Immunological Responses (immunological + response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Immunological Response to (1,4)-,- d -Glucan in the Lung and Spleen of Endotoxin-Stimulated Juvenile Rats

BASIC AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Ectis A. Velazquez
Experimental groups (n = 16/group) included controls with an intraperitoneal injection of saline, endotoxaemic rats with a non-lethal dose of 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin, and endotoxaemic rats treated with two doses of 10 mg/kg ,-DG, intraperitoneally, 2 and 4 hr after endotoxin injection. At 24 hr of treatment, rats were euthanized and lungs and spleen were removed for cytokines determination and lung injury. Endotoxaemia increased IL-1, concentration by fivefold in both organs, while creating a moderate pulmonary hypercellularity (demonstrated by about 11% increase in the alveolar-septal thickening and 11% decrease in the alveolar-interstitial space ratio). In the lung, ,-DG treatment reduced concentrations of IL-1, by 30% (p > 0.05), IL-6 by 43% (p < 0.01), IFN-, by 46% (p < 0.01) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, by 31% (p > 0.05) compared to endotoxaemia. In the spleen, ,-DG treatment decreased the ratio of IL-1, to IL-10 by 55% (p < 0.05), demonstrating an anti-inflammatory trend. These data suggest that ,-DG differentially modulates cytokine response in the lung and spleen and modifies the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance during an early period of endotoxaemia in juvenile rats. [source]


Repressive Coping and Blood Measures of Disease Risk: Lipids and Endocrine and Immunological Responses to a Laboratory Stressor,

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2000
Steven D. Barger
Relations between repressive coping and a variety of health-related variahles including insulin, lipids, catecholamines, and cellular immune components, were investigated in a laboratory study of acute stress among a sample of healthy male college students (N - 83). Compared to nonrepressors, at baseline, repressors had fewer numbers of circulating CD4 (T-helper) cells, greater numbers of natural killer (NK) cells. lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a higher total/HDL cholesterol ratio, and higher fasting insulin levels. In response to an acute laboratory stressor (Stroop Color Word Conflict Test). repressors demonstrated an attenuated increase in the number of circulating NK cells compared to nonrepressors. Confounds such as physical activity, age, and smoking were unrelated to the dependent measures. [source]


Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 is strongly associated with intensity of chronic inflammation, particularly in antrum mucosa: an extension of an 18-year follow-up study of chronic gastritis in Saaremaa, Estonia

FEMS IMMUNOLOGY & MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
Tamara Vorobjova
Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis and leads to development of atrophy in some cases. There is evidence that the heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of H. pylori is involved in induction of chronic inflammation. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori HSP60 in an adult cohort from Saaremaa, Estonia (68 persons, median age 57 years), with a high prevalence of antibodies to cell surface proteins of H. pylori (92%) and a well characterized dynamics of chronic gastritis in an 18-year follow-up study, was tested using purified H. pylori HSP60 at a concentration of 1 ,g ml,1 with ELISA. The state of the gastric mucosa and the presence of H. pylori in histological sections in the samples of 1979 and 1997 were assessed in accordance with the Sydney system. Seropositivity for H. pylori HSP60 was 65%. Immunological response to H. pylori HSP60 is associated with the morphological presence of H. pylori in the antrum and corpus (P=0.01) and is strongly correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation, particularly in the antrum mucosa (r=0.34; P=0.003; OR=5.97 (95% CI 1.21,29.3)), but is not associated with development of atrophy during 18 years of follow-up, or with the activity of gastritis. This finding supports the evidence that immunological response to H. pylori HSP60 may play a role in triggering of the inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa. [source]


Hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal ALT levels: biological peculiarities and update of the natural history of liver disease at 10 years

JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS, Issue 5 2006
M. Persico
Summary., Some chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients exhibit persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (PNAL). Patients with PNAL experience significantly milder disease. In order to understand the differences between CHC patients with elevated ALT levels compared with those with PNAL better, we compared epidemiological, immunological and histological findings, in particular, the value of proliferating hepatocyte activity (PCNA) between the two groups of patients. We studied 40 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers with increased ALT who underwent liver biopsy for histological diagnosis and determination of clinical prognosis, and 24 PNAL patients under follow-up for 10 years. Immunological response to different HCV genomic epitopes was tested in both the control group and in PNAL subjects. PCNA values from liver specimens of all patients as well as liver biopsies of PNAL patients at time points 0 and 5 years were calculated according to Hall et al.Age, sex and body mass index (BMI) were not significantly different between the two groups. The median liver histology stage was significantly higher in HCV carriers vs the PNAL group (2.5, range = 2,6 vs 1.5, range = 1,2; P < 0.01). Among PNAL patients, histological stage was not statistically different at the three time points considered. Interferon (IFN)-gamma production was comparable in the two groups. PCNA was significantly higher in the group with elevated ALT levels vs the PNAL group (8%, range = 4,15%vs 5% range = 3,8%; P < 0.05) and no statistically significant differences were found in PNAL patients at time points 0, 5 and 10 years. This study confirms that progression to cirrhosis is slow or absent in PNAL patients after 10 years of follow-up. Accordingly, the hepatic proliferative activity index is low and seems to be stable over time. [source]


