L. Vannamei (l + vannamei)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Investigation of the Effects of Salinity and Dietary Protein Level on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

Martin Perez-Velazquez
It is presumed that in hypo- and hypersaline environments, shrimp's requirements for some specific nutrients, such as protein, may differ from those known in the marine habitat; however, few investigations have been conducted in this area of study. In the present investigation, the effects of salinity and dietary protein level on the biological performance, tissue protein, and water content of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were evaluated. In a 3 × 4 factorial experiment, juvenile shrimp with an average initial weight of 0.36 ± 0.02 g were exposed for 32 d to salinities of 2, 35, and 50 ppt and fed experimental diets with crude protein contents of 25, 30, 35, and 40%. A significant effect of salinity on growth of shrimp was detected, with the growth responses (final weight, weight gain) ranked in the order 2 ppt (3.87, 3.50 g) > 35 ppt (3.40, 3.04 g) > 50 ppt (2.84, 2.47 g). No effects of dietary protein level or an interaction between salinity and protein on growth of shrimp were observed under the experimental conditions of this study. Percent survival of shrimp fed the highest protein content (40%, survival of 74%) was, however, significantly lower than those of shrimp fed the other feeds (25, 30 and 35% protein, survival of 99, 91, and 94%, respectively), a result likely associated with the concentration of total ammonia nitrogen, which increased significantly at increasing protein levels. Final water content of whole shrimp was significantly lower in animals exposed to 50 ppt (70.8%) than in shrimp held at 2 (73.7%) and 35 ppt (72.3%). No effect of salinity, protein, or their interaction was observed on the protein content of whole shrimp. The results of the present study are in agreement with reports of superior and inferior growth of L. vannamei reared in hypo- and hypersaline environments, respectively, as compared to what is generally observed in seawater. [source]

Effects of Artificial Substrate and Stocking Density on the Nursery Production of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Komarey R. K. Moss
Nursery production may be enhanced by the addition of artificial substrate to increase the surface area upon which shrimp graze and to serve as refuge. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the artificial substrate, AquaMatsTM, on the performance of postlarval Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei stocked at three densities. Eighteen 230-L tanks were stocked with 10-d postlarvae (mean weight < 0.01 g). Six treatments were evaluated and consisted of shrimp stocked at three densities (778 shrimp/m2, 1,167 shrimp/ m2, and 1,556 shrimp/m2) with and without access to artificial substrate. Shrimp in all treatments received a commercial diet ad libitum. After 6 wk, shrimp were harvested from each nursery tank, counted, and batch weighed. Mean final weight, survival, production, feed conversion ratio, and water quality parameters were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. There were highly significant (P < 0.001) density and substrate effects on final weight, but there was no significant interaction effect. Final weight was 26.0, 17.4, and 34.5% greater in treatments with substrate than without substrate when stocked at 778, 1,167, and 1,556 shrimp/m2, respectively. There was no significant density, substrate, or interaction effect on survival or water quality. Mean survival was ± 89.1% for all treatments. Increased shrimp growth in the presence of added substrate was likely due to the availability of attached particulate organic matter on the AquaMatsTM that served as an additional food source. Results from this study indicate that artificial substrate can be used to mitigate the potential negative effects of high stocking density on growth of L. vannamei in nursery systems. [source]

Acute and Chronic Effects of Nitrite on White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Cultured in Low-Salinity Brackish Water

Amit Gross
The marine white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is widely cultured. Recently, farmers have begun to culture this shrimp in low-salinity brackish water (< 6 g/L). The intensification of shrimp culture often results in occurrences of elevated nitrite concentration during the growing season. Nitrite is toxic to shrimp and exposure to high concentrations may cause retarded growth and mortalities. The current study was aimed at investigating the acute and chronic toxicity of nitrite to L. vannamei grown in low-salinity (2 g/L) brackish water. Studies of the 96-h EC50 and LC50 values of nitrite were performed to determine the acute toxicity, and an aquarium growth study (2 d post exposure to elevated nitrite concentrations) was conducted to evaluate the chronic effects of nitrite on shrimp production. The 96-h EC50 and LC50 values for juvenile L. vannamei grown in water of 2 g/L salinity was about 9 mg/L NO2 -N, suggesting a safe concentration for shrimp production in ponds to be less than 0.45 mgIL NO2 -N. Exposing shrimp to nitrite concentration of 4 mg/L for 2 d reduced their growth but did not affect their survival. [source]

