Indirect Influence (indirect + influence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Can solving of wordchains be explained by phonological skills alone?

DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2010
Arve E. Asbjørnsen
Abstract The present study focussed on the determinants for effective solving of the Wordchains Test (WCT) in a normative sample of Norwegian junior high-school students. Forty voluntary participants from a rural school district in Western Norway completed the WCT along with tests of general intellectual capacity, single word and non-word reading, auditory working memory, and visual scanning. All measures correlated significantly with each other except for general non-verbal abilities were not correlated with visual scanning. A stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the WCT as the dependent variable, yielded a model that included single word reading, letter recognition, and working memory as independent variables. This model accounted for 75% of the variance in WCT performance. This finding suggests that phonological skills only have an indirect influence on WCT performance. Thus, the core deficit in dyslexia, i.e. impaired phonological skills, may be related to the development of word recognition skills, but have no direct effect on the WCT performance in a normative sample. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Minority influence: the role of ambivalence toward the source

Angelica Mucchi-Faina
According to literature on social influence, a minority source may indirectly influence group members by fostering ambivalent reactions. Two studies were carried out in order to provide empirical support for this theoretical assumption. In Study 1 participants (n,=,133), were exposed to a counter-attitudinal minority message and ambivalence was manipulated by facilitating the accessibility of either ambivalent (positive and negative) or univalent (positive or negative) thoughts toward the source. We predicted and found more indirect influence in ambivalent condition than in univalent conditions. No effect of ambivalence on direct influence was found. In Study 2 (n,=,127), ambivalence was measured and two possible antecedents of ambivalence, consistency of the minority and personal relevance of the topic for participants, were taken into account. Findings suggest that ambivalence mediates the effects of the two factors on indirect influence. In sum, these studies provide evidence of the importance of ambivalence in minority influence context, an early assumption that was still lacking in strong empirical support. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Impact of Life Events on Perceived Financial Stress, Clothing-Specific Lifestyle, and Retail Patronage: The Recent IMF Economic Crisis in Korea

Soyeon Shim
Using Andreasen's Model of Life Change Effects as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this study was to develop and test a model that depicts the direct and indirect influence of a life event, the Korean International Monetary Fund (IMF) crisis, on financial stress, clothing-specific lifestyle, and retail patronage behavior. A total of 502 females from two major metropolitan cities in Korea responded to a survey questionnaire. A structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypotheses. Several statistical criteria supported theoretical, causal relationships among the measurement models in the study, providing strong support for Andreasen's model. More specifically, the IMF impact had affected retail patronage behavior directly as well as indirectly through clothing-specific lifestyles and financial stress. Both clothing-specific lifestyles and financial stress had an influence on retail patronage behavior. The IMF event had a stronger direct and total impact than financial stress on changes in retail patronage behavior. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. [source]

Semilocalized approach to investigation of chemical reactivity

V. GineityteArticle first published online: 21 JUL 200
Abstract Application of the power series for the one-electron density matrix Gineityte, V., J Mol Struct Theochem 1995, 343, 183 to the case of two interacting molecules is shown to yield a semilocalized approach to investigate chemical reactivity, which is characterized by the following distinctive features: (1) Electron density (ED) redistributions embracing orbitals of the reaction centers of both molecules and of their neighboring fragments are studied instead of the total intermolecular interaction energy; (2) the ED redistributions are expressed directly in the basis of fragmental orbitals (FOs) without passing to the basis of delocalized molecular orbitals (MOs) of initial molecules; (3) terms describing the ED redistributions due to an intermolecular contact arise as additive corrections to the purely monomolecular terms and thereby may be analyzed independently; (4) local ED redistributions only between orbitals of the reaction centers of both molecules are described by lower-order ter s of the power series, whereas those embracing both the reaction centers and their neighborhoods are represented by higher-order terms. As opposed to the standard perturbative methods based on invoking the delocalized (canonical) MOs of isolated molecules, the results of the approach suggested are in-line with the well-known intuition-based concepts of the classic chemistry concerning reactivity, namely, with the assumption about different roles of the reaction center and of its neighborhood in a chemical process, with the expectation about extinction of the indirect influence of a certain fragment (substituent) when its distance from the reaction center grows, etc. Such a parallelism yields quantum chemical analogs for the classic concepts and thereby gives an additional insight into their nature. The scope of validity of these concepts also is discussed. Applicability of the approach suggested to specific chemical problems is illustrated by a brief consideration of the SN2 and AdE2 reactions. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem 94: 302,316, 2003 [source]

