Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of LC50

  • h lc50

  • Terms modified by LC50

  • lc50 value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Inheritance of resistance and cross resistance pattern in indoxacarb-resistant diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L.

    Sarita NEHARE
    Abstract Leaf-dip assay of Plutella xylostella against indoxacarb showed that the concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50) of indoxacarb ranged from 20.1 to 11.9 ppm, with highest in Nasik and lowest levels in Coimbatore strains. In selection studies, the LC50 of indoxacarb was 18.5 ppm at generation 1 (G1), which increased to 31.3-fold (167.8 ppm) resistance after ten exposed generations (G10) as compared to unexposed. The LC50 of quinalphos was 74.4 ppm, which increased to 10.0-fold (631.5 ppm) resistance after G10. The LC50 of cypermethrin resistant strain resulted in an 11.5-fold increase in resistance after G10. In P. xylostella, heritability (h2) after ten generations of selection was estimated at 0.4. The number of generations required for tenfold increase in LC50 (1/R) were 6.7. The response to indoxacarb selection in P. xylostella was 0.2 and the selection differential was estimated as 0.4. The phenotypic standard deviation was 0.2. Reciprocal crosses between indoxacarb-resistant and susceptible strains showed that the inheritance of indoxacarb resistance was autosomal. The degree of heritability (DLC) (0.4, 0.4) indicated incomplete recessive inheritance of indoxacarb resistance. [source]

    Seasonal and geographical toxicity of Indoxacarb against Helicoverpa armigera and influence of different host plants against Indoxacarb in India, 2005,2007

    Basweshwar S. GHODKI
    Abstract Indoxacarb, an oxadiazine insecticide, was evaluated for its effectiveness against Helicoverpa armigera collected from selected locations in India. Determination of Indoxacarb efficacy was done using a log-dose probit (LDP) bioassay against third instars collected from cotton (Gossypium arborium) fields near Akola, India. Monthly levels of toxicity of Indoxacarb were determined from July 2005 to March 2007. The maximum tolerance level of Indoxacarb was reported for the Amaravati strain (5.09 p.p.m.) and the minimum tolerance level for the Fatehbad strain (0.22 p.p.m.). Seasonal monitoring of Indoxacarb toxicity revealed an increased trend in tolerance from July 2005 to February 2006, which decreased from March 2006. The LC50 of Indoxacarb was 2.71 p.p.m. in July 2005 and 17.14 p.p.m. in February 2006. During 2006,2007, the LC50 was 3.84 p.p.m. at the start of the season and in March 2007 it was 13.51 p.p.m. The minimum LC50 of Indoxacarb was reported for H. armigera larvae fed on Legasca spp. (1.62 p.p.m.) and the maximum LC50 was reported for H. armigera reared on chickpea (Cicer arietium) (8.45 p.p.m.). LC50 of 2.73 and 4.56 p.p.m. were reported for H. armigera fed on cotton (Gossypium arborium) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), respectively. [source]

    Insecticidal control of the mealybug Phenacoccus gossypiphilous (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a new pest of cotton in Pakistan

    Shafqat SAEED
    Abstract The mealybug Phenacoccus gossypiphilous (Stanley) played havoc with the cotton crop in Pakistan during 2005. To control this pest, insecticides of different groups were evaluated in both the laboratory and in field conditions. In the laboratory, bifenthrin, profenofos and chlorpyrifos proved to be the best insecticides for mealybug control, based on their susceptibility with the leaf dip method for their LC50. In field conditions, the recommended application rates of methomyl, profenofos and chlorpyrifos provided the best control: the lethal time studies proved their efficiency for better and timely control of this sporadic pest. The present study has shown that the insecticides tested, in particular profenofos, chlorpyrifos, methomyl and bifenthrin, provide satisfactory control of the cotton mealybug. The control of the insect pest complex throughout the cotton crop predominantly depends on wise and justified use of these chemicals, and necessitates development of an integrated pest management strategy. [source]

    Resting spore formation of aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora nouryi depends on the concentration of infective inoculum

    Zhi-Hong Huang
    Summary Resting spore formation of some aphid-pathogenic Entomophthorales is important for the seasonal pattern of their prevalence and survival but this process is poorly understood. To explore the possible mechanism involved in the process, Pandora nouryi (obligate aphid pathogen) interacted with green peach aphid Myzus persicae on cabbage leaves under favourable conditions. Host nymphs showered with primary conidia of an isolate (LC50: 0.9,6.7 conidia mm,2 4,7 days post shower) from air captures in the low-latitude plateau of China produced resting spores (azygospores), primary conidia or both spore types. Surprisingly, the proportion of mycosed cadavers forming resting spores (Pcfrs) increased sharply within the concentrations (C) of 28,240 conidia mm,2, retained high levels at 240,1760, but was zero or extremely low at 0.3,16. The Pcfrs,C relationship fit well the logistic equation Pcfrs = 0.6774/[1 + exp(3.1229,0.0270C)] (r2 = 0.975). This clarified for the first time the dependence of in vivo resting spore formation of P. nouryi upon the concentration of infective inoculum. A hypothesis is thus proposed that some sort of biochemical signals may exist in the host,pathogen interaction so that the fungal pathogen perceives the signals for prompt response to forthcoming host-density changes by either producing conidia for infecting available hosts or forming resting spores for surviving host absence in situ. [source]

    Comparing the relative toxicity of malathion and malaoxon in blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus

    Winfred G. Aker
    Abstract Malathion inhibits the critical body enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This capability requires that malathion should first be converted to malaoxon to become an active anticholinesterase agent. Conversion can be caused by oxidation in mammals, insects, plants, and in sunlight. In this study, the effects of malathion and malaoxon on catfish Ictalurus furcatus were evaluated. After 96-h exposures, the LC50 (concentration that causes 50% mortality) and IC50 (concentration that causes 50% enzyme inhibition) for malaoxon were lower than corresponding values for malathion. The overall mean 96-h LC50 is 17.0 ppm for malathion and 3.1 ppm for malaoxon. IC50 values for malathion are 8.5 ppm for brain, 10.3 ppm for liver, and 16.6 ppm for muscle. Corresponding values for malaoxon are 2.3, 3.7, and 6.8 ppm, respectively. All the AChE activities in malathion- and malaoxon-exposed catfish brain showed significant inhibition. The oxidation product malaoxon demonstrated higher inhibition on AChE activity than did malathion. Moreover, malaoxon showed significant inhibition on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in the liver if the concentrations were increased to more than 1 ppm. Malathion showed no difference between treatment group and control group. Compared with malathion, malaoxon showed higher inhibition on monoamine activity than that of malathion. The results indicated that the oxidative product malaoxon is more toxic than the parent compound malathion. AChE, BChE, and monoamine activities are confirmed as bioindicators of malathion exposure in blue catfish, I. furcatus. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2008. [source]

    Toxicity reduction of metal pyrithiones by near ultraviolet irradiation

    Hideo Okamura
    Abstract Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) or copper pyrithione (CuPT) have been effectively used as ship-antifouling agents, as an alternative to organotin compounds. Because of their instability in light and a lack of suitable analytical procedures, there is little data on their residue levels in environmental matrices. It is possible to investigate the fate of such compounds by toxicity alteration with certain treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degradation of pyrithiones through toxicity reduction by near ultraviolet (UV-A) irradiation. Metal pyrithiones dissolved in acetonitrile were irradiated with a UV-A lamp for 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h, and were subjected to UV spectral measurement and toxicity evaluation using both sea urchin and freshwater rotifer bioassays. For the bioassays, photolyzed samples were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide after evaporation of the acetonitrile. The changes in UV spectra of photolyzed ZnPT or CuPT showed a time-dependent degradation, and the UV spectra at 2 h irradiation suggested substantial decomposition. Toxicities of ZnPT and CuPT were 12 and 5 ,g/L as 24 h LC50 to the survival of rotifers and 10,6 ng/L and 2.3 ng/L as 27 h EC50 to normal pluteus formation, respectively. By evaporation of the acetonitrile, the EC50 of ZnPT was 2.2 ng/L, which was the same as that of CuPT. The EC50s of ZnPT or CuPT for both species increased with longer irradiation times. Photolyzed ZnPT or CuPT demonstrated substantial degradation in the UV spectra, but possessed marked toxicity, which is probably due to toxic degradation products. One reason why photolyzed CuPT was toxic to rotifers was explained by the high toxicity of copper ions formed by UV-A irradiation. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 305,309, 2006. [source]

    QSARs for aromatic hydrocarbons at several trophic levels

    Walter Di Marzio
    Abstract Quantitative structure,activity relationships (QSARs) with aromatic hydrocarbons were obtained. Biological response was measured by acute toxicity of several aquatic trophic levels. The chemicals assayed were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o -xylene, m -xylene, p -xylene, isopropylbenzene, n -propylbenzene, and butylbenzene. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with Scenedesmus quadricauda, as representative of primary producers; Daphnia spinulata, a zooplanctonic cladoceran; Hyalella curvispina, a benthic macroinvertebrate; and Bryconamericus iheringii, an omnivorous native fish. The EC50 or LC50 was calculated from analytical determinations of aromatic hydrocarbons. Nonlinear regression analysis between the logarithm of the octanol,water partition coefficient (log Kow) of each compounds and the toxicity end points was performed. QSARs were positively related to increases in log Kow at all trophic levels. Intertaxonomic differences were found in comparisons of algae with animals and of invertebrates with vertebrates. We observed that these differences were not significant with a log Kow higher than 3 for all organisms. Aromatic hydrocarbons with log Kow values of less than 3 showed different toxicity responses, with algae more resistant than fish and invertebrates. We concluded that this was a result of the narcotic mode of action related to liposolubility and the ability of the compound to reach its target site in the cell. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) achieved to start nonpolar narcosis fell almost 1 order of magnitude below the BCF expected from the log Kow. Predicted critical body residues for nonpolar narcosis ranged between 2 and 1 mM. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 118,124, 2006. [source]

    Cadmium tolerance in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following acute exposure: Assessment of some ionoregulatory parameters

    Sofia Garcia-Santos
    Abstract The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) can tolerate very high levels of waterborne cadmium. It has one of the highest 96 h LC50 recorded for a freshwater teleost fish (14.8 mg/L Cd; hardness 50 mg/L CaCO3). Cadmium is known to perturb ion balance in teleost fishes. However, in an acute time course experiment, plasma Na+ concentrations were unaffected, and plasma Ca2+ values only decreased after 96 h exposure in a dose-independent manner. Branchial Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and ,-subunit protein level expression in crude gill homogenates were not affected by Cd exposure during this period. Branchial chloride cell numbers, identified as Na+/K+ -ATPase immunoreactive cells using immunohistochemistry, decreased 24 h after exposure but recovered thereafter. Histopathological changes did not follow a consistent pattern of variation with exposure time, and the alterations noted in gill epithelium were basically nonspecific to cadmium. Because of its tolerance, it can be concluded that the tilapia O. niloticus would not be a suitable test organism to evaluate sublethal toxicity of cadmium and the realistic impact of this pollutant in the environment. However, it certainly could contribute significantly to our understanding of the toxic mechanism of cadmium exposure in aquatic organisms. This is the first work to investigate the effect of waterborne pollutants on Na+/K+ -ATPase ,-subunit protein expression in fish gills. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 33,46, 2006. [source]

    Acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of pesticide Diazinon in red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Mossambicus albina)

    Jaime A. Palacio
    Abstract Young red tilapias were exposed for 96 h to each one of 6 concentrations of the pesticide Diazinon in order to determine the pesticide's acute toxicity level. After the ascertaining the lethal concentration (LC50) at 96 h, a level 10 times lower was selected for the bioaccumulation study of the pesticide in male and female specimens exposed for 9 days. The elimination process was carried out for 10 days beginning right after the conclusion of the accumulation process. Analytical procedures were developed and used for the studies of acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Diazinon in red tilapia. A lethal concentration [LC50 (96 h)] of 3.85 mg/L was found, and steady-state accumulation, at a concentration of 28.45 mg/kg, was reached at 7.72 days. In the elimination process a concentration of 0.29 mg/kg was found in tilapia tissue by the sixth day after the fish were moved to clean water, and it continued to decrease quickly toward nondetectable levels. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 17: 334,340, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/tox.10063 [source]

    Response of the charophyte Nitellopsis obtusa to heavy metals at the cellular, cell membrane, and enzyme levels

    Levonas Manusad, ianas
    Abstract The responses of the freshwater macroalga Nitellopsis obtusa to heavy metal (HM) salts of Hg, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, and Ni were assessed at different levels: whole-cell mortality (96-h LC50), in vivo cell membrane (45-min depolarization of resting potential, EC50), and enzyme in plasma membrane preparations (K+, Mg2+ -specific H+ -ATPase inhibition, IC50). To measure ATPase activity, a novel procedure for isolation of plasma membrane,enriched vesicles from charophyte cells was developed. The short-term ATPase inhibition assay (IC50 from 6.0 × 10,7 to 4.6 × 10,4 M) was slightly more sensitive than the cell mortality test (LC50 from 1.1 × 10,6 to 2.6 × 10,3 M), and the electrophysiological test with the end point of 45-min depolarization of resting potential was characterized by less sensitivity for HMs (EC50 from 1.1 × 10,4 to 2.2 × 10,2 M). The variability of IC50 values assessed for HMs in the ATPase assays was close to that of LC50 values in the mortality tests (CVs from 33.5 to 83.5 and from 12.4% to 57.7%, respectively), whereas the EC50 values in the electrophysiological tests were characterized by CVs generally below 30%. All three end points identified two separate HM groups according to their toxicity to N. obtusa: Co, Ni, and Cr comprised a group of less toxic metals, whereas Hg, Cu, and Cd comprised a group of more toxic metals. However, the adverse effects within each group were discriminated differently. For example, the maximum difference between the highest and lowest LC50 for the group of less toxic metals in the long-term mortality test was approximately 60% of the response range, whereas the corresponding difference in IC50 values in the ATPase assay was 30%. In contrast, the LC50 values of the more toxic metals occupied only 10% of the response range, whereas the IC50 values were spread over 70%. Further investigation should be done of the underlying mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the observed differences in the dynamic range of a particular end point of the groups of toxicants of varying strength. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 17: 275,283, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/tox.10058 [source]

    Contaminated suspended sediments toxic to an Antarctic filter feeder: Aqueous- and particulate-phase effects

    Nicole A. Hill
    Abstract Disturbances such as dredging, storms, and bioturbation result in the resuspension of sediments. This may affect sessile organisms that live on hard substrates directly above the sediment. Localized sediment contamination exists around many Antarctic research stations, often resulting in elevated contamination loads in marine sediments. To our knowledge, the potential impact of resuspended contaminated sediments on sessile fauna has not been considered, so in the present study, we assessed the sensitivity of Antarctic spirorbid polychaetes to aqueous metals and to metal-contaminated sediments that had been experimentally resuspended. Worms were first exposed to aqueous metals, both singly and in combination, over 10 d. Spirorbid mortality was tolerant to copper (median lethal concentration [LC50], 570 ,g/L), zinc (LC50, >4,910 ,g/L), and lead (LC50, >2,905 ,g/L); however, spirorbid behavior responded to copper concentrations as low as 20,g/L. When in combination, zinc significantly reduced mortality caused by copper. A novel technique was used to resuspend sediments spiked with four concentrations of three metals (up to 450 ,g/g dry wt of copper, 525 ,g/g dry wt of lead, and 2,035 ,g/g dry wt of zinc). The response of spirorbids to unfiltered suspended sediment solutions and filtered solutions (aqueous metal exposure) was measured. Suspended sediments were toxic to filter-feeding spirorbids at concentrations approximating those found in contaminated Antarctica areas. Toxicity resulted both from aqueous metals and from metals associated with the suspended sediments, although suspended clean sediments had no impact. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that resuspension of contaminated sediments can be an important pathway for toxicity to Antarctic hard substrate organisms. Based on the present results, current sediment-quality guidelines used in the evaluation of Australian sediments may be applicable to Antarctic ecosystems. [source]

    Factors influencing the partitioning and toxicity of nanotubes in the aquatic environment,,