Immunological response to mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in cancer patients: a four-case series

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
Nilo Esvalter Gardin
Abstract European mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used in complementary cancer treatment, but little is known concerning its effects on immunological parameters, although there is evidence that Viscum may stimulate the immune system. In this study, a trial was conducted with cancer patients to determine whether Viscum album extracts could improve the results of immune tests. These were: white blood cell count (leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes), CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, intradermal tests of delayed hypersensitivity (candidin, trichophytin, purified protein derivative-PPD), complement C3 and C4, and immunoglobulin A, G and M. Four patients received seven doses of subcutaneous Viscum album 20 mg, twice weekly. Immunological tests were carried out before and after treatment, and an increase in several parameters of humoral and cellular immunity were shown. Apart from reactions around the injection sites, treatment was well tolerated and all patients benefited from it. These results suggest that Viscum album can enhance humoral and cellular immune responses in cancer patients, but further studies attesting to the possible clinical impact of these immunological effects are necessary. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Immunological response to cytomegalovirus in congenitally infected neonates

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
J. Hassan
Summary Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection worldwide and occurs as a result of transplacental transmission of the virus. The human neonate is highly susceptible to infection due to a combination of immaturity of the immune system and antigenic inexperience. This study uses the in vivo model of congenital CMV to examine both the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vertically infected neonates and their mothers. Ten pairs of matched neonates and their mothers were evaluated for specific IgM responses to three immunodominant CMV antigens: pp38 (pUL80a), pp52 (pUL44) and pp150 (pUL32). In contrast to conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing for CMV-specific IgM, which found five of the mothers and four of the neonates to be positive, Western immunoblotting showed all 10 adults and nine newborns to be positive. Eight mothers and nine newborns had serological evidence of primary infection. All neonates showed a response to pp38, an assembly protein, nine responded to the pp52 immediate early antigen but only four had reactivity to the pp150 tegument associated protein. Of the mothers, eight had pp38 reactivity, 10 showed a response to the pp52 antigen and seven to the pp150 antigen. T cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring cytokines using a multiplex microarray assay. Levels of interferon (IFN)-, were high in both groups [mean ± standard error of the mean (s.e.m.): neonates = 657 ± 238 pg/ml, mothers = 1072 ± 677 pg/ml, pNS]; however, neonates had significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-8 (316 ± 136 pg/ml versus 48 ± 28 pg/ml, P < 0·005). Similar levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-10 and IL-12 were measured in both groups, but levels of IL-1,, IL-1,, IL-4, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, were either absent or low. In response to CMV, neonates and adults mount a predominant T helper 1 (Th1) response, as evidenced by the presence of IL-2, IL-8, IL-12 and IFN-, with concomitant lack of IL-4. These findings suggest that the neonate, when presented with infection in utero, is capable of mounting an individual response; however, the lower IFN-, and higher IL-8 levels suggest reduced immune responsiveness when compared to their adult counterparts. [source]


Host immune responses in ex vivo approaches to cutaneous gene therapy targeted to keratinocytes

EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2005
Z. Lu
Abstract:, Epidermal gene therapy may benefit a variety of inherited skin disorders and certain systemic diseases. Both in vivo and ex vivo approaches of gene transfer have been used to target human epidermal stem cells and achieve long-term transgene expression in immunodeficient mouse/human chimera models. Immunological responses however, especially in situations where a neoantigen is expressed, are likely to curtail expression and thereby limit the therapy. In vivo gene transfer to skin has been shown to induce transgene-specific immune responses. Ex vivo gene transfer approaches, where keratinocytes are transduced in culture and transplanted back to patient, however, may avoid signals provided to the immune system by in vivo administration of vectors. In the current study, we have developed a stable epidermal graft platform in immunocompetent mice to analyze host responses in ex vivo epidermal gene therapy. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a neoantigen and an ex vivo retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to mouse primary epidermal cultures depleted of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), we show induction of GFP-specific immune responses leading to the clearance of transduced cells. Similar approach in immunocompetent mice tolerant to GFP resulted in permanent engraftment of transduced cells and continued GFP expression. Activation of transgene-specific immune responses in ex vivo gene transfer targeted to keratinocytes require cross-presentation of transgene product to APCs, a process that is most amenable to immune modulation. This model may be used to explore strategies to divert transgene-specific immune responses to less destructive or tolerogenic ones. [source]


Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 is strongly associated with intensity of chronic inflammation, particularly in antrum mucosa: an extension of an 18-year follow-up study of chronic gastritis in Saaremaa, Estonia