A gene-based SNP linkage map for pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

Z.-Q. Du
Summary Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) are of particular economic importance to the global shrimp aquaculture industry. However, limited genomics information is available for the penaeid species. We utilized the limited public information available, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and expressed sequence tags, to discover markers for the construction of the first SNP genetic map for Pacific white shrimp. In total, 1344 putative SNPs were discovered, and out of 825 SNPs genotyped, 418 SNP markers from 347 contigs were mapped onto 45 sex-averaged linkage groups, with approximate coverage of 2071 and 2130 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. The average-squared correlation coefficient (r2), a measure of linkage disequilibrium, for markers located more than 50 cm apart on the same linkage group, was 0.15. Levels of r2 increased with decreasing inter-marker distance from ,80 cm, and increased more rapidly from ,30 cm. A QTL for shrimp gender was mapped on linkage group 13. Comparative mapping to model organisms, Daphnia pulex and Drosophila melanogaster, revealed extensive rearrangement of genome architecture for L. vannamei, and that L. vannamei was more related to Daphnia pulex. This SNP genetic map lays the foundation for future shrimp genomics studies, especially the identification of genetic markers or regions for economically important traits. [source]

A major SNP resource for dissection of phenotypic and genetic variation in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

D. C. Ciobanu
Summary Bioinformatics and re-sequencing approaches were used for the discovery of sequence polymorphisms in Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 1221 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in a pool of individuals from various commercial populations. A set of 211 SNPs were selected for further molecular validation and 88% showed variation in 637 samples representing three commercial breeding lines. An association analysis was performed between these markers and several traits of economic importance for shrimp producers including resistance to three major viral diseases. A small number of SNPs showed associations with test weekly gain, grow-out survival and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus. Very low levels of linkage disequilibrium were revealed between most SNP pairs, with only 11% of SNPs showing an r2 -value above 0.10 with at least one other SNP. Comparison of allele frequencies showed small changes over three generations of the breeding programme in one of the commercial breeding populations. This unique SNP resource has the potential to catalyse future studies of genetic dissection of complex traits, tracing relationships in breeding programmes, and monitoring genetic diversity in commercial and wild populations of L. vannamei. [source]

SNP discovery in Litopenaeus vannamei with a new computational pipeline

D. M. Gorbach
Summary Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) have been farmed in the Americas for many years and are growing in popularity in Asia with the development of specific pathogen-free stocks. The full genomic sequence of this species might not be available in the near future, so other tools are needed to discover the location of polymorphic sites for quantitative trait loci mapping, association studies and subsequent marker-assisted selection. Currently, 25 937 L. vannamei expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are publicly available. These sequences were manually screened, masked for tandem repeats and inputted into CAP3 for clustering. The resulting 3532 contigs were analysed for possible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with snpidentifier, a newly developed computer program for predicting SNPs. snpidentifier is designed for ESTs without accompanying chromatogram sequence quality information, and therefore it performs quality control checks on all data. snpidentifier sets a threshold such that the sequences used have a poor quality nucleotide (N) frequency <0.1, and it trims off the first 10 bases of every sequence to ensure higher sequence quality. For a base to be predicted as an SNP, the minor nucleotide (allele) frequency must be >0.1, it must be observed at least four times and the 15 bases on either side must exactly match the consensus sequence. Using these conservative parameters, 504 SNPs were predicted from 141 contigs for L. vannamei. A small sample of 18 individuals from three lines have been sequenced to verify prediction results and 17 of 39 (44%) of the tested SNPs have been confirmed. [source]

Nutrient values of dietary ascorbic acid (l -ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate) on growth, survival and stress tolerance of larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

