Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Terms modified by Interpersonal

  • interpersonal adjustment
  • interpersonal aspect
  • interpersonal behavior
  • interpersonal circle
  • interpersonal communication
  • interpersonal conflict
  • interpersonal context
  • interpersonal difficulty
  • interpersonal dimension
  • interpersonal distance
  • interpersonal experience
  • interpersonal factor
  • interpersonal functioning
  • interpersonal influence
  • interpersonal interaction
  • interpersonal network
  • interpersonal norm
  • interpersonal pattern
  • interpersonal problem
  • interpersonal process
  • interpersonal psychotherapy
  • interpersonal relation
  • interpersonal relationship
  • interpersonal relationships
  • interpersonal sensitivity
  • interpersonal skill
  • interpersonal style
  • interpersonal theory
  • interpersonal therapy
  • interpersonal trauma
  • interpersonal treatment
  • interpersonal trust
  • interpersonal violence

  • Selected Abstracts

    Investigating the Dimensionality of Counterproductive Work Behavior

    Melissa L. Gruys
    The study investigated the dimensionality of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) by examining the relationships between various counterproductive behaviors. Utilizing a university alumni sample (N = 343), data was collected through both self,report and direct judgments of the likelihood of co,occurrence. Eleven categories of CWB were examined: (1) Theft and Related Behavior; (2) Destruction of Property; (3) Misuse of Information; (4) Misuse of Time and Resources; (5) Unsafe Behavior; (6) Poor Attendance; (7) Poor Quality Work; (8) Alcohol Use; (9) Drug Use; (10) Inappropriate Verbal Actions; and (11) Inappropriate Physical Actions. CWB items and categories were generally positively related. Multidimensional scaling analysis suggests that the CWB categories vary on two dimensions: an Interpersonal,Organizational dimension and a Task Relevance dimension. [source]

    The relationship between busyness and research utilization: it is about time

    David S Thompson MN
    Aims and objectives., To explore the concept of busyness in nursing and to understand the relationship between busyness and nurses' research utilization better. Background., Lack of time and busyness are consistently reported as barriers to research utilization. Current literature fails to identify the dimensions of busyness and offers little insight into the relationship between busyness and nurses' research utilization. Design/Methods., We performed a secondary analysis of qualitative data and created a conceptual map of busyness in nursing. Results., Our results suggested that busyness consists of physical and psychological dimensions. Interpersonal and environmental factors influenced both dimensions. Cultural and intrapersonal factors contributed to psychological elements. The effects of busyness reported included missed opportunities, compromised safety, emotional and physical strain, sacrifice of personal time, incomplete nursing care and the inability to find or use resources. Conclusions., Our beginning description of busyness contributes to a greater understanding of the relationship between busyness and research utilization. Our findings suggest that lack of time as a barrier to research utilization is more complex than depicted in the literature. Instead, the mental time and energy required to navigate complex environments and a culture of busyness more accurately reflect what may be meant by ,lack of time' as a barrier to research utilization. Relevance to clinical practice., Future interventions aimed at increasing research utilization may be more effective if they focus on factors that contribute to a culture of busyness in nursing and address the mental time and energy required for nurses to use research in practice. [source]

    Longitudinal linkages between perceived social support and posttraumatic stress symptoms: Sequential roles of social causation and social selection

    Krzysztof Kaniasty
    The authors examined social causation and social selection explanations for the association between perceptions of social support and psychological distress. Data came from a sample of 557 victims of natural disaster in Mexico. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that social causation (more social support leading to less posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) explained the support-to-distress relationship in the earlier postdisaster phase, 6 to 12 months after the impact. Both causal mechanisms emerged as significant paths in the midpoint of the study (12 and 18 months). Only social selection (more PTSD leading to less social support) accounted for the support-to-distress relationship at 18 to 24 months after the event. Interpersonal and social dynamics of disasters may explain why these two contrasting causal mechanisms emerged over time. [source]

    Managerial Knowledge Sharing: The Role of Individual, Interpersonal, and Organizational Factors

    Lin Lu
    abstract This paper describes two studies conducted in the People's Republic of China aimed at improving understanding of knowledge sharing among managers. Study 1 found evidence for the role of two individual factors: greed which reduced knowledge sharing, and self-efficacy which increased it. In addition, co-worker collegiality has an indirect influence on knowledge sharing by lowering greed and raising self-efficacy. Study 2 replicated the key findings of Study 1 and also identified the influence of organizational support on knowledge sharing. Organizational support led to higher utilization of information and communication technologies, resulting in more knowledge sharing, especially for explicit as opposed to implicit knowledge. [source]

    The ,Collaborative Care' curriculum: an educational model addressing key ACGME core competencies in primary care residency training