FEMS IMMUNOLOGY & MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
Tamara Vorobjova
Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis and leads to development of atrophy in some cases. There is evidence that the heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of H. pylori is involved in induction of chronic inflammation. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori HSP60 in an adult cohort from Saaremaa, Estonia (68 persons, median age 57 years), with a high prevalence of antibodies to cell surface proteins of H. pylori (92%) and a well characterized dynamics of chronic gastritis in an 18-year follow-up study, was tested using purified H. pylori HSP60 at a concentration of 1 ,g ml,1 with ELISA. The state of the gastric mucosa and the presence of H. pylori in histological sections in the samples of 1979 and 1997 were assessed in accordance with the Sydney system. Seropositivity for H. pylori HSP60 was 65%. Immunological response to H. pylori HSP60 is associated with the morphological presence of H. pylori in the antrum and corpus (P=0.01) and is strongly correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation, particularly in the antrum mucosa (r=0.34; P=0.003; OR=5.97 (95% CI 1.21,29.3)), but is not associated with development of atrophy during 18 years of follow-up, or with the activity of gastritis. This finding supports the evidence that immunological response to H. pylori HSP60 may play a role in triggering of the inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa. [source]


Determinants of response to first HAART regimen in antiretroviral-naďve patients with an estimated time since HIV seroconversion

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 1 2006
R Thiébaut
Objective To study the determinants of immunological and virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in naďve patients, adjusting for time since HIV-1 seroconversion. Design Data from HIV-cohort studies where dates of seroconversion have been reliably estimated. Methods In previously untreated patients, short- and long-term marker responses from HAART initiation (three or more antiretroviral drugs) to the end of follow-up or any treatment modification were considered using mixed effects models accounting for undetectable HIV viral load and informative dropout. Results In total, 943 patients were treated with a first HAART regimen for a median of 29 months. In adjusted analyses, compared with a reference group of homosexual men without AIDS initiating treatment 4 years after seroconversion, injecting drug users (IDUs) were treated at similar CD4 and HIV RNA levels but had poorer short-term virological response (2.54 vs 2.13 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at 1.5 months, P=0.03) and poorer long-term immunological response (522 vs 631 cells/,L at 24 months, P<0.0001). Although individuals with AIDS at HAART initiation had lower CD4 counts (206 vs 382 cells/,L, P<0.0001), their immunological responses were similar to those of individuals without AIDS. Similarly, individuals further from seroconversion started HAART at lower CD4 counts (e.g. 311 vs 382 cells/,L at vs before 9 years from seroconversion, P<0.0001), but had similar CD4 responses. However, they experienced poorer long-term virological response (0.67 log10 copies/mL/year smaller decline, P<0.0001) compared to those treated before 9 years from seroconversion. Conclusion Taking into account the time elapsed since seroconversion, this study suggests that careful choices of initial treatment should be made and intensive follow-up carried out in high-risk subgroups such as IDUs who have poorer responses. [source]


Immunotherapy against metastatic renal cell carcinoma with mature dendritic cells

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 4 2007
Akihiko Matsumoto
Objective: We performed a clinical trial of immunotherapy using autologous mature dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with autologous tumor lysate, for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Patients with refractory metastatic RCC were enrolled in the study. All of them received interferon (IFN)-, treatment after nephrectomy and were followed over 3 months prior to this study. Autologous monocyte-derived immature DC were pulsed with lysate from autologous primary tumor as the antigen and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as immunomodulator, and cultured in the presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-,, interleukin (IL)-1,, and prostaglandin (PG)E2 to generate mature DC. Mature DC were injected intradermally near bilateral inguinal lymph nodes of the patients. A delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) test and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay were performed to evaluate the immunological response. After 4 months from first injection, the clinical effect was evaluated by diagnostic imaging. Results: The treatments were well tolerated without significant toxicity by the patients who were an average of 65.7 years old and had multiple metastases in the lung and other organs. One of the two patients developed a positive DTH reaction to tumor lysate and the other patient only to KLH. The patient with a positive DTH reaction to tumor lysate had stable disease in the clinical evaluation. Conclusions: We confirmed the safety of DC therapy in this clinical trial. The DTH test revealed that the DC therapy induced immunological response to RCC. On the other hand, it was necessary to reconsider the patient selection criteria. [source]


Dendritic cell immunotherapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: University of Tokyo experience