The International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association social responsibility working group and human rights

Jenny Owens
This chapter describes how the oil and gas industry is responding to one specific challenge to sustainable development , the promotion of human rights. The human rights activities and practices of the industry fall into three categories: direct responsibility, shared responsibility and indirect influence. Specific responses to human rights issues are illustrated through case studies from some of the member companies of the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association. The chapter demonstrates that the oil and gas industry has achieved substantial progress in establishing and implementing human rights policies and practices. However, the debate between industry, representatives of civil society and governments over the roles, responsibilities and accountability for human rights of transnational corporations in general, and of the oil and gas industry in particular, continues. While under international law the responsibility to protect human rights rests primarily with governments, companies and others, including non-governmental organisations and multilateral organisations, can support human rights. The industry recognises the need to develop measures to help address human rights challenges and that this effort will require co-operation and shared responsibility among all relevant actors. [source]

Highly Active and Recyclable Heterogeneous Iridium Pincer Catalysts for Transfer Dehydrogenation of Alkanes

Zheng Huang
Abstract Pincer-ligated iridium complexes have proven to be highly effective catalysts for the dehydrogenation and transfer-dehydrogenation of alkanes. Immobilization onto a solid support offers significant potential advantages in the application of such catalysts particularly with respect to catalyst separation and recycling. We describe three approaches toward such immobilization: (i) covalent attachment to a Merrifield resin, (ii) covalent bonding to silica via a pendant alkoxysilane group, and (iii) adsorption on ,-alumina (,-Al2O3), through basic functional groups on the para- position of the pincer ligand. The simplest of these approaches, adsorption on ,-Al2O3, is also found to be the most effective, yielding catalysts that are robust, recyclable, and comparable to or even more active than the corresponding species in solution. Spectroscopic evidence (NMR, IR) and studies of catalytic activity support the hypothesis that binding occurs at the para- substituent and that this has only a relatively subtle and indirect influence on catalytic behavior. [source]

Presumed Influence on Peer Norms: How Mass Media Indirectly Affect Adolescent Smoking

Albert C. Gunther
In the context of adolescent smoking adoption, this study examined the presumed influence hypothesis, a theoretical model suggesting that smoking-related media content may have a significant indirect influence on adolescent smoking via its effect on perceived peer norms. That is, adolescents may assume that smoking-related messages in the mass media will influence the attitudes and behaviors of their peers and these perceptions in turn can influence adolescents' own smoking behaviors. Analyzing data from a sample of 818 middle school students, we found that both pro- and antismoking messages indirectly influenced smoking susceptibility through their perceived effect on peers. However, this indirect effect was significantly stronger for prosmoking messages than for antismoking messages, an outcome that most likely increases adolescents' susceptibility to cigarettes. [source]

A true impact factor: N. Scott McNutt, MD

Bruce R. Smoller
N. Scott McNutt has recently retired from his long-standing position as a Professor in Pathology and Internal Medicine (Dermatology) at Weill Medical College at Cornell University. He leaves behind a legacy that includes trainees throughout the world, many of whom continue to contribute to the world of academic dermatopathology. His obvious love for true scholarship is reflected as much by his indirect influence on hundreds of trainees as by his already impressive personal bibliography. [source]