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 9 2003
    Keith Frey
    Aim, The ,Collaborative Care' curriculum is a 12-month senior resident class project in which one evidence-based clinical guideline is designed, implemented and evaluated in our residency practice. This curriculum specifically addresses three of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies: Practice-Based Learning and Improvement, Interpersonal and Communication Skills and System-Based Practices. Additionally, the project enhances the quality of patient care within the model family practice centre in a family practice residency. Methods, During the project, the third-year residency class selects the disease, develops the clinical guideline, leads its implementation and guides the evaluation process. Select faculty members serve as mentors and coach the resident class through each phase of the project. Specific educational objectives are developed for each content area: evidence-based medicine, clinical guideline development, continuous quality improvement and team leadership. A series of seminars are presented during the project year to provide ,just-in-time' learning for the key content and skills required for each step in the project. By working together to develop the practice guideline, then working with nurses and allied health staff to implement the guideline and review its effectiveness, the resident team gains competence in the areas of practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills and system-based practices. Results, The self-reported level of resident confidence in skill acquisition for each content area was measured for each resident at the time of graduation from the residency programme. Results from the first 2 years of this curriculum are reported (resident n = 12), and demonstrate a high level of physician confidence in the skills addressed and their utility for future practice. Conclusions, The senior resident seminar and team project model reported here creates learning experiences that appear to address at least three of the ACGME general competency expectations: practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal communication skills, and systems-based practice. From the initial resident feedback, this educational model seems to establish a high level of physician confidence in the skills addressed and their utility for future practice. [source]

    Posttraumatic growth in chinese cancer survivors

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
    Samuel M.Y. Ho
    To investigate the dimensions and determinants of posttraumatic growth among Chinese cancer survivors, 188 participants were asked to complete a Chinese posttraumatic growth inventory, translated from the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; J Trauma Stress 1996; 9: 455,471), together with the Chinese versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale, and the General Health Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a different factor structure than the original English-language version of the PTGI. The dimensions of growth could also be broadly dichotomized into an Interpersonal and an Intrapersonal dimension in our Chinese sample. Multiple regression analysis showed that positive coping was the most important determinant of posttraumatic growth when compared with negative coping and psychological symptoms. A Chinese Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was developed to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The four chambers of the heart of peace: the role of emotional intelligence, counselling skills, and living systems thinking in the transformation of violent conflict: part one

    Hilde Rapp
    Abstract The first half of a longer piece , itself the second of a series of four articles looking at working with conflict , in which a generic ground map is presented signposting four key tasks that peacebuilders need to bear in mind in any conflict transformation work. The four tasks involve mapping the ,what' of peacebuilding: 1 Personal Resources; 2 Interpersonal and Intercultural Issues; 3 Bio-psycho-social Determinants; 4 Organizational and Systemic Dimensions. In the current paper the first two of these are described and discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Psychotherapy as monotherapy for the treatment of bipolar II depression: a proof of concept study

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 1 2009
    Holly A Swartz
    Objectives:, We conducted a proof of concept study to determine the feasibility of using an individual psychotherapy, Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT), as monotherapy for the acute treatment of bipolar II depression. Methods:, Unmedicated individuals (n = 17) meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar II disorder and currently depressed received weekly psychotherapy (IPSRT) for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of acute treatment, individuals received an additional 8 weeks of follow-up treatment consisting of continued weekly IPSRT with supplementary lamotrogine for IPSRT non-responders. Results:, By week 12, 41% (n = 7) of the sample responded to IPSRT monotherapy (defined as ,50% reduction in depression scores without an increase in mania scores), 41% (n = 7) dropped out of or were removed from the study, and 18% (n = 3) did not respond to treatment. By week 20, 53% (n = 9) had achieved a response and 29% (n = 5) achieved a full remission of symptoms. Conclusions:, Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy appears to be a promising intervention for a subset of individuals with bipolar II depression. A randomized controlled trial is needed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of IPSRT as an acute monotherapy for bipolar II depression. [source]

    Disability and its treatment in bipolar disorder patients

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 1-2 2007
    Nancy Huxley
    Bipolar disorders (BPD) are major, life-long psychiatric illnesses found in 2,5% of the population. Prognosis for BPD was once considered relatively favorable, but contemporary findings suggest that disability and poor outcomes are prevalent, despite major therapeutic advances. Syndromal recovery from acute episodes of mania or bipolar major depression is achieved in as many as 90% of patients given modern treatments, but full symptomatic recovery is achieved slowly, and residual symptoms of fluctuating severity and functional impact are the rule. Depressive,dysthymic,dysphoric morbidity continues in more than 30% of weeks in follow-up from initial episodes as well as later in the illness-course. As few as 1/3 of BPD patients achieve full social and occupational functional recovery to their own premorbid levels. Pharmacotherapy, though the accepted first-line treatment for BPD patients, is insufficient by itself, encouraging development of adjunctive psychological treatments and rehabilitative efforts to further limit morbidity and disability. Interpersonal, cognitive,behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies all show promise for improving symptomatic and functional outcomes. Much less is known about how these and more specific rehabilitative interventions might improve vocational functioning in BPD patients. [source]