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 6 2002
Takeshi Azuma
Abstract Background : Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and induce host antitumor immunity through the T-cell response. A clinical study of immunotherapy using cultured DC loaded with tumor antigen, for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was performed. Methods : Dendritic cells were generated by culturing monocytes from peripheral blood for 7 days in the presence of granulocyte,macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4. On day 6 the DC were pulsed with lysate from autologous tumor as the antigen and with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as immunomodulator. The patients were given four doses of lysate-pulsed DC by intradermal injection with a 2-week interval between doses. Clinical effect and immune response were, respectively, evaluated by radiological examination and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) test. Results : Three patients were enrolled and the immunotherapy was well tolerated without significant toxicity. The vaccination induced a positive DTH reaction to tumor lysate in two patients and to KLH in all patients. Clinical responses consisted of one case of no change and two cases of progression of disease. However, we did not see a significant reduction of tumor volume in any case. Conclusion : Dendritic cell vaccination can safely induce an immunological response against RCC. Further trials are needed to fully evaluate its efficacy. [source]


Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on clinical and immunological response and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with moderate periodontitis

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
Ana Belén Navarro-Sanchez
Abstract Objetives: The purpose of this study was to compare the local efficacy of nonsurgical periodontal therapy between type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients and the effect of periodontal therapy on glycaemic control. Background: A complex two-way relationship exists between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. Material and Methods: After selection, 20 subjects (10 diabetic and 10 non-diabetic) underwent baseline examination, periodontal clinical study and biochemical analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). After the pre-treatment phase, subgingival scaling and root planing were performed. Subsequently, all subjects continued the maintenance programme and were re-examined at 3 and 6 months. Results: Diabetic and non-diabetic subjects responded well after therapy, showing a very similar progression during the follow-up period. Both groups showed clinically and immunologically significant improvements. Significant reductions were also found in the total volume of GCF and levels of interleukin-1, and tumour necrosis factor- ,. Diabetic subjects showed an improvement in their metabolic control. The change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) was statistically significant at 3 and 6 months. Conclusions: The clinical and immunological improvements obtained were accompanied by a significant reduction in HbA1C values in type 2 diabetic subjects. Larger studies are needed to confirm this finding and establish whether periodontal therapy has a significant effect on glycaemic control. [source]


Mucocutaneous Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon

JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 11 2008
Mahmoud R. Hussein
Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon (asteroid bodies) is the in vivo formation of intensely eosinophilic material (radiate, star-like, asteroid or club-shaped configurations) around microorganisms (fungi, bacteria and parasites) or biologically inert substances. This study presents a literature review concerning Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in the mucocutaneous diseases. It examines the histopathological features, nature and differential diagnosis of this reaction. It also discusses the mucocutaneous infections and the non-infective diseases associated with it. Available studies indicate that several mucocutaneous infections can generate Splendore-Hoeppli reaction. The fungal infections include sporotrichosis, pityrosporum folliculitis, zygomycosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis and blastomycosis. The bacterial infections include botryomycosis, nocardiosis and actinomycosis. The parasitic conditions include orbital pythiosis, strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and cutaneous larva migrans. In addition, Splendore-Hoeppli reaction may be seen with non-infective pathology such as hypereosinophilic syndrome and allergic conjunctival granulomas. The Splendore-Hoeppli reaction material comprises antigen-antibody complex, tissue debris and fibrin. Although the exact nature of this reaction is unknown, it is thought to be a localized immunological response to an antigen-antibody precipitate related to fungi, parasites, bacteria or inert materials. The characteristic formation of the peribacterial or perifungal Splendore-Hoeppli reaction probably prevents phagocytosis and intracellular killing of the insulting agent leading to chronicity of infection. To conclude, Splendore-Hoeppli reaction is a tell tale of a spectrum of infections and reactive conditions. The molecular pathways involved in the development of this reaction are open for future investigations. [source]


Antibody response of two populations of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., exposed to koi herpesvirus

JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 4 2009
S St-Hilaire
Abstract Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., exposed to koi herpesvirus (KHV) may become persistently infected and populations containing such virus-infected individuals may transmit the virus to other fish when co-habited. Detection of virus-infected fish in a population is thus critical to surveillance and control programmes for KHV. A study was therefore designed to detect anti-KHV serum antibodies, with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in common carp following experimental exposures to KHV under varying environmental conditions. The study determined that a proportion of fish within a population experimentally exposed to KHV (at least 10,25%) develop high antibody titres (1/1600 or greater) to the virus, and this immunological response was detectable for several months (observed at the termination of the experiments at 65, 46 and 27 weeks post-exposure). Furthermore, this response was detected in one population of fish that did not succumb to a high level of mortality when maintained at water temperatures that were non-permissive for KHV. Elevating the water temperatures to permissive conditions for KHV resulted in recurrence of disease despite the presence of anti-virus antibodies, suggesting that serum antibodies alone are not protective under the conditions of our trials. [source]


Pneumonia in HIV-infected patients in the HAART era: Incidence, risk, and impact of the pneumococcal vaccination