    Alan J. Kennedy
    Abstract Carbon nanotubes (NTs) may be among the most useful engineered nanomaterials for structural applications but could be difficult to study in ecotoxicological evaluations using existing tools relative to nanomaterials with a lower aspect ratio. Whereas the hydrophobicity and van der Waals interactions of NTs may suggest aggregation and sedimentation in aquatic systems, consideration regarding how engineered surface modifications influence their environmental fate and toxicology is needed. Surface modifications (e.g., functional groups and coatings) are intended to create conditions to make NTs dispersible in aqueous suspension, as required for some applications. In the present study, column stability and settling experiments indicated that raw, multiwalled NTs (MWNTs) settled more rapidly than carbon black and activated carbon particles, suggesting sediment as the ultimate repository. The presence of functional groups, however, slowed the settling of MWNTs (increasing order of stability: hydroxyl > carboxyl > raw), especially in combination with natural organic matter (NOM). Stabilized MWNTs in high concentrations of NOM provided relevance for water transport and toxicity studies. Aqueous exposures to raw MWNTs decreased Ceriodaphnia dubia viability, but such effects were not observed during exposure to functionalized MWNTs (>80 mg/L). Sediment exposures of the amphipods Leptocheirus plumulosus and Hyalella azteca to different sizes of sediment-borne carbon particles at high concentration indicated mortality increased as particle size decreased, although raw MWNTs induced lower mortality (median lethal concentration [LC50], 50 to >264 g/kg) than carbon black (LC50, 18,40 g/kg) and activated carbon (LC50, 12,29 g/kg). Our findings stress that it may be inappropriate to classify all NTs into one category in terms of their environmental regulation. [source]

    Predicting survival of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to naphthalene, fluorene, and dibenzothiophene,

    Michael A. Unger
    Abstract The composition and persistence of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released to the water column during oil spills are altered by weathering, tidal transport, and addition of dispersants. Conventional toxicity effect metrics, such as the median lethal concentration (LC50), are inaccurate predictors of mortality from all toxicant exposure duration/concentration combinations likely to occur during spills. In contrast, survival models can predict the proportions of animals dying as a consequence of exposures differing in duration and intensity. Extending previous work with ethylnaphthalene, dimethylnaphthalene, and phen-anthrene, survival time models were developed that include exposure duration and concentration to predict time to death for grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). Two additional PAHs (naphthalene and fluorene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzothiophene) were evaluated for the present study. Preliminary explorations of these models confirmed that quantitative structure-activity regression models were possible for predicting survival model parameters from compound characteristics. Conventional 48-h LC50s also were calculated for the compounds and combined with published LC50s to predict relative PAH toxicity to P. pugio based on octanol-water partitioning. [source]

    Subchronic organismal toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and feeding response of pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) to lindane (,-HCH) exposure under experimental conditions

    Gerardo Anguiano
    Abstract This study evaluated organismal toxicity, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity and the filtration rate in response to different concentrations of subchronic lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane [,-HCH]), exposure (12 d) in adult Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Oysters were exposed in vivo in laboratory aquaria to 10 different concentrations (0.0,10.0 mg/L) of ,-HCH. The median lethal concentration (LC50) after 12 d was calculated as 2.22 mg/L. Cytotoxic effects were observed in hemocytes, where the mean cell viability was significantly decreased at 1.0 mg/L of ,-HCH after 12 d. Genotoxicity of ,-HCH measured by single cell gel electrophoresis assay, in hemocytes was evident at 0.7 mg/L of ,-HCH after 12 d. After 4 h of exposure to ,-HCH, filtration rates were reduced compared with controls to 65.8 and 38.2% at concentrations of 0.3 and 0.7 mg/L, respectively, and after 11 d of exposure, filtration rates were reduced to 60.4 and 30.9% at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L and higher. These results show the subchronic effects of ,-HCH at different concentrations and effect sensitivities are categorized as filtration rate < genotoxicity < cytotoxicity < mortality. The relevance of integral toxicity evaluation, considering different endpoints from molecular, cellular, and individual levels is discussed. [source]

    Effects of insecticide exposure on feeding inhibition in mayflies and oligochaetes

    Alexa C. Alexander
    Abstract The present study examined the effects of pulse exposures of the insecticide imidacloprid on the mayfly, Epeorus longimanus Eaton (Family Heptageniidae), and on an aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus Müller (Family Lumbriculidae). Pulse exposures of imidacloprid are particularly relevant for examination, because this insecticide is relatively soluble (510 mg/L) and is most likely to be at effect concentrations during runoff events. Experiments examined the recovery of organisms after a 24-h pulse exposure to imidacloprid over an environmentally realistic range of concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 ,g/L). Effects on feeding were measured by quantifying the algal biomass consumed by mayflies or foodstuffs egested by oligochaetes. Imidacloprid was highly toxic, with low 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) in early mayfly instars (24-h LC50, 2.1 ± 0.8 ,g/L) and larger, later mayfly instars (24-h LC50, 2.1 ± 0.5 ,g/L; 96-h LC50, 0.65 ± 0.15 ,g/L). Short (24-h) pulses of imidacloprid in excess of 1 ,g/L caused feeding inhibition, whereas recovery (4 d) varied, depending on the number of days after contaminant exposure. In contrast to mayflies, oligochaetes were relatively insensitive to imidacloprid during the short (24-h) pulse; however, immobility of oligochaetes was observed during a 4-d, continuous-exposure experiment, with 96-h median effective concentrations of 6.2 ± 1.4 ,g/L. Overall, imidacloprid reduced the survivorship, feeding, and egestion of mayflies and oligochaetes at concentrations greater than 0.5 but less than 10 ,g/L. Inhibited feeding and egestion indicate physiological and behavioral responses to this insecticide. [source]