Ecological play in the coevolutionary theatre: genetic and environmental determinants of attack by a specialist weevil on milkweed

Anurag A. Agrawal
Summary 1We studied the genetic and environmental determinants of attack by the specialist stem-attacking weevil, Rhyssomatus lineaticollis on Asclepias syriaca. 2In natural populations, the extent of stem damage and oviposition were positively correlated with stem width, but not stem height. We hypothesized that both genotypic and environmental factors influencing stem morphology would affect attack by weevils. 3In a common garden study with 21 full-sib families of milkweed, both phenotypic and genetic correlations indicated that weevils impose more damage and lay more eggs on thicker stemmed plants. 4Of three other putative resistance traits, only latex production showed a negative genetic correlation with weevil attack. 5When neighbouring grasses were clipped to reduce light competition, focal milkweed plants received up to 2.6 times the photosynthetically active radiation and 1.6 times the red to far red ratio of light compared with plants with intact grass neighbours. Focal milkweed plants were therefore released from the classic neighbour avoidance response and had 20% shorter internode lengths, were 30% shorter, and had 90% thicker stems compared with controls. 6Clipping of grass neighbours resulted in nearly 2.7 times the damage and oviposition by stem weevils, thus supporting the hypothesis of an environmental or trait-mediated indirect influence on resistance. 7Although attack of plants by weevils strongly increases the probability of stem mortality, thicker stems experience lower mortality, thus counteracting the selective impact of weevil-induced plant mortality. 8The determinants of attack on milkweeds include both genetic variation for stem thickness and an indirect environmental influence of plant neighbours. If milkweeds and weevils are coevolving, the interaction is diffuse because the ecological neighbourhood is likely to modify the patterns of reciprocal natural selection. [source]

Androgen profiles among Egyptian adults considering liver status

Cristina E Aguilar
Abstract Background and aim:, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and environmental hepatotoxins may have an indirect influence on health by altering the synthesis and function of hormones, particularly reproductive hormones. We aimed to evaluate liver diseases and sex steroid hormones in Egypt, which has the highest prevalence of HCV worldwide. Methods:, We measured markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV and schistosomiasis infection as well as liver function in 159 apparently healthy subjects. We measured total testosterone (T), sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin, and calculated the free androgen index. Results:, Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 51% of men and 42% of women. Based on HCV reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) of 44 men and 33 women, 11% of men and 21% of women showed HCV viremia. There was schistosomiasis in 25% of men and 9% of women, and mixed HCV viremia and schistosomiasis in 57% of men and 52% of women. Compared with men with schistosomiasis only (mean 593.3 ± 73.4 ng/dL), T was higher in men with mixed HCV viremia and schistosomiasis (mean 854.5 ± 47.9 ng/dL; P = 0.006) and men with mixed chronic HCV and schistosomiasis (mean 812.1 ± 43.3 ng/dL; P = 0.001). Men with mixed chronic HCV and schistosomiasis had also significantly higher SHBG (mean 57.7 ± 3.9 ng/dL) than males with schistosomiasis only (mean 34.8 ± SE 4.5 ng/dL; P = 0.0003). Conclusion:, Future investigations should consider that a high prevalence of asymptomatic liver disease may alter associations between hormone concentrations and chronic disease etiology. [source]

The Role of the Physical Environment in Supporting Organizational Creativity

Supaporn Vithayathawornwong M.S.
ABSTRACT Creativity has been underscored as a key factor to organizational adaptability and competitiveness in today's rapidly changing business environment. Designing as well as managing work environments that facilitate creativity have therefore received growing attention, resulting in a multitude of research examining the social-psychological work environment. Few studies, however, have focused on the contribution of the physical work environment to supporting creativity in the workplace. This study focuses on the role of the physical environment in supporting creativity in organizations by identifying specific physical features and attributes of the work environment perceived to promote or inhibit creativity. The research design compares four organizations publicly acclaimed for their innovative social-psychological work environments, but which are distinctly different in terms of the physical work environment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of survey questionnaires (N = 130). Results indicate that the physical work environment exerts indirect influence on creativity by contributing to two significant social-psychological conditions that are conducive to creativity, namely dynamism and freedom. The study specifies attributes of the physical work environment perceived to be positively and negatively associated with both of these conditions. [source]