    The relationship of patient defensive functioning and alliance with therapist technique during short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Caleb J. Siefert
    This study investigates the relationship of patient defensive functioning, therapeutic alliance and therapists' use of technical interventions in Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (STPP; Book, 1998; Luborsky, 1984; Strupp & Binder, 1984; Wachtel, 1993). Participants in this study were 44 patients admitted for individual psychotherapy at a university based outpatient community clinic. Patient defensive functioning was assessed with the Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Therapeutic alliance was assessed using patient ratings from the Combined Alliance Short Form (CASF; Hatcher & Barends, 1996). External raters coded videotaped sessions using the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS; Hilsenroth, Blagys, Ackerman Bonge & Blais, in press) to assess the use of Psychodynamic,Interpersonal (PI) and Cognitive,Behavioral (CB) techniques early (third or fourth session) in psychotherapy. Patient Overall Defensive Functioning (ODF) was found to predict therapists' overall use of PI interventions, as well as specific PI and CB interventions. Additionally, patients who utilized fewer adaptive defenses were found to receive more PI interventions in general. The implications of these findings for treatment planning and intervention are discussed.,Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Commentary on Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Contextual Factors in Extramarital Involvement

    K. Daniel O'Leary
    Extramarital Involvements (EMIs) attract significant societal attention, as exemplified by the revelation of former President Clinton's EMI. Depression, anxiety, and divorce are important sequelae of EMIs, though it will be important to learn which couples successfully cope with EMIs. Allen et al. (this issue) provide an excellent overview of the prevalence of EMIs and the problems in trying to ascertain accurate estimates thereof. The impact of a very close relationship even without explicit sexual contact was noted, and Allen et al. present a useful framework for organizing theoretical positions and data on EMIs. It is an excellent review for a clinician or researcher addressing EMIs. [source]

    Barriers to effective drug addiction treatment for women involved in street-level prostitution: a qualitative investigation

    Frances M. Smith
    Objectives,To examine barriers to effective drug addiction treatment for women involved in street-level prostitution. Methods,A qualitative approach was selected to enable a detailed exploration, in an informal and unthreatening manner, of the barriers to drug addiction treatment from the women's perspective. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted with women who were involved in street-level prostitution. Transcripts of one-to-one interviews were analysed for recurrent themes using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results,Barriers to effective addiction treatment are present at psychological, interpersonal, and wider societal levels. Themes identified included: an impoverished sense of self-worth, a lack of trust and consistency in treatment, and the absence of a comprehensive treatment package. Conclusion,Current services could be improved by the provision of a structured treatment programme designed to target the specific physical and psychological requirements of this population. Also, efforts to correct the fictitious, negative portrayals of women involved in prostitution are required, if treatment efficacy is to be improved. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Barriers to care in severe mental illness: accounts from perpetrators of intra-familial homicide

    FRANZCP Consultant Psychiatrist, Josephine Stanton MA, MBChB
    Objective To review perceptions of barriers to receiving effective mental health care described by patients who had committed intra-familial homicide in the context of untreated severe mental illness. Method Semi-structured interviews addressed issues such as support, help-seeking, experience of illness, and what participants felt might have helped prevent the death(s). Transcripts were analysed for themes related to barriers to help-seeking. Results Themes identified included: hiding or minimizing difficulties, lack of knowledge or understanding of mental illness, loss of control in the context of illness, seduction by the illness, reality-distorting effects of the illness, distortion of interpersonal relationships, diminished ability to trust and difficulty acknowledging need for medication. Conclusions Barriers to care exist at individual, interpersonal and wider societal levels and need to be addressed at all of them. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Using the SWAP-200 in a personality-disordered forensic population: is it valid, reliable and useful?