    Comparison of hardness- and chloride-regulated acute effects of sodium sulfate on two freshwater crustaceans

    David John Soucek
    Abstract Based on previous observations that hardness (and potentially chloride) influences sodium sulfate toxicity, the objective of the current study was to quantify the influence of both chloride and water hardness on acute toxicity to Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. In addition, observed toxicity data from the present study were compared to toxicity predictions by the salinity/toxicity relationship (STR) model. Hardness had a strong influence on sulfate toxicity that was similar for both crustaceans, and nearly identical median lethal concentration (LC50)/hardness slopes were observed for the two species over the tested range. Chloride had a strong but variable influence on sulfate acute toxicity, depending on the species tested and the concentration range. At lower chloride concentrations, LC50s for H. azteca strongly were correlated positively with chloride concentration, although chloride did not affect the toxicity of sodium sulfate to C. dubia. The opposite trend was observed over the higher range of chloride concentrations where there was a negative correlation between chloride concentration and sulfate LC50 for both species. The widely ranging values for both species and a high correlation between LC50s in terms of sulfate and conductivity suggested that, whether based on sulfate, conductivity, or total dissolved solids (TDS), attempts at water quality standard development should incorporate the fact that water quality parameters such as hardness and chloride strongly influence the toxicity of high TDS solutions. The STR model predicted toxicity to C. dubia relatively well when chloride was variable and hardness fixed at approximately 100 mg/L; however, the model did not account for the protective effect of hardness on major ion/TDS toxicity. [source]

    Risk assessment of Magnacide® H herbicide at Río Colorado irrigation channels (Argentina). tier 3: Studies on native species

    Andrés Venturino
    Abstract We evaluated the potential environmental risk of the herbicide Magnacide® (Baker Petrolite, TX, USA) using native species from Argentina, representing the ecosystem at the Irrigation Corporation (CORFO) channels at the Colorado River mouth, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Six species including fish, toads, snails, crustaceans, and insects were selected to perform studies on acute toxicity and repeated exposure effects. Magnacide H susceptibility ranking was Bufo arenarum (lethal concentration 50 [LC50] = 0.023 mg/L), Onchorhynchus mykiss (LC50 = 0.038 mg/L), Heleobia parchappii (LC50 = 0.21 mg/L), Hyalella curvispina (LC50 = 0.24 mg/L), Simulium spp. (LC50 = 0.60 mg/L), and Chironomus spp. (LC50 = 2.83 mg/L). The risk limit of 10th percentile (0.013 mg/L) determined by probit analysis on sensitivity distribution was similar to the one calculated from literature data. Risk assessment based on field application data suggested lethal exposures for more than 70 to 90% of the species up to 20 km downstream from the application point. Repeated exposures to Magnacide H of amphibian larvae at the lowest-observed-effect concentration caused some effects during the first exposure, but without cumulative effects. Amphipods were insensitive to repeated exposures, showing no cumulative effects. Whether short-term exposures may result in long-term sublethal effects on the organism's life history was not addressed by these laboratory tests. In conclusion, tier 3 studies indicate that Magnacide H application schedule is extremely toxic for most native species at CORFO,Río Colorado channels, representing a high potential risk in the environment. The real environmental impact must be addressed by field studies at tier 4 giving more information on population effects and communities. [source]

    Alternative approaches can greatly reduce the number of fish used for acute toxicity testing

    Conny C. Hoekzema
    Abstract Acute toxicity tests with algae, daphnids, and fish are required for the classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals. The degree of risk is determined by the lowest of these acute toxicity values. Many ecotoxicological programs are seeking to reduce the numbers of fish used in acute toxicity testing. The acute threshold test is a recently proposed strategy that uses, on average, only 10 (instead of 54) fish per chemical. We examined the consequences of reducing the number of fish used in toxicity testing on the ultimate outcome of risk assessments. We evaluated toxicity data sets for 507 compounds, including agrochemicals, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals from our internal database. Theoretical applications of the acute threshold test gave similar results to those obtained with the standard fish median lethal concentration (LC50) test but required only 12% as many fish (3,195 instead of 27,324 fish used for all compounds in the database). In 188 (90%) of the 208 cases for which a complete data set was available, the median effect concentration for algae or daphnids was lower than the LC50 for fish. These results show that replacement of the standard fish LC50 test by the acute threshold test would greatly reduce the number of fish needed for acute ecotoxicity testing without any loss of reliability. [source]

    Comparative toxicity of cadmium, zinc, and mixtures of cadmium and zinc to daphnids

    Joseph R. Shaw
    Abstract Investigations were conducted to determine acute (48-h) effects of cadmium and zinc presented individually and in combination on Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, Daphnia ambigua, and Daphnia pulex. Toxicity tests were conducted with single metals to determine lethal effects concentrations (lethal concentrations predicted for a given percent [x] of a population, LCx value). These were used to derive metal combinations that spanned a range of effects and included mixtures of LC15, LC50, and LC85 values calculated for each metal and species. In single-metal tests, 48-h LC50 values ranged from 0.09 to 0.9 ,mol/L and 4 to 12.54 ,mol/L for cadmium and zinc, respectively. For each metal, D. magna was most tolerant and showed a different pattern of response from all others as determined by slope of concentration,response curves. In the combined metal treatments, all daphnids showed a similar pattern of response when LC15 concentrations were combined. This trend continued with few exceptions when LC15 concentrations of cadmium were combined with LC50 or LC85 values for zinc. However, when this treatment was reversed (LC15, zinc + LC50 or LC85, cadmium), responses of all species except D. magna indicated less-than-additive effects. For C. dubia, a near complete reduction in toxicity was observed when the LC15 for zinc was combined with LC85 for cadmium. Multimetal tests with D. magna did not differ from additive. Collectively, these studies suggest that D. magna may not be representative of other cladocerans. [source]

