Kappa Scores (kappa + score)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Virtual colonoscopy vs conventional colonoscopy in patients at high risk of colorectal cancer , a prospective trial of 150 patients

T. J. White
Abstract Objective, Virtual colonoscopy (VC)/CT colonography has advantages over the well-documented limitations of colonoscopy/barium enema. This prospective blinded investigative comparison trial aimed to evaluate the ability of VC to assess the large bowel, compared to conventional colonoscopy (CC), in patients at high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Method, We studied 150 patients (73 males, mean age 60.9 years) at high risk of CRC. Following bowel preparation, VC was undertaken using colonic insufflation and 2D-spiral CT acquisition. Two radiologists reported the images and a consensual agreement reached. Direct comparison was made with CC (performed later the same day). Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Kappa method. Postal questionnaires sought patient preference. Results, Virtual colonoscopy visualized the caecum in all cases. Five (3.33%) VCs were classified as inadequate owing to poor distension/faecal residue. CC completion rate was 86%. Ultimately, 44 patients had normal findings, 44 had diverticular disease, 11 had inflammatory bowel disease, 18 had cancers, and 33 patients had 42 polyps. VC identified 19 cancers , a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.2% respectively. For detecting polyps > 10 mm, VC had a sensitivity and specificity (per patient) of 91% and 99.2% respectively. VC identified four polyps proximal to stenosing carcinomas and extracolonic malignancies in nine patients (6%). No procedural complications occurred with either investigation. A Kappa score achieved for interobserver agreement was 0.777. Conclusion, Virtual colonoscopy is an effective and safe method for evaluating the bowel and was the investigation of choice amongst patients surveyed. VC provided information additional to CC on both proximal and extracolonic pathology. VC may become the diagnostic procedure of choice for symptomatic patients at high risk of CRC, with CC being reserved for therapeutic intervention, or where a tissue diagnosis is required. [source]

Assessment of a contrast medium as an adjunct to endodontic radiography

J. M. Bedford
Abstract Aim, To assess if a contrast medium improved diagnostic yield of endodontic radiographs. Methodology, Forty-five extracted mandibular premolar teeth were radiographed in bucco-lingual and mesio-distal planes. Access cavities were prepared, pulpal tissue extirpated and Ultravist® contrast medium introduced under pressure. Radiographs were retaken and the teeth cleared following perfusion with India ink. Three examiners assessed all the films for: number of roots, number of root canals, curvature of root and/or root canal, presence of lateral canals, presence of a single foramen or apical delta and the presence or absence of canal obstructions. The examiners' interpretations were compared with the anatomy revealed by clearing. Results, Kappa scores were calculated for each of the examiners, for each set of radiographs, to assess the level of intra- and inter-examiner agreement. Only moderate agreement was found throughout (, = 0.40,0.61). For multiple root canals a false-positive result was significantly more likely with contrast (P < 0.05). The use of contrast did not significantly improve the sensitivity of diagnosis of lateral canals or a single apical foramen. Contrast significantly increased the risk of falsely perceiving lateral canals (P < 0.002). Overall there was no statistically significant difference in the overall assessment of the anatomy of the root canals using contrast or plain radiographs (P > 0.2). Conclusions, Plain film radiographs confidently predict the presence of root or canal curvature but apical anatomy was assessed accurately in only 46% of cases. Plain radiographs were insensitive in assessing the number of root canals present, the presence of lateral canals and the occurrence of canal obstructions. The use of Ultravist® contrast medium to improve diagnosis of root canal morphology of premolars is not supported. [source]

Reliability and validity of the direct observation clinical encounter examination (DOCEE)