Legal Change and Gender Inequality: Changes in Muslim Family Law in India

LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 3 2008
Narendra Subramanian
Group-specific family laws are said to provide women fewer rights and impede policy change. India's family law systems specific to religious groups underwent important gender-equalizing changes over the last generation. The changes in the laws of the religious minorities were unexpected, as conservative elites had considerable indirect influence over these laws. Policy elites changed minority law only if they found credible justification for change in group laws, group norms, and group initiatives, not only in constitutional rights and transnational human rights law. Muslim alimony and divorce laws were changed on this basis, giving women more rights without abandoning cultural accommodation. Legal mobilization and the outlook of policy makers,specifically their approach to regulating family life, their understanding of group norms, and their normative vision of family life,shaped the major changes in Indian Muslim law. More gender-equalizing legal changes are possible based on the same sources. [source]

Managerial Knowledge Sharing: The Role of Individual, Interpersonal, and Organizational Factors

Lin Lu
abstract This paper describes two studies conducted in the People's Republic of China aimed at improving understanding of knowledge sharing among managers. Study 1 found evidence for the role of two individual factors: greed which reduced knowledge sharing, and self-efficacy which increased it. In addition, co-worker collegiality has an indirect influence on knowledge sharing by lowering greed and raising self-efficacy. Study 2 replicated the key findings of Study 1 and also identified the influence of organizational support on knowledge sharing. Organizational support led to higher utilization of information and communication technologies, resulting in more knowledge sharing, especially for explicit as opposed to implicit knowledge. [source]

The mediating role of appraisal and coping in the relationship between optimism-pessimism and quality of life

I. Schou
Abstract Longitudinal data from 165 women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer were used to investigate if the relationship between optimism,pessimism and quality of life (QOL) is attributed to the appraisal and coping strategies. The women completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), as a measurement of optimism,pessimism, the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scale, as a measure for coping, a VAS for appraisal and the EORTC QLQ-C30, as a measure for QOL at two time points: at diagnosis and 12-months after breast cancer surgery. Optimism,pessimism had both a direct and indirect influence on QOL. Two coping strategies were particularly strong mediators for the indirect influence: fighting spirit and hopeless/helpless. Optimists responded with fighting spirit, which had a positive effect on their QOL. On the other hand, pessimists responded with hopeless/helplessness, which had a negative effect on their QOL. The relationship between pessimism and QOL at time of diagnosis was also mediated by appraisal, such as threat. The two coping strategies remained fairly stable over the 12 months within the optimists and pessimists. The results suggest that the influence of optimism and pessimism on QOL appears to be mediated by coping both before and after treatment for breast cancer. Fighting spirit and hopeless/helplessness appear to reflect the characteristic coping strategies for optimists and pessimists. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ted White's Legacy to Gibbsite Precipitation Research

D. Ilievski
Professor E.T. (Ted) White's direct contribution to the understanding of gibbsite precipitation and to the modelling of this process has been enormous. In addition, he has had, and will continue to have, a profound indirect influence on developments in this area through former students, their students, and others following upon work that he has pioneered. The outcomes have been both academically and commercially important. The precipitation of gibbsite (aluminium trihydroxide) is a critical step in the production of alumina from bauxite, and Australia produces over 25% of the world's smelter grade alumina, earning about $3.5bn in revenue. This paper traces some of the recent developments in this area that have built upon the foundations laid by the seminal studies of Ted and his students. [source]

Environmental factors and population fluctuations of Akodon azarae (Muridae: Sigmodontinae) in central Argentina