    Toxicity and fate of two munitions constituents in spiked sediment exposures with the marine amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius

    Gunther Rosen
    Abstract The lethal toxicity of the explosive compounds 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and nonradiolabeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the estuarine amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius was investigated in 10-d spiked sediment exposures. The 10-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined using the sum molar initial concentration of TNT, ami-nodinitrotoluenes (ADNTs), and diaminonitrotoluenes (DANTs), as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and collectively referred to as HPLC-TNT*. Despite expectations of higher toxicity in sandy sediment (Yaquina Bay [YB], OR, USA) compared to relatively fine-grained sediment (San Diego Bay [SDB], CA, USA), LC50 values were similar: 159 and 125 ,mol/kg, for YB and SDB sediments, respectively. When expressed as the sum of TNT and all its degradation products (14C-TNT*), LC50s were approximately two times the corresponding LC50s determined by HPLC. The HPLC-TNT* fraction likely corresponds to the most bioavailable and toxic transformation products. The concentrations of 14C-TNT* in tissues were substantially higher than those for HPLC-TNT*, suggesting that compounds other than TNT and its major aminated transformation products were prevalent. Critical body residues were similar for exposures to SDB (11.7 ,mol/kg) and YB sediments (39.4 ,mol/kg), despite marked differences in the nature of compounds available for uptake in the exposure media. The critical body residues for E. estuarius are lower than those reported for other aquatic invertebrates (83,172 ,mol/kg). Unlike observations for TNT, RDX was only loosely associated with SDB sediment, with near complete recovery of the parent compound by chemical analysis. Exposure to RDX did not result in significant mortality even at the highest measured sediment concentration of 10,800 ,mol/kg dry weight, nor tissue concentrations as high as 96 ,mol/kg wet weight. The lack of RDX lethal effects in this study is consistent with results reported for other invertebrate species. [source]

    A short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay with hediste diversicolor (polychaeta) for estuarine sediments based on postexposure feeding

    Susana Maria Moreira
    Abstract This study evaluated a short-term sublethal endpoint for in situ toxicity assays for estuarine sediments, based on postexposure feeding of the polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller. A method for precisely quantifying postexposure feeding rates of H. diversicolor was established under laboratory conditions using Artemia franciscana Kellog nauplii. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response to copper was investigated by comparing postexposure feeding rates to growth and lethality. The 48-h and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of copper were 241 and 125 ,g/L, respectively, whereas the 48-h median inhibitory concentration (IC50) for postexposure feeding and the 20-d IC50 for growth were 52 and 25 ,g/L of copper, respectively. The influence of different exposure conditions (substrate, temperature, salinity, food availability, and light) on H. diversicolor postexposure feeding was assessed; temperature and salinity were found to influence significantly postexposure feeding. The effectiveness of the proposed in situ assay was investigated by deploying it at two reference and six contaminated Portuguese estuaries. A 48-h exposure period was followed by a 1-h postexposure feeding period. High organism recoveries (89,100%) were obtained. Postexposure feeding was depressed significantly (17,90%) at all contaminated sites relatively to reference sites. The proposed in situ assay with H. diversicolor was shown to be a potential useful tool for estuarine sediment toxicity testing. [source]

    Acute and chronic toxicity of mercury to early life stages of the rainbow mussel, Villosa iris (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Theodore W. Valenti
    Abstract Mercury (Hg) contamination is receiving increased attention globally because of human health and environmental concerns. Few laboratory studies have examined the toxicity of Hg on early life stages of freshwater mussels, despite evidence that glochidia and juvenile life stages are more sensitive to contaminants than adults. Three bioassays (72-h acute glochidia, 96-h acute juvenile, and 21-d chronic juvenile toxicity tests) were conducted by exposing Villosa iris to mercuric chloride salt (HgCl2). Glochidia were more sensitive to acute exposure than were juvenile mussels, as 24-, 48-, and 72-h median lethal concentration values (LC50) for glochidia were >107, 39, and 14 ,g Hg/L, respectively. The 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h values for juveniles were 162, 135, 114, and 99 ,g Hg/L, respectively. In the chronic test, juveniles exposed to Hg treatments ,8 ,g/L grew significantly less than did control organisms. The substantial difference in juvenile test endpoints emphasizes the importance of assessing chronic exposure and sublethal effects. Overall, our study supports the use of glochidia as a surrogate life stage for juveniles in acute toxicity tests. However, as glochidia may be used only in short-term tests, it is imperative that an integrated approach be taken when assessing risk to freshwater mussels, as their unique life history is atypical of standard test organisms. Therefore, we strongly advocate the use of both glochidia and juvenile life stages for risk assessment. [source]

    Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in soft surface waters

    Eric J. Van Genderen
    Abstract The hardness-based regulatory approach for Cu prescribes an extrapolation of the toxicity-versus-hardness relationship to low hardness (,50 mg/L as CaCO3). Hence, the objective of the present research was to evaluate the influences of water quality on acute Cu toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in low-hardness surface waters. Seasonal water sampling was conducted at 24 sites throughout South Carolina, USA, to determine the site-specific influences of soft surface-water conditions on acute Cu toxicity. Concurrent toxicity tests in laboratory water, matched for hardness and alkalinity (modified method), also were conducted to allow calculation of water-effect ratios (WERs). In addition, tests were conducted at recommended hardness levels (recommended method) for comparison of WER methodology in soft water. Surface-water conditions (average ± standard deviation, n = 53) were hardness of 16 ± 8 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity of 18 ± 11 mg/L as CaCO3, and dissolved organic carbon of 6 ± 4 mg/L. Dissolved Cu 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values varied nearly 45-fold across the dataset and greater than four-fold at individual sites. Spatial (p < 0.0001) and seasonal (p = 0.026) differences among LC50 values were determined for eight sites that had multiple toxicity results for one year. All modified WERs were greater than 1.0, suggesting that the site waters were more protective of Cu toxicity than the matched laboratory water. Some WERs generated using recommended methods were less than 1.0, suggesting limited site-specific protection. Based on these observations, extrapolation of the hardness-based equation for Cu at 50 mg/L or less as CaCO3 would adequately protect fathead minnow populations in soft surface waters. The WER results presented here demonstrate the inconsistency between hardness-based criteria and the methodology for deriving site-specific water-quality criteria in low-hardness waters. [source]

    Acute and chronic toxicity of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on Daphnia magna

    Randall J. Bernot
    Abstract Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are considered to be green chemicals that may replace volatile organic solvents currently used by industry. However, IL effects on aquatic organisms and ecosystems are currently unknown. We studied the acute effects of imidazolium-based ILs on survival of the crustacean Daphnia magna and their chronic effects on number of first-brood neonates, total number of neonates, and average brood size. Lethal concentrations of imidazolium ILs with various anions (X,) ranged from a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 8.03 to 19.91 mg L,1, whereas salts with a sodium cation (Na+ X,) were more than an order of magnitude higher (NaPF6 LC50, 9,344.81 mg L,1; NaBF4 LC50, 4765.75 mg L,1). Thus, toxicity appeared to be related to the imidazolium cation and not to the various anions (e.g., CI,, Br,, PF,6, and BF,4). The toxicity of imidazolium-based ILs is comparable to that of chemicals currently used in manufacturing and disinfection processes (e.g., ammonia and phenol), indicating that these green chemicals may be more harmful to aquatic organisms than current volatile organic solvents. We conducted 21-d chronic bioassays of individual D. magna exposed to nonlethal IL concentrations at constant food-resource levels. Daphnia magna produced significantly fewer total neonates, first-brood neonates, and average neonates when exposed to lower concentrations (0.3 mg L,1) of imidazolium-based ILs than in the presence of Na-based salts at higher concentrations (400 mg L,1). Such reductions in the reproductive output of Daphnia populations could cascade through natural freshwater ecosystems. The present study provides baseline information needed to assess the potential hazard that some ILs may pose should they be released into freshwater ecosystems. [source]

    Accumulation of tributyltin in Hyalella azteca as an indicator of chronic toxicity: Survival, growth, and reproduction

    Adrienne J. Bartlett
    Abstract The chronic toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) was examined by exposing two successive generations of the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, to sediments spiked with TBT. Survival was the most sensitive measure of effect, with lethal concentration resulting in 50% mortality (LC50) values on a water and body concentration basis ranging from 76 to 145 ng Sn/L and 2,790 to 4,300 ng Sn/g, respectively. Individual growth of amphipods was not negatively affected by TBT, and although reproduction might be more sensitive than survival, the data were too variable to use on a routine basis. There were no detectable TBT-induced differences in the response between first- and second-generation animals. The relationship between toxicity and bioaccumulation of TBT in H. azteca was determined and can be used as a tool to predict the toxicity of TBT in environmental samples. Body concentrations exceeding 2,000 ng Sn/g in H. azteca exposed to field-collected samples would indicate that chronic toxicity due to TBT is likely occurring in amphipod populations at those sites. [source]

    Acute and chronic toxicity of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Theodore B. Henry
    Abstract Contamination of surface waters by pharmaceutical chemicals has raised concern among environmental scientists because of the potential for negative effects on aquatic organisms. Of particular importance are pharmaceutical compounds that affect the nervous or endocrine systems because effects on aquatic organisms are possible at low environmental concentrations. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs used to treat clinical depression in humans, and have been detected in low concentrations in surface waters. In this investigation, the acute and chronic toxicity of five SSRIs (fluoxetine, Prozac®; fluvoxamine, Luvox®; paroxetine, Paxil®; citalopram, Celexa®; and sertraline, Zoloft®) were evaluated in the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia. For each SSRI, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined in three static tests with neonate C. dubia, and chronic (8-d) tests were conducted to determine no-observable-effect concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentrations (LOEC) for reproduction endpoints. The 48-h LC50 for the SSRIs ranged from 0.12 to 3.90 mg/L and the order of toxicity of the compounds was (lowest to highest): Citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline. Mortality data for the 8-d chronic tests were similar to the 48-h acute data. The SSRIs negatively affected C. dubia reproduction by reducing the number of neonates per female, and for some SSRIs, by reducing the number of broods per female. For sertraline, the most toxic SSRI, the LOEC for the number of neonates per female was 0.045 mg/L and the NOEC was 0.009 mg/L. Results indicate that SSRIs can impact survival and reproduction of C. dubia; however, only at concentrations that are considerably higher than those expected in the environment. [source]

    Wastewater treatment polymers identified as the toxic component of a diamond mine effluent