Abstract l -ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (ApP) was used as a vitamin C source to investigate the ascorbic acid (AsA) requirements on growth performance and stress resistance of the larval white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous fish meal-fish protein hydrolysate-based diets with five levels of ApP, AsA equivalent to 91.8, 188, 271, 360 and 436 mg kg,1 diet were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei (mean initial wet weight 1 mg) for 32 days. The diet with AsA 91.8 mg kg,1 showed high cumulative mortality after 10 days of feeding. After the 32-day trial, the shrimp that fed the diet had significantly lower survival and weight gain (WG, %) than those that fed 188, 271, 360 and 436 mg AsA kg,1 diets. Specific growth rate (SGR, % day,1) and final body wet weight (FBW, mg) showed the same pattern as WG (%). There were no significant differences in growth performance (FBW, WG and SGR) among the groups that fed 188, 271, 360 and 436 mg kg,1 of AsA at the termination of feeding trial. Broken-line regression analysis on WG indicated that 191 mg AsA kg,1 in the diet was the optimum for larval L. vannamei. On the contrary, dietary level of more than 360 mg AsA kg,1 was needed to ensure high resistance to stressful conditions such as low dissolved oxygen stressors. [source]

Growth and body composition of juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed different ratios of dietary protein to energy

Abstract A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (initial average weight of 0.09 ± 0.002 g, mean ± SE). Twelve practical test diets were formulated to contain four protein levels (300, 340, 380 and 420 g kg,1) and three lipid levels (50, 75 and 100 g kg,1). Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of 30 shrimps per tank (260 L). The water temperature was 28.5 ± 2 °C and the salinity was 28 ± 1 g L,1 during the experimental period. The results showed that the growth was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by dietary treatments. Shrimps fed the diets containing 300 g kg,1 protein showed the poorest growth. However, shrimp fed the 75 g kg,1 lipid diets had only slightly higher growth than that fed 50 g kg,1 lipid diets at the same dietary protein level, and even a little decline in growth with the further increase of dietary lipid to 100 g kg,1. Shrimp fed the diet with 420 g kg,1protein and 75 g kg,1 lipid had the highest specific growth rate. However, shrimp fed the diet with 340 g kg,1 protein and 75 g kg,1 lipid showed comparable growth, and had the highest protein efficiency ratio, energy retention and feed efficiency ratio among dietary treatments. Triglycerides and total cholesterol in the serum of shrimp increased with increasing dietary lipid level at the same dietary protein level. Body lipid and energy increased with increasing dietary lipid level irrespective of dietary protein. Results of the present study showed that the diet containing 340 g kg,1 protein and 75 g kg,1 lipid with digestible protein/digestible energy of 21.1 mg kJ,1 is optimum for L. vannamei, and the increase of dietary lipid level has not efficient protein-sparing effect. [source]

Effect of dietary phosphorus sources and varying levels of supplemental phosphorus on survival, growth and body composition of postlarval shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

Abstract Two experiments were conducted for 30 days each to investigate the effective phosphorus source and supplemental phosphorus levels for postlarval Litopenaeus vannamei. The first experiment was performed in postlarval shrimp (mean initial wet weight 2 mg) fed four isoenergic and isonitrogenous diets containing three supplemented inorganic phosphorus sources [D1: no supplemental phosphorus, D2: NaH2PO4·2H2O, D3: KH2PO4·2H2O, D4: Ca(H2PO4)2·2H2O]. The quantities of the three supplemental NaH2PO4·2H2O, KH2PO4·2H2O and Ca(H2PO4)2·2H2O were 11.6, 12.8 and 10 g kg,1 of the diet, respectively in order to make the three diets have the same total phosphorus. Growth performance (final mean body weight, FBW; weight gain, WG; specific growth ratio, SGR) of shrimp in D3 treatment was the highest and had significant difference with the D1 treatment. The survival of shrimp in D3 treatment was the highest and had significant difference with the other treatments. The mineral concentration and body composition of shrimp were not significantly different among treatments. We could conclude that KH2PO4·2H2O was the optimal phosphorus source for postlarval L. vannamei from the growth performance and survival. The second experiment was performed in postlarval shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.88 mg) fed four isoenergic and isonitrogenous diets containing four supplemental KH2PO4·2H2O levels (d1, d2, d3 and d4 with 0, 5, 10 and 20 g kg,1, respectively). Shrimp in d2 treatment showed the highest growth performance and survival and also showed significant difference with other diet treatments. The whole body content of zinc (Zn) increased with the increase of dietary KH2PO4·2H2O and significant differences were observed when dietary KH2PO4·2H2O reached 5 g kg,1, excess KH2PO4·2H2O supplementation (10 and 20 g kg,1) had a negative effect on Zn content, the Zn content significantly decreased when KH2PO4·2H2O was 20 g kg,1. We can conclude that the amount of total phosphorus in the diet should be maintained between 20.9 and 22.0 g kg,1, the amount of supplemental KH2PO4·2H2O in the diet is less than 10 g kg,1. [source]