Abstract The aim of this work was to explore the relationship between population density of Akodon azarae (Muridae: Sigmodontinae) and climatic and environmental variables, and determine which of them are associated to within and among-year changes in rodent abundance in agro-ecosystems from south Córdoba, Argentina. The study was carried out in a rural area of central Argentina, from 1983 to 2003. Density was estimated as a relative density index (RDI). Temperature, precipitation and humidity were obtained from records of the National University of Rio Cuarto. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature were recorded from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1983,1998) and Landsat (1998,2003) imagery data sets. We performed simple correlations, multiple regressions and distributed lag analysis. Direct association of climatic and environmental variables with RDI was in general, low. The amount of variability in seasonal changes in density explained by climatic and environmental variables altogether varied from 10% to 70%. Seasonal population fluctuations were influenced by NDVI and rainfall with one and two seasons of delay. Autumn maximum density of the species was also associated with vegetation and rainfall of previous seasons. There also seemed to be an indirect influence of rainfall through vegetation given that we found a positive correlation between them. Results were consistent with basic aspects of the ecology of the species, such as its strong preference for highly covered areas, which provide food and protection from predators, likely increasing its reproductive success. Therefore, in the rural area central Argentina, A. azarae showed seasonal fluctuations with delayed influence of rainfall and vegetation and indirect effects of rainfall. [source]

Neuroticism, alexithymia, negative affect and positive affect as predictors of medically unexplained symptoms in primary care1

V. De Gucht
Background:, Somatization has been defined in a number of ways. Despite their differences, these definitions have one element in common, namely the presence of somatic symptoms that cannot be explained (adequately) by organic findings. Objective: The primary objectives of the dissertation were to gain a better insight into the concept of somatization, and to study (prospectively) the relationship between neuroticism and alexithymia, two personality traits that have been shown to be related to somatization, the affective state dimensions positive and negative affect (or psychological distress) and medically unexplained symptoms. Method: A selective review was conducted regarding conceptual and methodological issues related to somatization. A total number of 318 patients, presenting to their primary care physician with medically unexplained symptoms, participated in the prospective study. Both at baseline and at 6-month follow-up a number of measures were filled out with respect to somatization, neuroticism, alexithymia, negative and positive affect, anxiety and depression. Results: The concept of somatization was clarified, thereby making use of the distinction between presenting and functional somatization. The personality traits neuroticism and alexithymia were found to have an indirect influence on symptom reports. Both the cross-sectional and follow-up data pointed to the importance of positive and negative affect as determinants of (changes in) number of symptoms (over time). Negative affect, together with the alexithymia dimension measuring difficulty identifying feelings, predicted symptom persistence. Conclusions: The theoretical as well as therapeutic implications of the present paper may give an impetus to new research in the domain of somatization. [source]

The role of allergic rhinitis in upper respiratory tract inflammatory diseases

Y. Kurono
Summary The number of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) is increasing. Furthermore, patients with otitis media with effusion (OME) and chronic sinusitis (CS) are frequently complicated with AR. These findings suggest that AR has an impact on the pathogenesis of both OME and CS. The direct and indirect influence of AR on OME and CS was investigated by clinical and experimental studies to clarify the mechanism by which type I allergic reaction is associated with OME and CS. Clinical findings of patients with OME or CS complicated with AR were analysed and compared with those of nonallergic subjects. Samples such as sinus effusions and middle ear effusions (MEE) were collected from the patients and infiltration of inflammatory cells and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines determined. In addition, previous reports discussing the relationship between AR and OME or CS are reviewed. Eosinophil infiltration and oedema were remarkable in paranasal sinus mucosa of patients with CS complicated with AR, suggesting the presence of type I allergic reaction in sinus mucosa. However, there was little evidence of eosinophils in sinus effusions. Endotoxin was frequently detected in sinus effusions of patients with CS having AR as well as suppurative CS. Hypoxia was also considered an important factor inducing sinus pathology. Eosinophils and IgE antibodies in MEE were not increased in OME patients with AR. Anti-allergic medicine was effective in OME patients complicated with AR and improvement of nasal symptoms significantly correlated with that of ear symptoms. AR might be directly and indirectly associated with the pathogenesis of OME and CS. [source]