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 4 2004
C. López-Palomo
Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the factors implicated in an increased or decreased risk of pneumonia, with particular attention to the response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the effect of the polysaccharide 23-valent pneumococcal vaccination in 300 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults followed-up for a median of 35.6 months. Pneumococcal pneumonia occurred in 12 patients and all bacterial pneumonia (pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or other bacteria, as well as those with negative cultures but presumably bacterial in origin) in 40 patients. In the univariate analysis, immunodepressed patients (defined as those with less than 200 CD4+ T cell/,l), those without immunological response to HAART (defined as an increase of 25% of CD4+ T lymphocyte count), patients with previous admissions to hospital and those with cotrimoxazole or Mycobacterium avium intracellulare prophylaxis showed a higher incidence of both pneumococcal and all bacterial pneumonia. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of pneumococcal pneumonia was associated with a CD4+ lymphocyte count at the time of HIV diagnosis <200 cells/,l. The multivariate model that was more valid for prediction of all bacterial pneumonia included a CD4+ T cell count <200 cells/,l and absence of immunological response to HAART. Only in patients with a baseline CD4+ T cell count lower than 200/,l and immunological response to HAART, a near significant lower incidence of all bacterial pneumonia was observed after vaccination. Thus, these results do not support an important additional protective effect of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in HIV-patients with immunological response to HAART. J. Med. Virol. 72:517,524, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy with a Pru p 3 quantified peach extract

ALLERGY, Issue 6 2009
M. Fernández-Rivas
Background:, Peach allergy is highly prevalent in the Mediterranean area; it is persistent and potentially severe, and therefore a prime target for immunotherapy. We aimed to study the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with a peach extract quantified in mass units for Pru p 3, the peach lipid transfer protein. Methods:, Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) clinical trial. The main efficacy outcome was the change in the response to a DBPC food challenge (DBPCFC) with peach. Secondary efficacy outcomes were the changes in skin prick test (SPT), and in specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG4 to Pru p 3. Tolerance was assessed with a careful recording of adverse events. Results:, After 6 months of SLIT, the active group tolerated a significantly higher amount of peach (three- to ninefold), presented a significant decrease (5.3 times) in SPT, and a significant increase in IgE and IgG4 to Pru p 3. No significant changes were observed within the placebo group. Statistically significant inter-group differences were only observed in the SPT and IgG4 responses. No serious adverse events were reported. Systemic reactions were mild, and observed with a similar frequency in both groups. Local reactions were significantly more frequent in the active group (three times) and 95% of them restricted to the oral cavity. Conclusion:, In this first exploratory clinical trial, SLIT for peach allergy seems to be a promising therapeutic option that could modify the clinical reactivity of the patients to peach intake and the underlying immunological response with a good tolerance. [source]


Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008,2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance

ALLERGY, Issue 5 2009
L. C. Von Hertzen
,In similarity to many other western countries, the burden of allergic diseases in Finland is high. Studies worldwide have shown that an environment rich in microbes in early life reduces the subsequent risk of developing allergic diseases. Along with urbanization, such exposure has dramatically reduced, both in terms of diversity and quantity. Continuous stimulation of the immune system by environmental saprophytes via the skin, respiratory tract and gut appears to be necessary for activation of the regulatory network including regulatory T-cells and dendritic cells. ,Substantial evidence now shows that the balance between allergy and tolerance is dependent on regulatory T-cells. Tolerance induced by allergen-specific regulatory T-cells appears to be the normal immunological response to allergens in non atopic healthy individuals. Healthy subjects have an intact functional allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response, which in allergic subjects is impaired. Evidence on this exists with respect to atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Restoration of impaired allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response and tolerance induction has furthermore been demonstrated during allergen-specific subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy and is crucial for good therapeutic outcome. However, tolerance can also be strengthened unspecifically by simple means, e.g. by consuming farm milk and spending time in nature. ,Results so far obtained from animal models indicate that it is possible to restore tolerance by administering the allergen in certain circumstances both locally and systemically. It has become increasingly clear that continuous exposure to microbial antigens as well as allergens in foodstuffs and the environment is decisive, and excessive antigen avoidance can be harmful and weaken or even prevent the development of regulatory mechanisms. ,Success in the Finnish Asthma Programme was an encouraging example of how it is possible to reduce both the costs and morbidity of asthma. The time, in the wake of the Asthma Programme, is now opportune for a national allergy programme, particularly as in the past few years, fundamentally more essential data on tolerance and its mechanisms have been published. In this review, the scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008,2018 is outlined. The focus is on tolerance and how to endorse tolerance at the population level. [source]


Basophils and mast cells at the centre of the immunological response

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2006
C.M. van Drunen
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Immune modulation by helminthic infections: worms and viral infections

PARASITE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 10 2006
S. M. KAMAL
SUMMARY Helminthic infections occur worldwide, especially in developing countries. About one-quarter of the world's population, 1·5 billion, are infected with one or more of the major soil-transmitted helminths, including hookworms, ascarids, and whipworms. Schistosomes infect more than 200 million people worldwide with 600 million at risk in 74 countries. The interaction between helminths and the host's immune system provokes particular immunomodulatory and immunoregulatory mechanisms that ensure their survival in the host for years. However, these changes might impair the immunological response to bystander bacterial, viral, and protozoal pathogens and to vaccination. Modulation of the immune system by infection with helminthic parasites is proposed to reduce the levels of allergic responses and to protect against inflammatory bowel disease. In this review, we summarize the immunological milieu associated with helminthic infections and its impact on viral infections, mainly hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in humans and experimental animals. [source]