Effects of supplementing bioactive compounds to a formulated diet on sensory compounds and growth of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

Zhi Yong Ju
Abstract Experimental diets were processed at the Oceanic Institute by adding various bioactive compounds (lutein, fucoxanthin, astaxanthins (Ax), glucosamine, carotenoid mix, phytosterol mix, bromophenol (Bp) mix or their combination) to a formulated (control) diet to examine their effects on sensory composition and growth of shrimp. These diets and a commercial feed were fed to ,1.6 g shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in four replicates in an indoor laboratory under flow-through conditions for 8 weeks. Results indicated that all the supplementations of the bioactive compounds did not improve shrimp growth (0.79,0.97 g week,1) compared with that (0.94 g week,1) of the control diet (P>0.05). However, inclusion of lutein (200 mg kg,1) or carotenoid mix (827 mg kg,1) in the control diet (with supplemental Ax) resulted in much higher free Ax (48.3 or 46.5 mg kg,1) and esterified Ax (6.2 or 3.9 mg kg,1) content in shrimp tails than the control diet (28.4; 1.4 mg kg,1 respectively) (P<0.05). Inclusion of Bp (2 mg kg,1) in the control diet resulted in higher levels of Bp (160 ,g kg,1) in shrimp tail muscle than the control diet (81 ,g kg,1) (P<0.05). Three free amino acids, glycine, proline and alanine might be mainly responsible for the sweet taste of L. vannamei. The results suggest that the supplementation of the bioactive compounds may not affect shrimp growth performance, but some may affect the composition and taste of shrimp. [source]

Gene expression kinetics of the yellow head virus in experimentally infected Litopenaeus vannamei

Yenelli Cedano-Thomas
Abstract The yellow head virus (YHV) has been reported to be one of most pathogenic viruses for cultivated shrimp; however, serious problems have only been reported in farms in south and southeastern Asian. Recently, a YHV strain was detected in Litopenaeus vannamei cultivated in Mexican farms that lacked virus-associated mortalities or epizooties, and the animals were apparently healthy. The identity of the virus was confirmed by sequencing replicative and structural protein-encoding regions and comparing with homologous virus sequences. Phylogenic relationships and genetic distances were also determined and, although some differences were observed, an influence on virulence was uncertain. In addition, the expression levels of several transcripts (3CLPRO, POL, GP64 and GP116) were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction during an experimental infection. Although the transcript showed varying kinetics, viral genes were expressed in infected L. vannamei, demonstrating the replicative capability of this YHV strain. [source]

Use of commercial fermentation products as a highly unsaturated fatty acid source in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Tzachi M Samocha
Abstract Removal or reduction of marine ingredients (MI) from feed formulations is critical to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. By removing MI, diets may become limiting in several nutrients including highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ArA). To reduce reliance on MI in shrimp diets, two trials were conducted with Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles to determine the feasibility of using fermentation meals rich in DHA and ArA as the primary source for HUFA. A practical diet with no MI was formulated with/without DHA and ArA supplements and fed in the first trial. A diet with menhaden fish oil or a combination of plant oil with/without DHA and ArA supplements was used in the second trial. To determine whether HUFA is only needed in the early growth stages, we also fed one group a HUFA-supplemented diet to 5 g and then switched them to a HUFA-supplement-free diet. In both trials, the weights were reduced when HUFA supplements were not provided either throughout the trial or from 5 g to harvest (<16 g). These results suggest that supplementation of plant oils with DHA- and ArA-rich oils from fermented products is a viable option to replace marine fish oil for L. vannamei. [source]