Revisiting the specificity of the MHC class,II transactivator CIITA in vivo


Abstract CIITA is a master regulatory factor for the expression of MHC class,II (MHC-II) and accessory genes involved in Ag presentation. It has recently been suggested that CIITA also regulates numerous other genes having diverse functions within and outside the immune system. To determine whether these genes are indeed relevant targets of CIITA in vivo, we studied their expression in CIITA-transgenic and CIITA-deficient mice. In contrast to the decisive control of MHC-II and related genes by CIITA, nine putative non-MHC target genes (Eif3s2, Kpna6, Tap1, Yars, Col1a2, Ctse, Ptprr, Tnfsf6 and Plxna1) were found to be CIITA independent in all cell types examined. Two other target genes, encoding IL-4 and IFN-,, were indeed found to be up- and down-regulated, respectively, in CIITA-transgenic CD4+ T,cells. However, there was no correlation between MHC-II expression and this Th2 bias at the level of individual transgenic T,cells, indicating an indirect control by CIITA. These results show that MHC-II-restricted Ag presentation, and its indirect influences on T,cells, remains the only pathway under direct control by CIITA in vivo. They also imply that precisely regulated MHC-II expression is essential for maintaining a proper Th1-Th2 balance. [source]

Altered kelp (Laminariales) phlorotannins and growth under elevated carbon dioxide and ultraviolet-B treatments can influence associated intertidal food webs

Abstract Due to the importance of brown algae, such as kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyta), within most cool nearshore environments, any direct responses of kelp to multiple global changes could alter the integrity of future coastal marine systems. Fifty-five-day manipulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ultraviolet light (UVB) within outdoor sea-tanks, approximating past, present and two predicted future levels, examined the direct influences on Saccharina latissima (=Laminaria saccharina) and Nereocystis luetkeana development and biochemistry, as well as the indirect influences on a marine herbivore (Tegula funebralis; Gastropoda, Mollusca) and on naturally occurring intertidal detritivores. Kelp species displayed variable directional (negative and positive growth) and scale responses to CO2 and UVB manipulations, which was influenced by interactions. Kelp phlorotannin (phenolic) production in blade tissues was induced by elevated UVB levels, and especially enhanced (additively) by elevated CO2, further suggesting that some actively growing kelp species are carbon limited in typical nearshore environments. Negative indirect effects upon detritivore consumers fed CO2 -manipulated kelp blade tissues were detected, however, no statistical relationships existed among UVB-treated tissues, and test herbivores did not distinguish between phlorotannin-altered CO2: UVB-treated kelp blade tissues. Results suggest that past and future conditions differentially benefit these kelp species, which implies a potential for shifts in species abundance and community composition. Higher CO2 conditions can indirectly impede marine decay processes delaying access to recycled trace nutrients, which may be disruptive to the seasonal regrowth of algae and/or higher trophic levels of nearshore ecosystems. [source]

Justice Expectations and Applicant Perceptions

Bradford S. Bell
Expectations, which are beliefs about a future state of affairs, constitute a basic psychological mechanism that underlies virtually all human behavior. Although expectations serve as a central component in many theories of organizational behavior, they have received limited attention in the organizational justice literature. The goal of this paper is to introduce the concept of justice expectations and explore its implications for understanding applicant perceptions. To conceptualize justice expectations, we draw on research on expectations conducted in multiple disciplines. We discuss the three sources of expectations , direct experience, indirect influences, and other beliefs , and use this typology to identify the likely antecedents of justice expectations in selection contexts. We also discuss the impact of expectations on attitudes, cognitions, and behaviors, focusing specifically on outcomes tied to selection environments. Finally, we explore the theoretical implications of incorporating expectations into research on applicant perceptions and discuss the practical significance of justice expectations in selection contexts. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: The biogeography of avian extinctions on oceanic islands