A study of the antigenicity of Rickettsia helvetica proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

APMIS, Issue 4 2009
NEDAA HAJEM
Rickettsia helvetica is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative microorganism found in Ixodes ricinus ticks. When R. helvetica was first discovered in 1979, little was known about its physiology and it fell into oblivion until it recently was suspected of being pathogenic to humans. However, all efforts to isolate R. helvetica from patients have been unsuccessful, although serological responses against R. helvetica can be demonstrated. The aim of our study was to investigate the protein profile of R. helvetica and study the antigenicity of its proteins using two-dimensional (2D) immunoblot in order to characterize the immunological response against R. helvetica infection. Our results show that in addition to the known PS120 and OmpB antigenic R. helvetica proteins, three other antigens exist: a 60 kDa GroEL protein, a 10 kDa GroES protein and a hitherto unknown 35 kDa hypothetical protein that has similarities with ORF-RC0799 of Rickettsia conorii. Furthermore, the lipopolysaccharide showed strong antigenicity. In this study, we present the first proteome map and the first 2D immunoblot profile of R. helvetica and finally we present the 35 kDa R. helvetica as an additional antigen to the previously known rickettsial antigens. [source]


Bacterial vaginosis Transmission, role in genital tract infection and pregnancy outcome: an enigma,

APMIS, Issue 4 2005
Review article III
Whether bacterial vaginosis (BV) is acquired from an endogenous or an exogenous source is subject to controversy. Despite findings of an association between sexual behaviour and BV, some data indicate that BV is not a sexually transmitted infection in the traditional sense, while other data indicate that BV is an exogenous infection. A third aspect of BV is its tendency to go unnoticed by affected women. All of this will have a strong impact on how physicians view the risks of asymptomatic BV. This review focuses on whether or not BV should be regarded as a sexually transmitted infection (STI), its role in postoperative infections and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and on whether or not treatment of BV during pregnancy to reduce preterm delivery should be recommended. The reviewed studies do not lend unequivocal support to an endogenous or exogenous transmission of the bacteria present in BV. For women undergoing gynaecological surgery such as therapeutic abortion, the relative risk of postoperative infection is clearly elevated (approx. 2.3,2.8). A weaker association exists between BV and pelvic inflammatory disease. Data on treatment of BV as a way of reducing preterm delivery are inconclusive and do not support recommendations for general treatment of BV during pregnancy. The discrepant associations between BV and preterm birth found in recent studies may be explained by variations in immunological response to BV. Genetic polymorphism in the cytokine response , both regarding the TNF alleles and in interleukin production , could make women more or less susceptible to BV, causing different risks of preterm birth. Thus, studies on the vaginal inflammatory response to microbial colonization should be given priority. [source]


Review of Hemoglobin-Vesicles as Artificial Oxygen Carriers

ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 2 2009
Hiromi Sakai
Abstract Blood transfusion systems have greatly benefited human health and welfare. Nevertheless, some problems remain: infection, blood type mismatching, immunological response, short shelf life, and screening test costs. Blood substitutes have been under development for decades to overcome such problems. Plasma component substitutes have already been established: plasma expanders, electrolytes, and recombinant coagulant factors. Herein, we focus on the development of red blood cell (RBC) substitutes. Side effects hindered early development of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and underscored the physiological importance of the cellular structure of RBCs. Well-designed artificial oxygen carriers that meet requisite criteria are expected to be realized eventually. Encapsulation of Hb is one idea to shield the toxicities of molecular Hbs. However, intrinsic issues of encapsulated Hbs must be resolved: difficulties related to regulating the molecular assembly, and management of its physicochemical and biochemical properties. Hb-vesicles (HbV) are a cellular type of HBOC that overcome these issues. The in vivo safety and efficacy of HbV have been studied extensively. The results illustrate the potential of HbV as a transfusion alternative and promise its use for other clinical applications that remain unattainable using RBC transfusion. [source]


Total and specific IgE (house dust mite and intestinal helminths) in asthmatics and controls from Gondar, Ethiopia