Comparative study of the intracellular superoxide anion production in different penaeid species through the NBT-reduction assay

Cristhiane Guertler
Abstract The capacity of reactive oxygen intermediates production upon haemocyte stimulation is one of the most important immunoparameter utilized to assess the health status in cultivated shrimps. In the present study, we compared oxidative stress potential, by measuring the superoxide anion production in three penaeid shrimps: two wild Atlantic species, the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti and one cultivated Pacific species, the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, through the nitro-blue-tetrazolium-reduction assay. We also proposed an optimized experimental protocol for this assay, that produces rapid and consistent results with low levels of basal superoxide anion (O2,) production by unstimulated haemocytes and high levels of this oxygen radical after cell stimulation. Among the different cell elicitors used (zymosan, laminarin, lipopolysaccharide and phorbol myristate acetate), laminarin (,-1,3-glucans , 2 mg mL,1) was the most potent cell activator for the haemocytes of all three penaeids and we recommend this immunostimulant to routinely evaluate shrimp respiratory burst. In general terms, the most elevated levels of O2, production, after cell stimulation with microbial components, were detected in L. schmitti. Interestingly, the stimulation profile of the haemocytes of L. vannamei was more similar to F. paulensis, than to L. schmitti, which is more phylogenetically related. [source]

Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone

Qihui Yang
Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM), crude protein, crude lipid, gross energy, phosphorus and amino acids in Peruvian fish meal (FM), fermented soybean meal, extruded soybean meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, wheat gluten meal, corn gluten meal, shrimp byproduct meal, meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry meat meal and plasma protein meal (PPM) were determined for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisting of 70% RF diet and 30% of the feedstuff) were used with 0.5% chromic oxide as an external indicator. A total of 1440 shrimp (initial mean body weight 1.05 ± 0.01 g) were randomly stocked into thirty-six 500-L fibreglass tanks with 40 shrimp per tank and three tanks per diet. Faeces were collected from triplicate groups of shrimp by a faecal collection vessel attached to the shrimp-rearing tank. The shrimp were fed to apparent satiation four times a day and the feeding experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Statistics indicate that apparent DM digestibilities for white shrimp (L. vannamei) were the highest for FM, ranged 52.83,71.23% for other animal products and 69.98,77.10% for plant products. The protein and lipid from plant and animal sources were well digested by white shrimp. Apparent protein and lipid digestibility were in the range 87.89,93.18% and 91.57,95.28%, respectively, in plant products, and 75.00,92.34% and 83.72,92.79%, respectively, for animal products. The white shrimp demonstrated a high capacity to utilize phosphorus in the ingredients. The apparent phosphorus digestibility ranges of animal feedstuffs and plant feedstuffs were 58.90,71.61% and 75.77,82.30% respectively. Amino acid availability reflected protein digestibility, except that in MBM, for which the availability of some amino acid was lower, possibly due to protein damage during processing. Digestibility information could promote the use of ingredient substitution in least-cost formulated diets for white shrimp. [source]

Quantitative dietary threonine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) reared in low-salinity water

Ming-Yan Huai
Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the threonine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in low-salinity water (0.50,1.50 g L,1). Diets 1,6 were formulated to contain 360 g kg,1 crude protein with fish meal, wheat gluten and pre-coated crystalline amino acids with six graded levels of l -threonine (9.9,19.0 g kg,1 dry diet). Diet 7, which was served as a reference, contained only intact proteins (fish meal and wheat gluten). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 30 shrimps (0.48±0.01 g), each four times daily. Shrimps fed the reference diet had similar growth performance and feed utilization efficiency compared with shrimps fed the diets containing 13.3 g kg,1 or higher threonine. Maximum specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio were obtained at 14.6 g kg,1 dietary threonine, and increasing threonine beyond this level did not result in a better performance. Body compositions, triacyglycerol and total protein concentrations in haemolymph were significantly affected by the threonine level; however, the threonine contents in muscle, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in haemolymph were not influenced by the dietary threonine levels. Broken-line regression analysis on SGR indicated that optimal dietary threonine requirement for L. vannamei was 13.6 g kg,1 dry diet (37.8 g kg,1 dietary protein). [source]