    Luisa E. Marin-Avellan
    Background Treatment and risk management of forensic patients relies heavily on diagnosing psychopathology, yet the reliability of clinical diagnoses of personality disorder has been found to be only fair to low. Structured instruments for the global assessment of personality disorder are infrequently used in clinical assessments possibly due to their limited validity and clinical utility. Aims/methods The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200) was developed in an effort to address these limitations. Although good reliability and validity in relation to clinicians' diagnosis of personality disorder has been reported, to date the validity of this instrument has not been assessed in relation to other standardized instruments or in a personality-disordered, forensic population. This study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the SWAP-200 against other diagnostic instruments and measures of interpersonal functioning in a personality disordered forensic population. Results This paper reports the results of 30 subjects from a high secure hospital in the UK who were assessed with the SWAP-200, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II), the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Chart of Interpersonal Reactions in Closed Living Environments (CIRCLE). Preliminary results suggest that the SWAP-200 is a reliable instrument for the diagnosis of personality disorder in forensic patients. Conclusions Although the small sample size allows only preliminary conclusions about the validity of this instrument, early results show a reduction of the diagnosis of comorbidity compared with the SCID-II, together with an increased number of expected associations between independent measures of interpersonal functioning and categories of personality disorder. Copyright © 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Context-Oriented Model Development in Psychotherapy Planning (,COMEPP'): a useful adjunct to diagnosis and therapy of severe personality disorders

    M. Fischer-Kern
    Objective:, Pathogenous interpersonal (e.g. interfamilial) relationships and reference styles can compromise treatment efforts in severely disturbed (i.e. psychotic or borderline) patients. The integration of family- and individual-centred starting points may be useful in establishing interdisciplinary treatment concepts in these patients. Context-Oriented Model Development in Psychotherapy Planning (COMEPP) represents a diagnostic and therapy planning process, integrating both systemic and psychoanalytic conceptualizations. Method:, COMEPP is exemplified by the case of a young man with psychotic personality disorder who had previously been unresponsive to pharmacological and psychological treatment. Results:, After psycho-dynamical conflicts (i.e. primitive projective processes from the patient's mother to her son) had been elucidated during the COMEPP process, a sufficient treatment setting could be established. Conclusion:, COMEPP provides a psychotherapeutical approach to treatment planning on case-specific premises and may serve as an adjunct to concomitant pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies in so-called ,therapy refractory' patients. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 4 2007
    Jack Martin
    In this essay, Jack Martin aims to remedy such oversight by interpreting Mead's social-psychological and educational theorizing of selfhood and agency through the lenses of the perspectival realism Mead developed in the last decade of his life. This interpretation understands education as concerned with the cultivation and coordination of cultural, societal, interpersonal, and personal perspectives. Within this framework, communal agency is understood as a self-interpreting, self-determining capability of persons. This agentive capability derives from immersion and participation with others within sociocultural practices and perspectives, but also includes reactivity to those same practices and perspectives. The education of communal agents as envisioned here emphasizes the social nature of education, students' experience and development, and the critical role of the teacher as a mediator between student development and social process. Such an education is grounded in the immediate experiences and perspectives of learners, but increasingly assists learners to move beyond their own experiences through engaged interaction with others and with resources for acquiring broader, more organized perspectives on themselves, others, and the world. [source]

    Factorial and Construct Validity of the Revised Short Form Integrative Psychotherapy Alliance Scales for Family, Couple, and Individual Therapy

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2008
    The Integrative Psychotherapy Alliance model brought an interpersonal and systemic perspective to bear on theory, research, and practice on the psychotherapeutic alliance. Questions have been raised about the independence of the theoretical factors in the model and their operationalization in the Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy Alliance Scales. This paper presents results of a confirmatory factor analysis of the scales that delineated at least three distinct interpersonal factors as well as shorter versions of the three scales to facilitate their use in research and practice. The paper also presents the results of a study testing each factor's association with client retention and progress over the first eight sessions in individual and couple therapy. At least two of the interpersonal factors were uniquely associated with progress in individual and couple functioning. Implications of the results for theory, research, practice, and training in individual, couple, and family therapy are elaborated. RESUMEN Validez de constructo y factorial de las versiones cortas revisadas de las escalas de alianza en psicoterapia integradora para la terapia familiar, de pareja e individual El modelo de alianza psicoterapéutica integradora aplicó una perspectiva sistémica e interpersonal en la teoría, la investigación y la práctica de la alianza psicoterapéutica. Se cuestionó la independencia de los factores teóricos en el modelo y su operacionalización en las escalas de alianza en terapia individual, de pareja y familiar. Este artículo presenta resultados de un análisis factorial confirmativo de las escalas que delinearon por lo menos tres factores interpersonales distintos, como también versiones más cortas de las tres escalas para facilitar su uso en la investigación y la práctica. El artículo también presenta los resultados de un estudio que analiza la asociación de cada factor con la fidelización de clientes y la evolución durante las primeras ocho sesiones en terapia individual y de pareja. Por lo menos dos de los factores interpersonales estuvieron asociados exclusivamente con la evolución en el funcionamiento individual y de pareja. Se elaboran las implicancias de los resultados para la teoría, la investigación, la práctica y la capacitación en terapia individual, de pareja y familiar. Palabras clave: alianza, análisis factorial, validez de constructo, evolución/resultado, integración [source]

    Employers, Quality and Standards in Higher Education: Shared Values and Vocabularies or Elitism and Inequalities?

