Kneading Blocks (kneading + block)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Morphology development of PC/PE blends during compounding in a twin-screw extruder

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
Bo Yin
The morphological development of a polycarbonate/polyethylene (PC/PE) blend in a twin-screw extruder was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of extrusion temperature, viscosity ratio (the ratio of the viscosity of the dispersed phase to that of the matrix), and the screw configuration on the morphology of the PC/PE blend during the extrusion were discussed in detail. It was found that the morphology of the dispersed particles and the interfacial adhesion between the dispersed phase and matrix were both influenced by the extrusion temperature. The dispersed phase had a spheroidal shape and a small size during the high temperature processing, and an irregular shape and a large size when it was processed at low temperature. The PC phase with a lower viscosity was easier to disperse and also to coalesce. Therefore, the deformation of the low-viscosity dispersed phase during the processing was more intense than that of the high-viscosity dispersed phase. By comparing the effects of the different screw configurations on the morphology development of the PC/PE blend, it was found that the melting and breaking up of the dispersed phase were mainly affected in the initial blending stages by the number of the kneading blocks. While a kneading block with a 90 degree staggering angle was used, the size of the dispersed particles decreased and the long fibers were shortened, the large particles were drawn by the additional kneading zone. Finally, all of these structures were completely changed to the short fibers. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 47:14,25, 2007. 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


Mixing mechanism of three-tip kneading block in twin screw extruders

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 1 2000
Makoto Yoshinaga
In recent years, twin screw extruders have been applied to various kinds of polymer processing. It has been important to find their optimum geometrical configurations and operational processing conditions for the best performance of extrusions and products. Many engineers have been evolving numerical and the experimental methods to characterize the mixing performance for twin screw extruders. We have carried out three-dimensional flow simulations of kneading blocks in intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruders by using the finite element method to quantify their ability in distributive and dispersive mixing. We discuss their performance in distributive mixing for three different type of kneading blocks in terms of the residence time distribution and the nearest distance between markers at various periods of time, by using the marker tracking method. Those numerical techniques and applications of mixing indices have enabled us to quantify and evaluate their abilities in distributive mixing of kneading blocks in twin screw extruders. [source]


Rheological properties of LDPE processed by conventional processing machines

ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Masayuki Yamaguchi
Abstract The impact of applied processing history and the postprocessing annealing on the rheological properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been studied employing various kinds of conventional processing machines. Processing by a corotating twin-screw extruder (Co-TSE) and an internal batch mixer depressed the drawdown force, one of the elastic properties of a melt, to a great extent, even though molecular weight and the polydispersity did not change. On the other hand, the sample processed by a two-roll mill exhibited the drawdown force as high as the original pellets, which is owing to the intermittent stress history instead of the relentless one in the Co-TSE and the internal batch mixer. Furthermore, the effect of screw configuration in the Co-TSE has also been investigated. It was found that the processing by conveying screws depressed the drawdown force and melt fracture more than that by kneading blocks as long as the torque and the residence time are the same. The large, abrupt, and frequent change in flow direction in the Co-TSE with kneading blocks prohibits the molecular orientation, which leads to disentanglement associated with long-chain branches. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 22: 179,187, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.10047 [source]


Distributive mixing profiles for co-rotating twin-screw extruders

ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
Gifford Shearer
Distributive mixing was experimentally measured during polymer melt blending along the length of a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. A mixing limited interfacial reaction between two reactive polymer tracers was employed to gain direct evidence of the generation of interfacial area. Model reactions were performed to validate this novel experimental method. In particular, the conversion was a direct indicator of the interfacial area available for the reaction. Specially designed sampling ports were used to obtain polymer samples along the length of the extruder during its continuous operation. The mixing capabilities of conveying sections and kneading blocks were compared over a wide range of operating conditions. In conveying sections, distributive mixing was controlled by the fully filled fraction. The mixing in kneading blocks depended on the combination of the operating conditions and the stagger angle. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 20: 169,190, 2001 [source]


Effects of screw configurations on the grafting of maleic anhydride grafted low-density polyethylene in reactive extrusion

JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
Hui Fang
Abstract The effects of screw configurations, that is, the staggering angles and disc widths of the kneading blocks, on grafting reactive extrusion for maleic anhydride grafted low-density polyethylene were investigated in a corotating twin-screw extruder. Samples were collected from three positions along the screw and the die exit. The grafting degree (GD) of the specimens was evaluated by titration. It was found that the kneading block configurations had a significant influence on the grafting reactive extrusion. In addition, another three groups of extrusion experiments were performed to explore the intrinsic relationship between the GD, the degree of fill in the screw channel, the residence time distribution (RTD), and the mixing intensity in various screw configurations. The experimental results indicated that the location of the melting endpoint significantly affected the position at which the reaction began; the degree of fill, RTD, and mixing performance of the screw played important roles in the grafting reaction. The reverse kneading blocks with a narrow disc width, which had a high degree of fill and good mixing capacity, enhanced the increase in GD along the screw during the reactive extrusion. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


Morphology development of PC/PE blends during compounding in a twin-screw extruder

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
Bo Yin
The morphological development of a polycarbonate/polyethylene (PC/PE) blend in a twin-screw extruder was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of extrusion temperature, viscosity ratio (the ratio of the viscosity of the dispersed phase to that of the matrix), and the screw configuration on the morphology of the PC/PE blend during the extrusion were discussed in detail. It was found that the morphology of the dispersed particles and the interfacial adhesion between the dispersed phase and matrix were both influenced by the extrusion temperature. The dispersed phase had a spheroidal shape and a small size during the high temperature processing, and an irregular shape and a large size when it was processed at low temperature. The PC phase with a lower viscosity was easier to disperse and also to coalesce. Therefore, the deformation of the low-viscosity dispersed phase during the processing was more intense than that of the high-viscosity dispersed phase. By comparing the effects of the different screw configurations on the morphology development of the PC/PE blend, it was found that the melting and breaking up of the dispersed phase were mainly affected in the initial blending stages by the number of the kneading blocks. While a kneading block with a 90 degree staggering angle was used, the size of the dispersed particles decreased and the long fibers were shortened, the large particles were drawn by the additional kneading zone. Finally, all of these structures were completely changed to the short fibers. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 47:14,25, 2007. 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


3-D non-isothermal flow field analysis and mixing performance evaluation of kneading blocks in a co-rotating twin srew extruder

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 5 2001
Takeshi Ishikawa
We have developed a three-dimensional non-Newtonian and non-isothermal flow analysis of the twin screw extruder (TSE) using the finite element method. This code can simulate the fully filled parts of several kinds of screw elements, such as full flight screws, kneading blocks, rotors and their combinations. A marker particle tracking analysis has also been developed to evaluate the mixing performance of the screw elements. In this paper, simulations for the kneading blocks in a co-rotating TSE were carried out. The screw configurations are combinations of 2-lobe kneading blocks with several stagger angles and disk widths. The effects of screw configurations on pressure and temperature distributions are examined. We also evaluate the dispersive and distributive mixing via stress magnitude and area stretch obtained by marker particle tracking analysis. Additionally, we discuss the desirable stagger, disk width and their combinations that promote the mixing performance. [source]


Mixing mechanism of three-tip kneading block in twin screw extruders

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 1 2000
Makoto Yoshinaga
In recent years, twin screw extruders have been applied to various kinds of polymer processing. It has been important to find their optimum geometrical configurations and operational processing conditions for the best performance of extrusions and products. Many engineers have been evolving numerical and the experimental methods to characterize the mixing performance for twin screw extruders. We have carried out three-dimensional flow simulations of kneading blocks in intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruders by using the finite element method to quantify their ability in distributive and dispersive mixing. We discuss their performance in distributive mixing for three different type of kneading blocks in terms of the residence time distribution and the nearest distance between markers at various periods of time, by using the marker tracking method. Those numerical techniques and applications of mixing indices have enabled us to quantify and evaluate their abilities in distributive mixing of kneading blocks in twin screw extruders. [source]