process in situ in the sample chamber of the diffractometer. LDH activity after freeze drying was determined spectrophotometrically. In frozen aqueous solutions containing mannitol and glycine, each solute influenced the extent of crystallization of the other. The solutes crystallized as ,-mannitol and ,-glycine during primary drying. Glycine had a stronger tendency to crystallize, while it was easier to influence mannitol crystallization. The buffer salts inhibited the crystallization of mannitol and glycine. However, in some cases, during primary drying, glycine crystallization was followed by that of disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate. The latter underwent dehydration forming an amorphous anhydrate. It was possible to correlate the extent of crystallization of mannitol and glycine in the lyophile with the retention of protein activity. An increase in buffer concentration decreased the crystallinity of mannitol and glycine. This translated to increased retention of protein activity. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 92:2272,2283, 2003 [source]

Melatonin protects against endosulfan-induced oxidative tissue damage in rats

Gülden Z. Omurtag
Abstract:, Endosulfan is a chlorinated cyclodiene insecticide which induces oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effect of melatonin, an antioxidant agent, against endosulfan (Endo)-induced toxicity in rats. Wistar albino rats (n = 8) were administered endosulfan (22 mg/kg/day orally) followed by either saline (Endo group) or melatonin (10 mg/kg/day, Endo + Mel group) for 5 days. In other rats, saline (control group) or melatonin (10 mg/kg/day, Mel group) was injected for 5 days, following corn oil administration (vehicle of endosulfan). Measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content were performed in liver and kidney. Furthermore, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured in the serum samples, while tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), interleukin-, (IL-,) and total antioxidant capacity (AOC) were assayed in plasma samples. Endosulfan administration caused a significant decrease in tissue GSH and plasma AOC, which was accompanied with significant rises in tissue MDA and collagen levels and MPO activity. Moreover, the proinflammatory mediators (TNF-, and IL-,), LDH activity, AST, ALT, creatinine and BUN levels were significantly elevated in the endosulfan-treated rats. On the other hand, melatonin treatment reversed all these biochemical alterations induced by endosulfan. Our results suggest that oxidative mechanisms play an important role in endosulfan-induced tissue damage and melatonin, by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, balancing oxidant,antioxidant status and regulating the generation of inflammatory mediators, ameliorates oxidative organ injury as a result of endosulfan toxicity. [source]

Changes in serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in children with atopic dermatitis

Yasuyuki Morishima
Abstract Background:, In recent years an increase has been seen in the number of patients with severe atopic dermatitis (AD) accompanied with generalized typical eruptions. Some markers indicating the severity of the disease and symptom changes are very useful, and therefore the purpose of the present study was to investigate serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as such a marker. Methods:, A total of 58 children with AD were enrolled. The severity of the disease was graded on the basis of the extent of eruptions and the severity of atopic symptoms. The fraction of serum LDH, number of eosinocytes in the peripheral blood, and serum IgE levels were also determined. Results and Conclusion:, There was a close correlation between the severity of cutaneous symptoms and serum LDH activity, and between severity and eosinocyte count, but no relationship was seen between serum IgE levels and severity of the disease. The aforementioned factors were determined in a time-related way. As the patients' condition improved, serum LDH activity tended to decline, but there were no consistent changes in eosinocyte count in the peripheral blood or serum IgE level. On LDH isozyme the levels of LDH4 and LDH5 were high. Tissue showed high LDH activity, especially in epidermides. These results suggest that serum LDH activity is a useful marker. [source]

l -Arginine Inhibits Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy through Nitric Oxide and Polyamine Pathways

Yan Lin
Nitric oxide exhibits antihypertrophic functions and inhibits cardiac remodelling. However, the metabolism of polyamines and the potential interactions with nitric oxide in cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. We randomly divided Wistar rats into four treatment groups: controls, isoproterenol (ISO), ISO and l -arginine, and l -arginine. Isoproterenol (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) and/or l -arginine (800 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) was administered once daily for 7 days. The expression of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA was determined by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction, and fibrogenesis of heart was assessed by Van Gieson staining. Polyamines were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, and plasma nitric oxide content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined with a spectrophotometer. The expression levels of ornithine decarboxylase, spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were analysed by Western blot. Heart-to-body weight ratio, left ventricle-to-body weight ratio, atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA expression, collagen fibres and LDH activity were elevated, both ornithine decarboxylase and SSAT proteins were up-regulated, and total polyamines were increased in the group treated with ISO. Additionally, the expression of iNOS was up-regulated, eNOS was down-regulated, and nitric oxide levels were low. Notably, cotreatment with l -arginine reversed most of these changes except for SSAT expression, which was further up-regulated. We propose that increased polyamines and decreased nitric oxide are involved in cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO and suggest that l -arginine pre-treatment can attenuate cardiac hypertrophy through the regulation of key enzymes of the polyamine and nitric oxide pathways. [source]