Hossam Hamdy
Context, The College of Medicine and Medical Sciences at the Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain, replaced the traditional long case/short case clinical examination on the final MD examination with a direct observation clinical encounter examination (DOCEE). Each student encountered four real patients. Two pairs of examiners from different disciplines observed the students taking history and conducting physical examinations and jointly assessed their clinical competence. Objectives, To determine the reliability and validity of the DOCEE by investigating whether examiners agree when scoring, ranking and classifying students; to determine the number of cases and examiners necessary to produce a reliable examination, and to establish whether the examination has content and concurrent validity. Subjects, Fifty-six final year medical students and 22 examiners (in pairs) participated in the DOCEE in 2001. Methods, Generalisability theory, intraclass correlation, Pearson correlation and kappa were used to study reliability and agreement between the examiners. Case content and Pearson correlation between DOCEE and other examination components were used to study validity. Results, Cronbach's alpha for DOCEE was 0·85. The intraclass and Pearson correlation of scores given by specialists and non-specialists ranged from 0·82 to 0·93. Kappa scores ranged from 0·56 to 1·00. The overall intraclass correlation of students' scores was 0·86. The generalisability coefficient with four cases and two raters was 0·84. Decision studies showed that increasing the cases from one to four improved reliability to above 0·8. However, increasing the number of raters had little impact on reliability. The use of a pre-examination blueprint for selecting the cases improved the content validity. The disattenuated Pearson correlations between DOCEE and other performance measures as a measure of concurrent validity ranged from 0·67 to 0·79. Conclusions, The DOCEE was shown to have good reliability and interrater agreement between two independent specialist and non-specialist examiners on the scoring, ranking and pass/fail classification of student performance. It has adequate content and concurrent validity and provides unique information about students' clinical competence. [source]

Spousal concordance and reliability of the ,Prudence Score' as a summary of diet and lifestyle

Sanjoti Parekh
Abstract Objectives: This paper describes a composite ,Prudence Score' summarising self-reported behavioural risk factors for non-communicable diseases. If proved robust, the ,Prudence score' might be used widely to encourage large numbers of individuals to adopt and maintain simple, healthy changes in their lifestyle. Methods: We calculated the ,Prudence Score' based on responses collected in late 2006 to a postal questionnaire sent to 225 adult patients aged 25 to 75 years identified from the records of two general medical practices in Brisbane, Australia. Participants completed the behavioural, dietary and lifestyle items in relation to their spouse as well as themselves. The spouse or partner of each addressee completed their own copy of the study questionnaire. Results: Kappa scores for spousal concordance with probands' reports (n = 45 pairs) on diet-related items varied between 0.35 (for vegetable intake) to 0.77 (for usual type of milk consumed). Spousal concordance values for other behaviours were 0.67 (physical activity), 0.82 (alcohol intake) and 1.0 (smoking habits). Kappa scores for test-retest reliability (n = 53) varied between 0.47 (vegetable intake) and 0.98 (smoking habits). Conclusion: The veracity of self-reported data is a challenge for studies of behavioural change. Our results indicate moderate to substantial agreement from life partners regarding individuals' self-reports for most of the behavioural risk items included in the ,Prudence Score'. This increases confidence that key aspects of diet and lifestyle can be assessed by self-report. Implications: The ,Prudence Score' potentially has wide application as a simple and robust tool for health promotion programs. [source]

Interrater Agreement between Nurses for the Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale in a Tertiary Care Center

FRCPC, Jocelyn Gravel MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to measure the interrater agreement between nurses assigning triage levels to children visiting a pediatric emergency departments (EDs) assisted by a computerized version of the Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (PedCTAS). Methods:, This was a prospective cohort study evaluating children triaged from Level 2 (emergent) to Level 5 (nonurgent). A convenience sample of patients triaged during 38 shifts from April to September 2007 in a tertiary care pediatric ED was evaluated. All patients were initially triaged by regular triage nurses using a computerized version of the PedCTAS. Research nurses performed a second evaluation blinded to the first evaluation using the same triage tool. These research nurses were regular ED nurses performing extra hours for research purposes exclusively. The primary outcome measure was the interrater agreement between the two nurses as measured by the linear weighted kappa score. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patient for which nurses did not apply the triage level suggested by Staturg (override) and agreement for these overrides. Results:, A total of 499 patients were recruited. The overall interrater agreement was moderate (linear weighted kappa score of 0.55 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 0.48 to 0.61] and quadratic weighted kappa score of 0.61 [95% CI = 0.42 to 0.80]). There was a discrepancy of more than one level in only 10 patients (2% of the study population). Overrides occurred in 23.2 and 21.8% for regular and research triage nurses, respectively. These overrides were equally distributed between increase and decrease in triage level. Conclusions:, Nurses using Staturg, which is a computerized version of the PedCTAS, demonstrated moderate interrater agreement for assignment of triage level to children presenting to a pediatric ED. [source]