Experimental white spot syndrome virus challenge of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) at different salinities

I S Carbajal-Sánchez
Abstract In recent years, the shrimp industry has turned to inland freshwater culture as one method to avoid problems such as the introduction of possible vectors of viral pathogens into seawater ponds. Our experiments evaluated susceptibility to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Litopenaeus vannamei held under different salinity regimens. Juvenile L. vannamei that were conditioned at salinities of 35, 25, 15, 5 and 2 g L,1 were challenged with WSSV. In order to assess the severity of white spot disease, histological analysis and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were carried out on the challenged shrimp every 4 h after 48 h post challenge. The results indicated that significantly more severe infections resulted at 15, than at other salinities. Mortality could not be compared due to the sampling design and because severe WSSV infections occurred in all test groups such that few shrimp remained alive in each challenged group at the end of the test. Despite this, the results suggest that salinity may affect the course and outcome of WSSV infections. [source]

Stocking strategies for production of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in amended freshwater in inland ponds

Bartholomew W Green
Abstract The performance of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) under various stocking strategies was evaluated in earthen ponds filled with freshwater amended with major ions. Six 0.1-ha earthen ponds located in Pine Bluff, AR, USA, were filled with freshwater in 2003 and 2004, and potassium magnesium sulphate added to provide 50 mg K+ L,1 and stock salt added to provide 0.5 g L,1 salinity. In 2003, three ponds either were stocked with PL15 shrimp (39 PL m,2) for 125 days of grow out or with PL25 shrimp for 55 days (23 PL m,2) followed by a 65-day (28 PL m,2) grow-out period. In 2004, ponds were stocked with 7, 13 or 30 PL15 m,2 for 134 days of grow out. Salinity averaged 0.7 g L,1 during both years, and concentration of SO4,2, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ was higher, and Na+ and Cl, was lower in amended pond water than in seawater at 0.7 g L,1 salinity. Potassium concentration in amended water was 52,61% of the target concentration. Shrimp yields ranged from 3449 kg ha,1 in 2003 to 4966 kg ha,1 in 2004 in ponds stocked with 30,39 PL15 m,2 for a 125,134-day culture period. At harvest, mean individual weight ranged from 17.1 to 19.3 g shrimp,1. In ponds stocked with PL25 shrimp, yields averaged 988 and 2462 kg ha,1 for the 1st and 2nd grow-out periods respectively. Gross shrimp yield in 2004 increased linearly from 1379,4966 kg ha,1 with increased stocking rate. These experiments demonstrated that L. vannamei can be grown successfully in freshwater supplemented with major ions to a final salinity of 0.7 g L,1. [source]

Genetic relationship between Litopenaeus setiferus (L.) and L. schmitti (Burkenroad) determined by using 16S mitochondrial sequences and enzymatic analysis

L Arena
Abstract Genetic differentiation and variability data of two populations of two species of shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus (L.) and L. schmitti (Burkenroad)) have been obtained by electrophoretic analysis and by analysis of 16S mitochondrial DNA. Using eight polymorphic enzymes, the genetic distance (GD) between the two species was 0.165. The GD between L. setiferus populations was 0.0057 and between L. schmitti populations it was 0.0034. The greatest differentiation was found within, rather than between, populations, although the differentiation value between Mexican and Cuban populations varied in accordance with the geographic distance and ecological characteristic of each. We found a high similarity between these two species with a bimodal distribution of the loci with respect to genetic identity. The homology percentages for gene 16S fragments were compared with those from six different shrimp species (L. vannamei, L. stylirostris, Farfantepenaeus notialis, Metapeneopsis lamellata) and Artemia salina. Ninety-seven percent of identity was found by analysis of a 409 bp of 16S mitochondrial DNA. With these values a phylogenetic tree was made using parsimony criteria. The GDs obtained with this method confirm the classification proposed by Pérez-Farfante & Kensley (1997). [source]

Trypsin enzyme activity during larval development of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) fed on live feeds