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Issue 3 2000
Selassie
Background The role, if any, of parasitosis in the development of asthma remains incompletely understood; both ,protective' and ,predictive' associations have been reported. We report a study which examined immunoglobulin (Ig) E responses to two common helminths in asthmatics living in Ethiopia. Objective To compare the frequencies of specific IgE antibodies to Ascaris and Necator species and to Der p 1 among 84 adult asthmatics and a referent group of nonasthmatics. Methods A case-control analysis. Results Total IgE levels were not different between the two groups. The presence of specific IgE to Der p 1 was strongly associated with asthma (P = 0.001). Raised levels of Ascaris-(P = 0.010) and Necator- (P = 0.001) specific IgE antibodies were more common among referents; there were no associations between specific IgE production to Der p 1 and either of the two parasites. Conclusion These findings confirm the association between Der p 1 sensitization and asthma among urban, adult Ethiopians. While they also indicate a negative relationship with two indicators of helminth infestation it appears that this is not mediated through the immunological response to common aeroallergens. [source]


Clonal expansions of 6-thioguanine resistant T lymphocytes in the blood and tumor of melanoma patients,

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 9 2008
Mark R. Albertini
Abstract The identification of specific lymphocyte populations that mediate tumor immune responses is required for elucidating the mechanisms underlying these responses and facilitating therapeutic interventions in humans with cancer. To this end, mutant hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficient (HPRT -) T-cells were used as probes to detect T-cell clonal amplifications and trafficking in vivo in patients with advanced melanoma. Mutant T-cells from peripheral blood were obtained as clonal isolates or in mass cultures in the presence of 6-thioguanine (TG) selection and from tumor-bearing lymph nodes (LNs) or metastatic melanoma tissues by TG-selected mass cultures. Nonmutant (wild-type) cells were obtained from all sites by analogous means, but without TG selection. cDNA sequences of the T-cell receptor (TCR) beta chains (TCR-,), determined directly (clonal isolates) or following insertion into plasmids (mass cultures), were used as unambiguous biomarkers of in vivo clonality of mature T-cell clones. Clonal amplifications, identified as repetitive TCR-, V-region, complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3), and J-region gene sequences, were demonstrated at all sites studied, that is, peripheral blood, LNs, and metastatic tumors. Amplifications were significantly enriched among the mutant compared with the wild-type T-cell fractions. Importantly, T-cell trafficking was manifested by identical TCR-, cDNA sequences, including the hypervariable CDR3 motifs, being found in both blood and tissues in individual patients. The findings described herein indicate that the mutant T-cell fractions from melanoma patients are enriched for proliferating T-cells that infiltrate the tumor, making them candidates for investigations of potentially protective immunological responses. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Functional estrogen receptors alpha and beta are expressed in normal human salivary gland epithelium and apparently mediate immunomodulatory effects

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 5 2009
Maria Tsinti
Salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) have been shown to participate in immunological responses and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Experimental evidence from animal models indicates that estrogen deficiency may also participate in SS pathogenesis. However, the expression and functionality of the estrogen receptors alpha (ER,) and beta (ER,) in normal human salivary epithelium is unknown. To investigate these points, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens and cultured non-neoplastic SGEC lines derived from nine minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies with normal histology were studied. Immunohistochemical analyses detected the epithelial expression of ER,, ER,1, and ER,2 protein isoforms both in MSG tissues and in cultured SGECs. Such epithelial expression was verified by immunoblotting of various ER proteins in cellular extracts of cultured SGECs (full-length-ER,, ER,-,3, ER,1-long, ER,1-short, and ER,2-long isoforms). Estrogens did not induce growth or apoptosis in cultured SGECs. However, similarly to other cellular systems, treatment of cultured SGECs with estrogens (17,-estradiol and the ER,- and ER,-selective agonists propylpyrazole-triol and diarylpropiolnitrile, respectively) inhibited the interferon-,-inducible expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. This finding corroborated the functionality of ER expressed by SGEC. Our results suggest that salivary epithelium expresses constitutively functional ER, and ER, proteins that apparently mediate immunomodulatory effects. [source]


The analysis of the fine specificity of celiac disease antibodies using tissue transglutaminase fragments

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 21 2002
Daniele Sblattero
Celiac disease is an intestinal malabsorption characterized by an intolerance to cereal proteins accompanied by immunological responses to dietary gliadins and an autoantigen located in the endomysium. The latter has been identified as the enzyme tissue transglutaminase which belongs to a family of enzymes that catalyze protein cross-linking reactions and is constitutively expressed in many tissues as well as being activated during apoptosis. In a recent paper, we described the selection and characterization of anti-transglutaminase Igs from phage antibody libraries created from intestinal lymphocytes from celiac disease patients. In this work, using transglutaminase gene fragments, we identify a region of tissue transglutaminase recognized by these antibodies as being conformational and located in the core domain of the enzyme. This is identical to the region recognized by anti-transglutaminase Igs found in the serum of celiac disease patients. [source]


Novel vaccine strategies with protein antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae

FEMS IMMUNOLOGY & MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Edwin Swiatlo
Abstract Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are a major cause of mortality throughout the world. This organism is primarily a commensal in the upper respiratory tract of humans, but can cause pneumonia in high-risk persons and disseminate from the lungs by invasion of the bloodstream. Currently, prevention of pneumococcal infections is by immunization with vaccines which contain capsular polysaccharides from the most common serotypes causing invasive disease. However, there are more than 90 antigenically distinct serotypes and there is concern that serotypes not included in the vaccines may become more prevalent in the face of continued use of polysaccharide vaccines. Also, certain high-risk groups have poor immunological responses to some of the polysaccharides in the vaccine formulations. Protein antigens that are conserved across all capsular serotypes would induce more effective and durable humoral immune responses and could potentially protect against all clinically relevant pneumococcal capsular types. This review provides a summary of work on pneumococcal proteins that are being investigated as components for future generations of improved pneumococcal vaccines. [source]


Abstract no.: 10 DNA fragmentation, but not caspase-3 activation or PARP-1 cleavage, combined with macrophage immunostaining as a tool to study phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in situ

FUNDAMENTAL & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
Dorien M. Schrijvers
Efficient phagocytosis of cells undergoing apoptosis by macrophages is important to prevent immunological responses and development of chronic inflammatory disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, cystic fibrosis or atherosclerosis. To study phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (AC) by macrophages in tissue, we validated different apoptosis markers (DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and cleavage of its substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1) in combination with macrophage immunostaining. Human tonsils were used as a model because they show a high apoptosis frequency under physiological conditions as well as efficient phagocytosis of AC by macrophages. On the other hand, advanced human atherosclerotic plaques were examined since phagocytosis of AC in a plaque is severely impaired. Our results demonstrate that the presence of non-phagocytized TUNEL-positive AC represents a suitable marker for poor phagocytosis by macrophages in situ. Other markers for apoptosis, such as cleavage of caspase-3 or PARP-1, should not be used to assess phagocytosis efficiency, because activation of the caspase cascade and cleavage of their substrates can occur in AC when they have not yet been phagocytized by macrophages. [source]


Determinants of response to first HAART regimen in antiretroviral-naďve patients with an estimated time since HIV seroconversion

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 1 2006
R Thiébaut
Objective To study the determinants of immunological and virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in naďve patients, adjusting for time since HIV-1 seroconversion. Design Data from HIV-cohort studies where dates of seroconversion have been reliably estimated. Methods In previously untreated patients, short- and long-term marker responses from HAART initiation (three or more antiretroviral drugs) to the end of follow-up or any treatment modification were considered using mixed effects models accounting for undetectable HIV viral load and informative dropout. Results In total, 943 patients were treated with a first HAART regimen for a median of 29 months. In adjusted analyses, compared with a reference group of homosexual men without AIDS initiating treatment 4 years after seroconversion, injecting drug users (IDUs) were treated at similar CD4 and HIV RNA levels but had poorer short-term virological response (2.54 vs 2.13 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at 1.5 months, P=0.03) and poorer long-term immunological response (522 vs 631 cells/,L at 24 months, P<0.0001). Although individuals with AIDS at HAART initiation had lower CD4 counts (206 vs 382 cells/,L, P<0.0001), their immunological responses were similar to those of individuals without AIDS. Similarly, individuals further from seroconversion started HAART at lower CD4 counts (e.g. 311 vs 382 cells/,L at vs before 9 years from seroconversion, P<0.0001), but had similar CD4 responses. However, they experienced poorer long-term virological response (0.67 log10 copies/mL/year smaller decline, P<0.0001) compared to those treated before 9 years from seroconversion. Conclusion Taking into account the time elapsed since seroconversion, this study suggests that careful choices of initial treatment should be made and intensive follow-up carried out in high-risk subgroups such as IDUs who have poorer responses. [source]


Phage display of human antibodies from a patient suffering from coeliac disease and selection of isotype-specific scFv against gliadin

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Claudio Rhyner
Summary Coeliac disease (CD), a gastrointestinal illness characterized by intestinal malabsorption, results from gluten intolerance accompanied with immunological responses towards gliadin, an ethanol-soluble protein fraction of wheat and other cereals. The role of gliadin in eliciting immune responses in CD is still partly unclear; however, the occurrence of anti-gliadin in the sera of patients suffering from CD correlates well with clinical symptoms. In this work we report the construction of isotype-specific, phage-displayed scFv libraries from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a patient with CD and from a healthy control individual. VH and VL chains were amplified by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT,PCR) using a set of oligonucleotides recognizing all human variable gene families. The three scFv libraries (IgA, IgG and IgM) were selectively enriched for gliadin-binding phage. After four rounds of affinity selection, polyclonal enrichment of gliadin-binding phage was observed in all libraries from the CD patient but in none from the healthy donor. Phagemid particles generated from single clones were demonstrated to be gliadin-specific, as shown by strongly positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and BiaCore signals. The VH and VL chains from samples of these monoclonal isotype-specific phage were sequenced to identify the most common variable regions used by the immune system to elicit antibody responses against gliadin. [source]