Tim J. Karels
Abstract Aim, To test the influences of island area, island isolation, and human-introduced mammalian predators on avian extinctions that have occurred on oceanic islands worldwide. Location, The oceanic islands of the world. Methods, We augmented and re-examined an existing data set for 218 oceanic islands by means of causal modelling using path analysis (a form of structural equation modelling) and a null model. Results, The number of extinctions was not a simple function of the number of bird species on the various islands. Whereas introduced mammalian predators had an influence on the number of extinctions, island area (via indirect influences) and isolation (via direct influences) were equally or more important. Main conclusions, The multiple influences of physical and biotic factors on past extinctions can be revealed through modelling the causal influences of physical attributes of islands on biological characteristics, and the causal influences of both physical and biological characteristics on extinctions. [source]

Pharmaceutical company influences on medication prescribing and their potential impact on quality use of medicines

G. J. Kyle BPharm MClinPharm
Summary Background:, Pharmaceuticals are big business, reporting strong market growth year after year. The ,gatekeepers' of this market are prescribers of medicines, who are the major target of pharmaceutical companies, utilizing direct and indirect influences. Methods:, This paper draws on previous research investigating pharmaceutical company prescribing influences to develop a qualitative model demonstrating the synergism between commercial influences on prescribing. The generic model was used to explore a realistic but hypothetical scenario to ascertain the applicability of the model. Results and Discussion:, A generic influence model was developed. The model was readily able to be adapted to reflect a realistic practice scenario. Conclusion:, Prescriber awareness of the linkages between various seemingly separate marketing techniques could potentially improve medicines usage in an evidence-based practice paradigm. [source]

Habitat and abundance of Balitoridae in small rivers of central Thailand

F. W. H. Beamish
Balitorids were collected, by electrofishing, from small rivers across central Thailand between October 2000 and March 2004. Total balitorid abundance for the 18 species averaged 3·8% of the cumulative total for all fishes. Balitorid species numbers and abundance varied directly with elevation to c. 400 m, substratum particle size and ambient silica concentration. Species numbers at stations were modest and few species were widely distributed. Species associations related significantly with elevation, temperature and ambient concentrations of dissolved oxygen and silica. Turbidity was also significant but probably an artefact. Habitat separation clearly occurs among some balitorids, particularly the less common species, and probably represents species-specific direct and indirect habitat effects. The more common balitorid species tended to occur in similar habitats where the significant factors approximated average values. For these species, coexistence is suggested to occur through food resource sharing possibly facilitated through adaptations. Balitorid distributions in low-order rivers are attributed to the direct and indirect influences of the environment on energy available for the performance of essential activities. [source]

Determinants of physical activity among Taiwanese adolescents: An application of the health promotion model,

Tsu-Yin Wu
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among interpersonal influences (i.e., social support, norms, modeling), behavior-specific cognitions (i.e., self-efficacy, perceived benefits/barriers), competing demands, and physical activity among Taiwanese adolescents (N,=,832). The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceived self-efficacy was the most important predictor of physical activity. Interpersonal influences, when considered in total, had a weak and nonsignificant direct effect on physical activity but had indirect effects on physical activity thorough perceived benefits and perceived self-efficacy. When sources of interpersonal influences were considered separately, parental influences did not have direct effects on physical activity. In contrast, peers did have a significant direct effect on physical activity and also indirect influences on physical activity through perceived self-efficacy. All variables accounted for 30% of the variance in physical activity. Results of this study identify important influences useful to health professionals for promoting physical activity in this population. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Res Nurs Health 25:25,36, 2002. [source]