    Louise Morley
    This paper is based on a research project funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England which investigated employers' needs for information on higher education quality and standards. A key issue was identifying the type of knowledge that employers utilise in graduate recruitment. A finding of the study was that information on quality and standards was being used by some employers in a way that could undermine equity and widening participation initiatives. Whereas employers reported that, in initial recruitment, they placed least emphasis on information about quality and standards and most emphasis on graduates' interpersonal and communication skills, over a quarter used league tables/Top 20 lists in their decision-making processes and 80 per cent of employers cited the importance of the reputation of the higher education institution in their decision making about marketing and individual recruitment of graduates. Reputation was based on real or imagined league tables, ,grapevine' knowledge, personal, regional and professional networks, performance of past graduates and prejudice against new universities. The hierarchy of opportunity within the labour market often appeared to correspond to a highly stratified higher education sector. [source]

    The Tokugawa Bureaucracy and Urban Crises: A Revival of the Humanist Traditions of China and Japan in Ogyu Sorai's Political Writings

    Yasuko Sato
    Ogyu Sorai (1666,1728) is a Japanese Confucian scholar who formulated his political philosophy, honoring the benevolent Way of the ancient Chinese Sages. It was his firm conviction that the task of government is to bring peace to the people. This humanistic concern was indeed central to classical Confucianism before the rise of a bureaucratic empire like the Qin (221,206 bce). How then is it possible to account for this lofty idealization of early Chinese Confucianism and its relevance to Tokugawa Japan (1600,1868)? This paper explores how Sorai's pursuit of Chinese antiquity was pitted against Tokvgawa bureaucratic control in the Edo metropolis and how he celebrated the centrality of great human beings to the promotion of popular welfare. In this view, the institution of soceity rests ultimately on political personalities who govern the land virtuously, and not on enforcement of order by punishments. It is worth noting, however, that Sorai did not articulate this humanist position merely as a Sinologist. In his mind, the Confucian values of humane rulership and interpersonal and social ethics were conflated with the samurai ideals prior to the establishment of the centralized Tokugawa power structure. He was well acquainted with the mental prowess of Japan's military lords and with their commitment to the primacy of human potentialities in both the military and civil arts. Theoretically, the ideal drawn from the way of antiquity is decentralized rule, as samurai rulers were originally lords of their fiefs. The construction of a human order in autonomous regions is what Sorai considered to be essential to realizing a society where the people can enjoy peace and tranquility. [source]

    Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    Judee K. Burgoon
    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases,truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias,were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal cue availability and deception. Observers saw a complete videotaped interview (full access to visual, vocal, and verbal cues), heard the complete interview (vocal and verbal access), or read a transcript (verbal access) of a truthful or deceptive suspect being questioned about a mock theft and then rated the interviewee on information, behavior, and image management and truthfulness. Results supported the presence of all four biases, which were most evident when interviewees were deceptive and observers had access to all visual, vocal, and verbal modalities. Deceivers' messages were judged as increasingly complete, honest, clear, and relevant; their behavior as more involved and dominant; and their overall demeanor as more credible, with the addition of nonverbal cues. Deceivers were actually judged as more credible than truthtellers in the audiovisual modality, whereas best discrimination and detection accuracy occurred in the audio condition. Results have implications for what factors influence judgments of a sender's credibility and accuracy in distinguishing truth from deception, especially under conditions where senders are producing messages interactively. Résumé Les biais cognitifs et la disponibilité des indices non verbaux dans la détection du mensonge Dans les situations potentiellement trompeuses, les gens se fient sur des raccourcis mentaux afin d'aider à traiter l,information. Ces jugements heuristiques sont souvent biaisés et ont pour résultat des évaluations erronées de l'honnêteté de l,émetteur. Quatre de ces biais (le biais de vérité, le biais visuel, le biais comportemental et le biais de violation des attentes) furent examinés dans une expérience de jugements qui variait en disponibilité des indices non verbaux et en mensonge. Les observateurs ont vu un entretien complet enregistré sur vidéo (accès complet aux indices visuels, vocaux et verbaux), entendu l'entretien complet (accès vocal et verbal) ou lu une transcription (accès verbal) d,un suspect honnête ou trompeur, interrogéà propos d'un faux vol. Ils ont ensuite classé l,interviewé selon des critères d'information, de comportement, de gestion de l,image et d'honnêteté. Les résultats appuient la présence de chacun des quatre biais, qui étaient le plus évidents lorsque les interviewés mentaient et que les observateurs avaient accès à toutes les modalités visuelles, vocales et verbales. Avec l,ajout des indices non verbaux, les messages des menteurs étaient jugés comme étant de plus en plus complets, honnêtes, clairs et pertinents; leurs comportements comme étant plus complexes et dominants; leur comportement général comme plus crédible. Les menteurs étaient en fait jugés plus crédibles que les personnes honnêtes dans la modalité la plus complète (indices visuels, vocaux et verbaux), tandis que la plus grande exactitude dans la discrimination et la détection s'est produite chez les gens n,ayant eu accès qu'à l,enregistrement audio. Les résultats ont des implications pour les facteurs qui influencent les jugements de la crédibilité d'un émetteur et l,exactitude dans la distinction entre la vérité et le mensonge, surtout dans des conditions où les émetteurs produisent les messages de façon interactive. Mots clés : mensonge, comportement non verbal, communication interpersonnelle, crédibilité, confiance, modalité, CMO Abstract Kognitive Befangenheit und nonverbale Hinweisverfügbarkeit beim Aufdecken von Täuschung In potentiellen Täuschungssituationen greifen Menschen auf mentale Abkürzungen zurück, die ihnen helfen, Informationen zu verarbeiten. Diese heuristischen Urteile sind oft befangen und resultieren in einer fehlerhaften Beurteilung der Aufrichtigkeit des Senders. Vier solcher Befangenheiten , Wahrheitsbefangenheit, visuelle Befangenheit, Verhaltensbefangenheit und Erwartungsverletzungsbefangenheit , untersuchten wir in einem Beurteilungsexperiment mit variierter nonverbaler Hinweisverfügbarkeit und Täuschung. Beobachter sahen ein aufgezeichnetes Video (visueller, vokaler und verbaler Zugang), hörten ein Interview (vokaler und verbaler Zugang) oder lasen ein Manuskript (verbaler Zugang) eines wahrheitsgemäßen oder täuschenden Verdächtigen, der bezüglich eines Entwendungsdiebstahls verhört wurde. Danach beurteilten die Teilnehmer diesen hinsichtlich der Informationen und Verhaltensweisen, des Imagemanagement und der Wahrhaftigkeit. Die Ergebnisse stützen die Existenz aller vier Befangenheiten, die sich am deutlichsten zeigten, wenn Interviewte täuschten und die Beobachter Zugang zu allen visuellen, vokalen und verbalen Modalitäten hatten. Die Botschaft des Täuschenden wurde als zunehmend vollständig, ehrlich, klar und relevant, sein Verhalten als stärker involviert und dominant, und sein allgemeines Verhalten als glaubwürdiger beurteilt, wenn nonverbale Hinweise ergänzt wurden. Täuschende wurden in der AV-Variante sogar als glaubwürdiger beurteilt als jene, die die Wahrheit sagten. Die beste Unterscheidung und Entdeckungsgenauigkeit herrschte in der Audio-Kondition vor. Die Ergebnisse zeigen auf, welche Faktoren die Beurteilung der Glaubwürdigkeit eines Senders und die Genauigkeit bei der Unterscheidung von Wahrheit und Täuschung beeinflussen; insbesondere unter Bedingungen, in denen der Sender die Botschaft interaktiv produziert. Resumen Los Prejuicios Cognitivos y La Disponibilidad de la Clave No Verbal en la Detección del Engaño En situaciones potencialmente engañosas, la gente confía en los atajos mentales para ayudarse en el procesamiento de información. Estos juicios heurísticos son a menudo tendenciosos y dan como resultado evaluaciones imprecisas acerca de la veracidad del emisor. Cuatro de esos prejuicios ,prejuicio sobre la veracidad, prejuicio visual, prejuicio sobre el comportamiento, y prejuicio sobre la violación de expectación ,fueron examinados en un experimento de juicio variando la disponibilidad de la clave no verbal y el engaño. Los observadores vieron una entrevista completa grabada en video (con acceso pleno a las claves visuales, vocales y verbales), escucharon la entrevista en su totalidad (acceso a lo vocal y verbal), ó leyeron una transcripción (acceso a lo verbal) de un sospechoso veraz ó mentiroso cuestionado sobre un presunto robo, luego clasificaron al entrevistado acerca de la información, el comportamiento, el manejo de la imagen y la veracidad. Los resultados respaldaron la presencia de los 4 prejuicios, que fueron más evidentes cuando los entrevistados mintieron y los observadores tuvieron acceso a las modalidades visuales, vocales, y verbales. Los mensajes de los impostores fueron juzgados como más completes, honestos, claros, y relevantes; sus comportamientos fueron más involucrados y dominantes; y sus comportamientos en general fueron más creíbles, con el aditamento de las claves no verbales. Los impostores fueron juzgados actualmente como más creíbles que aquellos que decían la verdad en la modalidad audio visual, mientras que la mayor discriminación y certeza de detección ocurrió en la condición auditiva. Los resultados tienen implicancias sobre qué factores influyen los juicios sobre la credibilidad del emisor de un mensaje y la certeza para distinguir la verdad de la mentira, especialmente bajo condiciones en la cuales los emisores producen mensajes en forma interactiva. Palabra claves: decepción, comportamiento no verbal, comunicación interpersonal, credibilidad, confianza, modalidad, CMC ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Introduction: Researching Democracy and Social Change with Violence in the Foreground

