Instantaneous Growth Rate (instantaneous + growth_rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Contribution of fungal biomass to the growth of the shredder, Pycnopsyche gentilis (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

Summary 1.,1. It has been accepted that aquatic hyphomycetes colonising submerged leaves increase the nutritional value of leaf detritus and suggested that fungal biomass plays a greater role in the growth of shredders than leaf tissue itself. However, it is not clear what proportion of the nutritional needs of shredders is met by fungal biomass. 2.,We fed Pycnopsyche gentilis larvae with tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) leaf discs colonised by the aquatic hyphomycete, Anguillospora filiformis, which had been radiolabelled to quantify the contribution of fungal carbon to the growth of the shredder at different larval developmental stages. Instantaneous growth rates of larvae on this diet were also estimated. 3.,When provided with fungal-colonised leaves (14,16% fungal biomass), the third and the fifth instar larvae of P. gentilis grew at the rates of 0.061 and 0.034 day,1, respectively, but on a diet of sterile leaves, both larval instars lost weight. The incorporation rates of fungal carbon were 31.6 ,g C mg,1 AFDM day,1, accounting for 100% of the daily growth rate of the third instar larvae and 8.6 ,g C mg,1 AFDM day,1, accounting for 50% of the daily growth rate of the fifth instar larvae. 4.,These results suggest that leaf material colonised by A. filiformis is a high quality food resource for P. gentilis larvae, and that fungal biomass can contribute significantly to the growth of these larvae. Differences in feeding behaviour and digestive physiology may explain the significantly greater assimilation of fungal biomass by the earlier instar than the final instar. To satisfy their nutritional needs the fifth instar larvae would have to assimilate detrital mass that may have been modified by fungal exoenzymes. [source]

Growth and aggregation of vaterite in seeded-batch experiments

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 11 2004
Abstract Seeded-batch crystallization experiments allowing study of the growth and aggregation of the Vaterite modification of calcium carbonate are reported. Results are reported for initial relative supersaturation (, = S , 1) values in the range 1.66 to 6.70, stirrer speeds in the range 400 and 1200 rpm, and at temperatures of 25 and 40°C. It is found that in all cases the linear rate of growth of the particles is size independent and depends on relative supersaturation squared. The aggregation process is apparently size independent with a rate constant that is directly proportional to the instantaneous growth rate and decreases with increasing stirrer speed. The behavior of the aggregation rate constant is very well described by the model recently proposed by Liew et al., in which the efficiency of the aggregation process is predicted to depend only on the dimensionless strength of the particles and the nature of the flow field. It is concluded that Vaterite forms aggregates with crystalline bridges having an effective strength of approximately 25% of that of calcite or calcium oxalate monohydrate. The fitted parameter L,*/M50 takes on a value of 0.18 ± 0.02. The kinetics and associated model are capable of describing the evolving particle size distributions very well. Finally, a hypothesis is advanced to describe the aggregation of small inorganic crystals in supersaturated solutions. © 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 50: 2772,2782, 2004 [source]

Effect of practical diets with different protein levels on the performance of Farfantepenaeus paulensis juveniles nursed in a zero exchange suspended microbial flocs intensive system

Abstract Farfantepenaeus paulensis juveniles (72 ± 24 mg), were reared in a suspended microbial flocs system and fed practical diets containing increasing amounts of crude protein (250, 300, 350, 400 and 450 g kg,1 CP). Development of microbial flocs was promoted by high aeration rates and fertilization with wheat bran and molasses. Flocs were composed of detritus in the form of flocculated matter colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, cocoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, flagellate and ciliate protozoa and rotifers. Proximate composition analysis of the suspended microbial floc showed CP levels of 304 g kg,1. After 45 days, mean shrimp survival were above 89%, with no significant differences between treatments. Shrimp fed diets with 350 g kg,1 or higher CP content achieved significant higher (P < 0.05) final weight (0.66,0.68 g), weight gain (0.58,0.61 g) and instantaneous growth rate (0.049,0.050), with feed conversion rates (2.17,2.30) significantly lower (P < 0.05). Results show that, when rearing is carried out in a suspended microbial flocs system, dietary CP levels can be kept at 350 g kg,1. Furthermore, results confirm that microbial-based systems allow shrimp culture without compromising the surrounding environment and shows the possible reduction of production costs and fish meal dependence. [source]

Comparison of different types and levels of commercial soybean lecithin supplemented in semipurified diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei Boone

H. Gong
Two 6-week growth trials were conducted to determine the dietary phospholipids (PL) requirement of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles and to compare the effect of different types of soybean lecithin on shrimp growth and survival. In the first trial, a basal diet and diets containing 1.5, 3 or 5% (dry-weight basis) of Type I lecithin (97.6% PL) and 1.5 or 3% of Type II lecithin (71.4% PL) were evaluated. In the second trial, the basal diet and diets containing 1, 2 or 4% of either Type I or Type II lecithin and 1 or 2% of Type III lecithin (48.4% PL) were evaluated. Results showed that there was no interaction between lecithin type and PL level on shrimp growth or survival. Shrimp growth increased with PL levels up to 3,5% of diet. No significant differences were observed for instantaneous growth rate (IGR) of shrimp fed the different types of lecithin at the same inclusion level, and no effect of PL level and lecithin type on shrimp survival was found. Thus, the recommended level of PL supplementation in diets for L. vannamei juveniles ranges from 3 to 5% of diet. [source]

Nitrogen budget for a low-salinity, zero-water exchange culture system: II.