Metabolism in 1,3-propanediol fed-batch fermentation by a D -lactate deficient mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Yun-Zhen Xu
Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae HR526, a new isolated 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) producer, exhibited great productivity. However, the accumulation of lactate in the late-exponential phase remained an obstacle of 1,3-PD industrial scale production. Hereby, mutants lacking D -lactate pathway were constructed by knocking out the ldhA gene encoding fermentative D -lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of HR526. The mutant K. pneumoniae LDH526 with the lowest LDH activity was studied in aerobic fed-batch fermentation. In experiments using pure glycerol as feedstock, the 1,3-PD concentrations, conversion, and productivity increased from 95.39,g,L,1, 0.48 and 1.98,g,L,1,h,1 to 102. 06,g,L,1, 0.52,mol,mol,1 and 2.13,g,L,1,h,1, respectively. The diol (1,3-PD and 2,3-butanediol) conversion increased from 0.55,mol,mol,1 to a maximum of 0.65,mol,mol,1. Lactate would not accumulate until 1,3-PD exceeded 84,g,L,1, and the final lactate concentration decreased dramatically from more than 40,g,L,1 to <3,g,L,1. Enzymic measurements showed LDH activity decreased by 89,98% during fed-batch fermentation, and other related enzyme activities were not affected. NADH/NAD+ enhanced more than 50% in the late-exponential phase as the D -lactate pathway was cut off, which might be the main reason for the change of final metabolites concentrations. The ability to utilize crude glycerol from biodiesel process and great genetic stability demonstrated that K. pnemoniae LDH526 was valuable for 1,3-PD industrial production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009; 104: 965,972. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

A single nutrient feed supports both chemically defined NS0 and CHO fed-batch processes: Improved productivity and lactate metabolism

Ningning Ma
Abstract A chemically defined nutrient feed (CDF) coupled with basal medium preloading was developed to replace a hydrolysate-containing feed (HCF) for a fed-batch NS0 process. The CDF not only enabled a completely chemically defined process but also increased recombinant monoclonal antibody titer by 115%. Subsequent tests of CDF in a CHO process indicated that it could also replace the hydrolysate-containing nutrient feed in this expression system as well as providing an 80% increase in product titer. In both CDF NS0 and CHO processes, the peak lactate concentrations were lower and, more interestingly, lactate metabolism shifted markedly from net production to net consumption when cells transitioned from exponential to stationary growth phase. Subsequent investigations of the lactate metabolic shift in the CHO CDF process were carried out to identify the cause(s) of the metabolic shift. These investigations revealed several metabolic features of the CHO cell line that we studied. First, glucose consumption and lactate consumption are strictly complementary to each other. The combined cell specific glucose and lactate consumption rate was a constant across exponential and stationary growth phases. Second, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity fluctuated during the fed-batch process. LDH activity was at the lowest when lactate concentration started to decrease. Third, a steep cross plasma membrane glucose gradient exists. Intracellular glucose concentration was more than two orders of magnitude lower than that in the medium. Fourth, a large quantity of citrate was diverted out of mitochondria to the medium, suggesting a partially truncated tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in CHO cells. Finally, other intermediates in or linked to the glycolytic pathway and the TCA cycle, which include alanine, citrate, isocitrate, and succinate, demonstrated a metabolic shift similar to that of lactate. Interestingly, all these metabolites are either in or linked to the pathway downstream of pyruvate, but upstream of fumarate in glucose metabolism. Although the specific mechanisms for the metabolic shift of lactate and other metabolites remain to be elucidated, the increased understanding of the metabolism of CHO cultures could lead to future improvements in medium and process development. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]


Elenara Rieger
SUMMARY 1Glycerol has been used for the treatment of intracranial hypertension, cerebral oedema and glaucoma. Experimentally, intramuscular administration of hypertonic glycerol solution is used to produce acute renal failure. In this model, glycerol causes rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, resulting in the development of renal injury. The pathogenesis is thought to involve vascular congestion, the formation of casts and oxidative stress. However, the effect of glycerol itself independent of rhabdomyolysis has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of i.p. glycerol on some biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the kidney of young rats. 2Rats received 10 mL/kg, i.p., hypertonic glycerol solution (50% v/v) or saline (NaCl 0.85 g%) followed by 24 h water deprivation. Twenty-four hours after the administration of glycerol, rats were killed. Creatinine levels and the activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in the plasma. In addition, CK, pyruvate kinase and LDH activity and oxidative stress parameters (free radical formation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) were measured in renal tissue. 3Glycerol did not alter plasma CK activity and increased plasma creatinine levels, suggesting renal insufficiency and the absence of rhabdomyolysis. Renal CK and pyruvate kinase activity was decreased, suggesting diminution of energy homeostasis in the kidney. Plasma and renal LDH activity was decreased, whereas the formation of free radicals, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased, suggesting oxidative stress. 4These results are similar to those described after the intramuscular administration of glycerol. Therefore, it is possible that glycerol may provoke renal lesions by mechanisms other than those induced by rhabdomyolysis. [source]