A C Puello-Cruz
Abstract Larval stages of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were fed standard live diets of mixed microalgae from the first to the third protozoea (PZ1 to PZ3), followed by Artemia nauplii until post-larvae 1 (PL1). Trypsin enzyme activity for each larval stage was determined using N -,-p-toluenesulphonyl- l -arginine methyl ester (TAME) as a substrate. Results were expressed as enzyme content to assess ontogenetic changes during larval development. Tissue trypsin content (IU µg,1 DW for each larval stage) was significantly highest at the PZ1 stage and declined through subsequent stages to PL1. This contrasts with previously observed patterns of trypsin development in Litopenaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) and other penaeid genera, which exhibit a peak in trypsin activity at the third protozoea/first mysis (PZ3/M1) larval stage. Litopenaeus vannamei larvae transferred to a diet of Artemia at the beginning of the second protozoea (PZ2) stage were significantly heavier on reaching the first mysis stage (M1) than those fed algae, while survival was not significantly different between treatments. At both PZ2 and PZ3 stages, trypsin content in larvae feeding on Artemia was significantly lower than in those feeding on algae. The rapid decline in trypsin content from PZ1 and the flexible enzyme response from PZ2 suggest that L. vannamei is physiologically adapted to transfer to a more carnivorous diet during the mid-protozoeal stages. [source]

Effect of dietary protein and energy levels on growth, oxygen consumption, haemolymph and digestive gland carbohydrates, nitrogen excretion and osmotic pressure of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) and L. setiferus (Linne) juveniles (Crustacea, Decapoda; Penaeidae)

C Rosas
Abstract The influence of protein and energy levels on growth rate, survival, pre- and post-prandial oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, haemolymph glucose (HG), glycogen in digestive gland and osmotic pressure (OP) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) and L. setiferus (Linne) juveniles was studied. Diets containing a high-quality protein at a protein/energy (P/E) ratio of 16, 26, 31 and 36 mg kJ,1 were fed at 20% of shrimp body weight of two sizes: < 1 g and >,1 g. Both species showed a optimum P/E ratio of 36 mg kJ,1 (33,44% protein and 6,23% carbohydrate) in juveniles <,1 g. For shrimp >,1 g, L. setiferus showed a higher growth rate in the diet with 16 mg kJ,1 (27% protein; 32% carbohydrate) and L. vannamei between 26 and 36 mg kJ,1 (33,44% protein and 6,23% carbohydrate). In both experiments, the growth rate of L. vannamei was 2,3 times that observed in L. setiferus. Routine oxygen consumption and apparent heat increment (AHI) of L. setiferus juveniles was two times higher than that observed in L. vannamei juveniles, which could indicate that L. setiferus has a higher metabolic rate. The O/N ratio varied according to protein level, with higher values (O/N = 180) with a 16-mg kJ,1 diet and lower values (O/N = 73) with a 36-mg kJ,1 diet in L. setiferus juveniles. A similar variation in O/N ratio was obtained in L. vannamei fed with all diets with an interval between 22 and 50. An inverse relation between ammonia excretion and HG, and digestive gland glycogen (DGG) in relation to an increase in the P/E ratio indicate that both shrimp species are well adapted to use carbohydrates and/or proteins from their diet. The higher values of hyper-osmotic capacity (hyper-OC) were observed in L. setiferus <,1 g fed with 36 mg kJ,1 and the lowest in L. vannamei <,1 g fed with 31 mg kJ,1. Intermediate values of hyper-OC were observed in both species fed all diets indicating that osmotic factors of juveniles <,1 g of both species are more affected by the P/E ratio than juveniles >,1 g. All results showed that juveniles >,1 g of both species are less dependent of P/E ratio than juveniles <,1 g. Litopenaeus vannamei is a most tolerant shrimp species with a high capacity to use a wide range of dietary P/E ratios for growth, which may be due to its lower energy requirements. Litopenaeus setiferus showed a lower capacity to accept different P/E ratios but the optimum P/E ratio obtained with this species shows that L. setiferus accept diets with a high carbohydrate level as well. These results demonstrate that there are nutritional and physiological differences that explain the differences that have been observed when both species were cultured in commercial ponds. [source]