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 3 2009
    Jenny Pearce
    There are many studies of violence within specific fields of the social sciences, but the next stage in our evolving understanding of violence may lie with interdisciplinary approaches. By traversing traditional academic categories, violence as a variable may become more visible in its multiple modes. It is through our ability to see the linkages between interpersonal, cultural, collective, political, state, interstate and structural violences that we can gain a better understanding of its persistence in human interactions. Researchers for this IDS Bulletin set out not only to understand contemporary dynamics of violence, but also to work with people trapped in violent places, spaces and histories who were willing to talk about and act upon their situation. Researching violence in an interactive way with those living in the thick of it posed many ethical, safety, epistemological and methodological challenges. These are documented in this IDS Bulletin alongside findings on the dimensions and impact of violence in different contexts. [source]

    Skills, Flexible Manufacturing Technology, and Work Organization

    H. Frederick Gale
    This study employs a national survey of over 3000 U.S. manufacturing establishments to explore associations between worker skill requirements and use of production and telecommunications technologies, work organization, and other management practices. Ordered probit equations show an empirical link between increases in each of six types of skill requirements, as reported by plant managers, and the use of flexible technologies and work organization practices. Technology use is most strongly linked to computer skill requirements. Work organization practices were strongly associated with problem-solving and interpersonal skill increases, suggesting that new work organization practices are broadening the set of skills sought by manufacturers. Traditional academic skills (e.g., math and reading) also were linked to the use of flexible technologies and work organization practices, but increases in these skill requirements were reported less frequently than were requirements for computer, interpersonal, and problem-solving skills. [source]

    The clinical relevance of infancy: A progress report

    Daniel Stern
    In the past few decades, findings from infant observations have played a key role in the following selected areas: (a) The emphasis now is on interpersonal and intersubjective processes rather than on intrapsychic processes. This is a paradigm shift towards a two-person psychology. (b) The elaboration of the attachment domain has reoriented our views of development and treatment. (c) The success of extended home-visiting programs as a preventive measure for parents and infants at risk has brought an agonizing reappraisal of what makes prevention (and therapy) work. (d) By default, the baby's world is nonverbal. This has led to a productive reexploration of unconsciousness, especially the domain of implicit knowledge. For the future, the following are some of the areas of great promise: (a) Attachment, love and "holding" must be disentangled. (b) We must study how and when the mirror neuron system gets micro- and macroregulated. One is not always open to empathic reception. (c) The articulation between the nonverbal (implicit) with the verbal (explicit) needs far more study. (d) The nonspecific factors of psychotherapy seem to be the most important in bringing about change and prevention. We need a greater systematic study of the nonspecific. (e) The triad and quartet, and so on need further exploration. (f) There are many more, but the beauty of research is that you can't know where it will go next. [source]

    A discourse-analytic approach to the use of English in Cypriot Greek conversations

    Dionysis Goutsos
    The use of English in Cypriot Greek has been a highly contested issue, involving much speculation and prescription but, as yet, little analysis of actual data. This study is a preliminary exploration of the issue, focusing on extensive data from informal conversations between members of a Limassol family. The analysis suggests that instances of language alternation can be accounted for in terms of discourse analytic categories such as the distinction between local and global phenomena and the tri-partite scheme of ideational, interpersonal and sequential functions. The presence of English in Cypriot Greek conversations covers a wide range, from local borrowing to stereotypical sequential or more complex interpersonal and sequential phenomena, and cannot be effectively separated from the role that language alternation plays in speci ?c textual and contextual settings. The discussion suggests that a discourse analytic approach is an indispensable means of studying language alternation phenomena. [source]