A systematic review of the epidemiology of status epilepticus

R. F. M. Chin
Population-based data on the incidence, aetiology, and mortality associated with status epilepticus (SE) are required to develop preventative strategies for SE. Through a systematic review, we aimed to assess the methodological quality as well as similarities, and differences between available population based studies in order to arrive at conclusions on the epidemiology of SE. All population-based studies where primary outcome was incidence, aetiology or mortality of SE were identified through a systematic search and synthesized. Methodological quality of studies were independently rated by two examiners using a unique scoring system. Seven population-based projects on SE yielding nine published reports and five abstracts were reviewed. Quality scores were in the range of 19,34 with a possible maximum of 40 (kappa scores 0.67,1.0). The incidence of SE has a bimodal distribution with peaks in children aged less than a year and the elderly. Most SE were acute symptomatic. Short-term mortality was 7.6,22% and long-term mortality was 43%. Age and aetiology were the major determinants of mortality. There are few population-based studies on SE but most are of good quality. Most studies are primarily or exclusively based on adult populations. There is limited information on the association of ethnicity and socio-economic status and SE. [source]

Effect of a Disease-Specific Planning Intervention on Surrogate Understanding of Patient Goals for Future Medical Treatment

Karin T. Kirchhoff PhD
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a disease-specific planning process can improve surrogate understanding of goals of patients with life-limiting illnesses for future medical treatments. DESIGN: A multisite randomized controlled trial conducted between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2007. SETTING: Six outpatient clinics of large community or university health systems in three Wisconsin cities. PARTICIPANTS: Competent, English-speaking adults aged 18 and older with chronic congestive heart failure or chronic renal disease and their surrogate decision-makers. INTERVENTION: Trained health professionals conducted a structured, patient-centered interview intended to promote informed decision-making and to result in the completion of a document clarifying the goals of the patient with regard to four disease-specific health outcome situations and the degree of decision-making latitude granted to the surrogate. MEASUREMENTS: Surrogate understanding of patient goals for care with regard to four expected, disease-specific outcomes situations and of the degree of surrogate latitude in decision-making. RESULTS: Three hundred thirteen patient,surrogate pairs completed the study. As measured according to kappa scores and in all four situations and in the degree of latitude, intervention group surrogates demonstrated a significantly higher degree of understanding of patient goals than control group surrogates. Intervention group kappa scores ranged from 0.61 to 0.78, whereas control group kappa scores ranged from 0.07 to 0.28. CONCLUSION: Surrogates in the intervention group had a significantly better understanding of patient goals and preferences than surrogates in the control group. This finding is the first step toward ensuring that patient goals for care are known and honored. [source]

Vitamin K prescribing patterns and bone health surveillance in UK children with cystic fibrosis

D. S. Urquhart
Abstract Background, Bone disease has become an increasingly recognized complication of cystic fibrosis (CF). Although causes of CF bone disease are multifactorial, there has been recent interest in the role of vitamin K in CF bone disease. Aims,and,methods, A questionnaire survey of all UK paediatric CF centre dietitians and centre directors was carried out to ascertain current practice with regard to vitamin K prescribing and bone health surveillance. Results, The survey had a 97% response rate representing 3414 CF children. Twenty-three centre directors and 19 dietitians responded, and at least moderate agreement was noted with kappa scores >0.41 for all but one question assessed. Ninety-three per cent centres report that >90% pancreatic insufficient patients receive vitamins A, D and E, yet only 18% centres routinely supplement vitamin K. The majority (60%) report that <10% of their CF patients receive vitamin K, whilst vitamin K dosage varied from 0.3,0.5 to 10 mg day,1. Only one centre undertook no bone health surveillance, and vitamin D levels are measured in 89%, calcium intake assessed in 82% and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans performed in 61% centres. Discussion, Heterogeneity in both vitamin K prescribing practices and bone health surveillance in CF across the UK were noted, underlining the need for a national consensus on bone health management, as well as acting as a call for longitudinal research into the clinical effectiveness of vitamin K therapy in CF. [source]