    Simone J. C. de Rosemond
    Abstract The EkatiÔ Diamond Mine, located approximately 300 km northeast of Yellowknife in Canada's Northwest Territories, uses mechanical crushing and washing processes to extract diamonds from kimberlite ore. The processing plant's effluent contains kimberlite ore particles (,0.5 mm), wastewater, and two wastewater treatment polymers, a cationic polydiallydimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) polymer and an anionic sodium acrylate polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer. A series of acute (48-h) and chronic (7-d) toxicity tests determined the processed kimberlite effluent (PKE) was chronically, but not acutely, toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Reproduction of C. dubia was inhibited significantly at concentrations as low as 12.5% PKE. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) were initiated to identify the toxic component of PKE. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium thiosulfate, aeration, and solid phase extraction with C-18 manipulations failed to reduce PKE toxicity. Toxicity was reduced significantly by pH adjustments to pH 3 or 11 followed by filtration. Toxicity testing with C. dubia determined that the cationic DADMAC polymer had a 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of 0.32 mg/L and 7-d median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.014 mg/L. The anionic PAM polymer had a 48-h LC50 of 218 mg/L. A weight-of-evidence approach, using the data obtained from the TIE, the polymer toxicity experiments, the estimated concentration of the cationic polymer in the kimberlite effluent, and the behavior of kimberlite minerals in pH-adjusted solutions provided sufficient evidence to identify the cationic DADMAC polymer as the toxic component of the diamond mine PKE. [source]

    The influence of pH and salinity on the toxicity of heavy metals in sediment to the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinarum,

    Inmaculada Riba
    Abstract An approach is presented for determining the influence of two key variables, pH and salinity(S), on the toxicity of four common heavy metals bound to sediments in estuaries. Two samples of environmental sediment taken from two estuaries in southern Spain (the Huelva estuary and the Guadalquivir River estuary), together with a dilution of toxic mud from the Aznalcóllar (Spain) mining spill (April 1998) were used to determine their toxicity at different values of pH (6.5, 7.5, and 8.5) and salinity (10, 20, and 30) on the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Two different endpoints, sublethal, indicated by clam reburial (median effective burial time [ET50]), and relative mortality (median lethal concentration [LC50]), were used to quantify the toxicity associated with the heavy metals. Neither salinity nor pH was found to influence the toxic responses measured by the behavioral endpoint (ET50). However, a strong effect on the LC50 related to pH and salinity was detected, with the toxicity of the heavy metals being increased at low values of both variables (pH = 6.5 and S = 10). The mechanism of heavy metals uptake through water may explain this influence of pH and salinity on the lethal toxicity detected. The results show differences in the toxicity of these heavy metals bound to sediments depending on whether the origin of metal contamination is chronic or acute. [source]

    Comparative effects of pH and Vision® herbicide on two life stages of four anuran amphibian species,

    Andrea N. Edginton
    Abstract Vision®, a glyphosate-based herbicide containing a 15% (weight:weight) polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactant blend, and the concurrent factor of pH were tested to determine their interactive effects on early life-stage anurans. Ninety-six-hour laboratory static renewal studies, using the embryonic and larval life stages (Gosner 25) of Rana clamitans, R. pipiens, Bufo americanus, and Xenopus laevis, were performed under a central composite rotatable design. Mortality and the prevalence of malformations were modeled using generalized linear models with a profile deviance approach for obtaining confidence intervals. There was a significant (p < 0.05) interaction of pH with Vision concentration in all eight models, such that the toxicity of Vision was amplified by elevated pH. The surfactant is the major toxic component of Vision and is hypothesized, in this study, to be the source of the pH interaction. Larvae of B. americanus and R. clamitans were 1.5 to 3.8 times more sensitive than their corresponding embryos, whereas X. laevis and R. pipiens larvae were 6.8 to 8.9 times more sensitive. At pH values above 7.5, the Vision concentrations expected to kill 50% of the test larvae in 96-h (96-h lethal concentration [LC50]) were predicted to be below the expected environmental concentration (EEC) as calculated by Canadian regulatory authorities. The EEC value represents a worst-case scenario for aerial Vision application and is calculated assuming an application of the maximum label rate (2.1 kg acid equivalents [a.e.]/ha) into a pond 15 cm in depth. The EEC of 1.4 mg a.e./L (4.5 mg/L Vision) was not exceeded by 96-h LC50 values for the embryo test. The larvae of the four species were comparable in sensitivity. Field studies should be completed using the more sensitive larval life stage to test for Vision toxicity at actual environmental concentrations. [source]

    Synergistic impacts of malathion and predatory stress on six species of North American tadpoles

    Rick A. Relyea
    Abstract The decline of many amphibian populations is associated with pesticides, but for most pesticides we know little about their toxicity to amphibians. Malathion is a classic example; it is sprayed over aquatic habitats to control mosquitoes that carry malaria and the West Nile virus, yet we know little about its effect on amphibians. I examined the survival of six species of tadpoles (wood frogs, Rana sylvatica; leopard frogs, R. pipiens; green frogs, R. clamitans; bullfrogs, R. catesbeiana; American toads, Bufo americanus; and gray tree frogs, Hyla versicolor) for 16 d in the presence or absence of predatory stress and six concentrations of malathion. Malathion was moderately toxic to all species of tadpoles (median lethal concentration [LC50] values, the concentration estimated to kill 50% of a test population, ranged from 1.25,5.9 mg/L). These values are within the range of values reported for the few amphibians that have been tested (0.2,42 mg/L). In one of the six species, malathion became twice as lethal when combined with predatory stress. Similar synergistic interactions have been found with the insecticide carbaryl, suggesting that the synergy may occur in many carbamate and organophosphate insecticides. While malathion has the potential to kill amphibians and its presence is correlated with habitats containing declining populations, its actual role in amphibian declines is uncertain given the relatively low concentration in aquatic habitats. [source]