Evaluation of isonitrogenous feeding of various dietary protein levels to Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone)
Abstract This study evaluated the effects of isonitrogenous feeding (60 g dietary protein per kilogram of body weight per day) using experimental feeds with 25%, 30%, 35% and 40% protein on the nitrogen budget, ammonia efflux rate, growth and survival of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei raised in a low-salinity (4 g L,1) zero-water exchange culture system for 4 weeks. No significant differences in weight gain or instantaneous growth rate were observed between the dietary treatments with 35% and 40% protein after 3 weeks of study, or between treatments with 25% and 30% protein after 4 weeks of study. High mortality rates were observed for the 35% and 40% protein treatments, probably associated with high nitrite levels (4.80 and 7.36 mg NO2 -NL,1 respectively) in water. Among the various dietary treatments, 39,46.3% of feed nitrogen was converted to shrimp biomass, 32.8,38.0% and 14.4,39.9% remained within the system as organic and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, and 32.5,39.3% was unaccounted for. The results of the present study showed high nitrogen utilization efficiencies. However, as the nitrogen loading of the zero-water exchange system increased, so did the nitrogen excretion of shrimp, causing a deteriorated general condition of the shrimp, demonstrated by the low ammonia efflux rates recorded at the end of the trial. This study confirms that low-salinity closed systems are particularly susceptible to nitrogen loading. Thus, in these culture systems, low-protein feeds may perform better as they provide more carbon for heterotrophic bacteria and less nitrogen to be degraded and transformed into nitrogenous wastes. [source]

Feeding and growth in captivity of the octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus Gould, 1852

Margarita C Pérez
Abstract The effect of diet on the growth and survival in captivity of the octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus Gould, 1852 was researched to establish culture potential. This is one of two commercially important octopus species that inhabit the Chilean coast. A positive energy budget, averaging 678 J day,1 g of dry weight (dw), was recorded in specimens maintained in tanks and fed ad libitum on a diet of three species of crustacean decapods. On the other hand, the energy budget of octopus specimens fed on the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Hupé) was negative, averaging ,250.90 J day,1 g dw,1. Ingestion rates varied between diets (t=46.45; d.f.=18; P<0.001), but no variations were recorded in energy loss resulting from metabolism (t=0.67; d.f.=16; P>0.05) or ammonia excretion (t=1.39; d.f.=16; P>0.05). An average instantaneous growth rate (IGR) of between 1.96% and 0.49% was recorded in specimens fed on crustaceans, depending on the size of the octopus and the period of time. The IGR in specimens fed on mussels was ,0.32±0.05. The IGR of specimens fed on crustaceans and maintained in suspended systems was 1.36±0.9%. The mean mortality with crustacean and mussel diets was 11.07±5.5% and 74±1% respectively. The results indicate that E. megalocyathus can survive and grow in captivity, both in tanks and in suspended systems, when fed on a diet of crustaceans. [source]

Grow-out of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker; Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in illuminated sea cages

Luis Maria B Garcia
Abstract This paper examines the feasibility of rearing 10,15-day- and 0.7,1.5-month-old seahorse Hippocampus kuda in illuminated sea cages to continue existing hatchery protocols to mass produce H. kuda for trade and enhance depleted wild stocks in their natural habitats. Thawed Acetes (a planktonic crustacean abundant in inshore seas) was fed to juvenile seahorses in lighted and unlighted sea cages while one group in lighted cages was not fed Acetes. After 10,12 weeks of rearing, both mean body weight and stretch height increased in all treatment groups, with lighted cage-reared seahorses fed Acetes being heavier (2 g) and longer (8 cm) than the other two treatment groups. Although instantaneous growth rates declined during the rearing period, these were generally higher among Acetes -fed seahorses in lighted cages (0.02,0.07) compared with those in the unlighted cages with Acetes and lighted cages without Acetes feeding. Mean survivorship in all groups ranged from 9% to 74% after the trials, but mean survivorship of juveniles in lighted cages with Acetes feeding (9,74%) was consistently lower than the two treatment groups as a likely result of crustacean and piscine predators being attracted by light and the odour of leftover Acetes in the lighted cages. These results demonstrate that light-attracted zooplankton prey supplemented by Acetes feeding may provide essential nutrients for the growth of H. kuda juveniles in illuminated sea cages. With further improvement in the grow-out protocol, it may provide a possible alternative livelihood to seahorse fishers and sufficient seed to re-populate depleted wild stocks of H. kuda. [source]