    The transference onto God

    Dan Merkur
    Abstract Magical religious practices, defined as instrumental uses of the divine, are devoted to gods and God, in Winnicott's terms, as "subjectively perceived objects," whereas the comparatively rare phenomenon of non-magical religion is devoted to "objective objects." In a "bargain with fate," the divine is a transferential figure whose response to symptomatic cultic behavior is predictable and makes cultic behavior a magical means to control fate. The bargain with fate may be treated as a sublimation of the mother,infant dyad that is isomorphic with pre-Oedipal and Oedipal fixations. The therapeutic goal, at both interpersonal and religious levels of discourse, is to facilitate advance from "object-relating" to "object-usage." Analysis of the transference, arriving at a conception of the divine as a free agent, replaces the concept of fate with a concept of divine grace, interrupting the religious repetition-compulsion. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Extending fairbairn and Sutherland's socio-intrapsychic model to assessment and treatment of a stepfamily

    Carl Bagnini
    Abstract The author describes an unusual adaptation of object relations family therapy tailored to the requirements of symptomatic adult children, their long-divorced parents and their stepfamilies. He worked with the children on understanding their disturbed relationship as an identification with the pre-divorce parental couple. He brought the divorced couple together for sessions to rework their break-up and repair trauma to their children. He had sessions with the current stepfamily members. The design of the treatment called for moving gradually and thoroughly, back and forth, from past to present, interpersonal to intrapsychic, individual to group, and family to stepfamily. Copyright © 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Powerlessness, marginalized identity, and silencing of health concerns: Voiced realities of women living with a mental health diagnosis

    Susan Van Den Tillaart
    ABSTRACT Using a feminist qualitative approach, this study substantiated many earlier research findings that document how women with a mental health diagnosis experience unequal access to comprehensive health care compared to the general population. Accounts of this disparity are documented in the literature, yet the literature has failed to record or attend to the voices of those living with mental health challenges. In this paper, women living with a mental health diagnosis describe their experiences as they interface with the health-care system. The participating women's stories clearly relate the organizational and interpersonal challenges commonly faced when they seek health-care services. The stories include experiences of marginalized identity, powerlessness, and silencing of voiced health concerns. The women tell of encountered gaps in access to health care and incomplete health assessment, screening, and treatment. It becomes clear that personal and societal stigmatization related to the mental health diagnosis plays a significant role in these isolating and unsatisfactory experiences. Lastly, the women offer beginning ideas for change by suggesting starting points to eliminate the institutional and interpersonal obstacles or barriers to their wellness. The concerns raised demand attention, reconsideration, and change by those in the health-care system responsible for policy and practice. [source]

    Characteristics of adolescent depression

    Marie Crowe
    ABSTRACT:, Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that is acknowledged to be increasing in disease burden. The rates of adolescent depression is particularly concerning as they continue to increase. The seriousness and pervasive effects of depression on young people's lives supports the view that research that extends the knowledge in this area is vital. This is a descriptive study of the characteristics of depression in a sample of 121 adolescents attending an outpatient specialist adolescent mental health service in New Zealand. The adolescents were required to complete two self-report measures to assess presence of depressive symptoms, severity of depression, and particular characteristics of the depression. The findings revealed that irritability was the most common characteristic along with other interpersonal and thought processing symptoms. It is important that mental health nurses are able to identify the specific characteristics of adolescent depression that may differ from adult depression in order to manage this patient population effectively. [source]

    To go or stay home and watch: exploring the balance between motives and perceived constraints for major events: a case study of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Daniel C. Funk
    Abstract The current study offers insight into the role of motivation and constraints on behavioural intentions prior to a mega event. The Psychological Continuum Model framework was used to integrate motivation and leisure constraints theory to examine attraction towards the 2008 Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews (N = 47) and a questionnaire (N = 235) distributed in Australia and the USA were used to identify and measure three motivational themes: cultural learning, cultural experience and olympic event interest, and three perceived constraints: structural, interpersonal and intrapersonal. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that motives were positively related to behavioural intentions while constraints were negatively related. Analysis further revealed the interaction between motives and perceived constraints led to two different forms of behavioural intentions; intentions to travel and attend the event vs. stay home to watch the event on TV. Policy and marketing implications are discussed that illustrate the benefits of understanding both motives and perceived constraints for tourism travel. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Commitment Process in a Religious Commune: The Shakers

    Metin M. Cosgel
    Focusing on the Shakers and using census data, this paper quantitatively examines influences on religious commitment and the way these influences differed between new and veteran members. Whereas personal characteristics (age, sex, nativity, and occupation) were the primary sources of influence on the commitment of veteran members, new recruits were also influenced by interpersonal and organizational factors (kinship ties, social bonds, and membership in leading groups). The differential effect of influences on commitment illustrates the nature of the commitment process in a religious commune. [source]