Reliability of collecting colorectal cancer stage information from pathology reports and general practitioners in Queensland

Lauren J. Krnjacki
Objective: To investigate the reliability of collecting colorectal stage information from pathology reports and general practitioners in Queensland, Australia. Methods: A longitudinal study of colorectal cancer survivors conducted in 2003 and 2004 (n=1966, response rate=57%) obtained stage information from clinical specialists (n=1334), general practitioners (GP) (n=1417) and by extracting stage from pathology reports (n=1484). Reliability of stage information was determined by comparing stage from GPs and pathology reports with that reported by the clinical specialists, using a weighted kappa. Results: GPs and pathology reports each had a similar level of agreement with clinical specialists, with kappa scores of 0.77 (0.75-0.80) (n=1042) and 0.78 (0.75-0.81) (n=1152), respectively. Results were similar when restricting to records staged by all three methods (n=847). GPs had similar levels of agreement with clinical specialists within each stage, although pathology reports tended to under-stage patients in Stage D (0.37). Collapsing stage into two categories (A or B, C or D) increased the reliability estimates from the pathology reports to 0.91 (0.88-0.93), but there was little change in GP estimates 0.79 (0.75-0.83). Conclusions: Extractions from pathology reports are a valid source of broad stage information for colorectal cancer. Implications: In the absence of clinical stage data, access to pathology records by population-based cancer registries enables a more accurate assessment of survival inequalities in colorectal cancer survival. [source]

A comparison between criteria for diagnosing atopic eczema in infants

H. Jøhnke
Summary Background, Epidemiological studies have shown different estimates of the frequency of atopic eczema (AE) in children. This may be explained by several factors including variations in the definition of AE, study design, age of study group, and the possibility of a changed perception of atopic diseases. The role of IgE sensitization in AE is a matter of debate. Objectives, To determine the prevalence and cumulative incidence of AE in a group of unselected infants followed prospectively from birth to 18 months of age using different diagnostic criteria; to evaluate the agreement between criteria; and to describe the association between atopic heredity and postnatal sensitization, respectively, and the development of AE according to the different diagnostic criteria. Methods, During a 1-year period a consecutive series of 1095 newborns and their parents were approached at the maternity ward at the Odense University Hospital, Denmark and a cohort of 562 newborns was established. Infants were examined and followed prospectively from birth and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age. AE was diagnosed using four different criteria, the Hanifin and Rajka criteria, the Schultz-Larsen criteria, the Danish Allergy Research Centre (DARC) criteria developed for this study and doctor-diagnosed visible eczema with typical morphology and atopic distribution. Additionally, the U.K. diagnostic criteria based on a questionnaire were used at 1 year of age. Agreement between the four criteria was analysed at each time point and over time, and agreement between the four criteria and the U.K. questionnaire criteria was analysed. Results, The cumulative 1-year prevalence of AE using the Hanifin and Rajka criteria was 9·8% (95% confidence interval, CI 7,13%), for the Schultz-Larsen criteria it was 7·5% (95% CI 5,10%), for the DARC criteria 8·2% (95% CI 6,11%), for visible eczema 12·2% (95% CI 9,16%) and for the U.K. criteria 7·5% (95% CI 5,10%). The pairwise agreement between criteria showed good agreement, with rates varying between 93% and 97% and kappa scores between 0·6 and 0·8. Agreement analysis of diagnoses between the four criteria demonstrated that cumulative incidences showed better agreement than point prevalence values. Conclusions, Agreement between different criteria for diagnosing AE was acceptable, but the mild cases constituted a diagnostic problem, although they were in the minority. Repeated examinations gave better agreement between diagnostic criteria than just one examination. Atopic heredity was less predictive for AE than sensitization to common food and inhalant allergens in early childhood. [source]