Anatomical Sites (anatomical + site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Anatomical Sites

  • different anatomical site


  • Selected Abstracts


    Acute and Chronic Pulmonary Vein Reconnection after Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: A Prospective Characterization of Anatomical Sites

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    KIM RAJAPPAN M.D.
    Background:Arrhythmia recurrence after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is often associated with pulmonary vein reconnection (PVR). We prospectively examined anatomical sites of both acute and chronic PVR. Methods:One hundred and fifty AF patients underwent PV wide encirclement and sites where immediate electrical isolation (EI) occurred were tagged using electroanatomic mapping/CT integration (CartomergeÔ, Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA). After 30 minutes PVs were checked and acute PVR sites marked at reisolation. Chronic PVR sites were marked at the time of repeat procedures. Results:On the left, immediate EI sites were predominantly on the intervenous ridge (IVR) and PV-left atrial appendage (PV-LAA) ridge. On the right they were at the roof, IVR, and floor of the PVs. Ninety-eight of one hundred and fifty patients had PVs checked after >30 minutes. Thirty-two of ninety-eight had acute PVR. This was mostly on the IVR and PV-LAA ridge on the left (88%), and on the roof and IVR on the right (78%). At repeat procedure, 38/39 patients had chronic PVR, predominantly on the IVR (61%) and PV-LAA ridge (21%) on the left, and on the roof, IVR, and floor of the right PVs (79%). There was minimal acute or chronic PVR posteriorly. Acutely PVR occurred close to the immediate EI site 60% of the time, but only 30% of the time chronically. Conclusion:Acute and chronic PVR sites have a preferential distribution. This may be determined by anatomical and technical factors. Knowledge of immediate EI sites may be beneficial acutely, but with chronic PVR a careful survey is required. These findings may help target ablation, improving safety and success. [source]


    Sensory, clinical and physiological factors in sensitive skin: a review

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2006
    Miranda A. Farage
    Certain individuals experience more intense and frequent adverse sensory effects than the normal population after topical use of personal care products, a phenomenon known in popular usage as sensitive skin. Consumer reports of sensitive skin are self-diagnosed and often not verifiable by objective signs of physical irritation. Companies who manufacture cosmetic and personal care products are challenged to provide safe products to an audience with tremendous differences in skin type, culture and habits. This review examines the still incomplete understanding of this phenomenon with respect to aetiology, diagnosis, appropriate testing methods, possible contributing host factors such as, sex, ethnicity, age, anatomical site, cultural and environmental factors, and the future directions needed for research. [source]


    Association of type of sport and performance level with anatomical site of orthopaedic injury diagnosis

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue S36 2006
    R. C. MURRAY
    Summary Reason for performing study: Although anecdotal reports of increased orthopaedic injury risk in equine sports exist, there is little scientific evidence to support this. Objectives: To test whether horses undertaking a single competitive sport have increased risk of specific injuries compared to those used for general purpose riding (GP); and whether injury type varies with sport category and performance level. Methods: Data from 1069 records of horses undergoing orthopaedic evaluation (1998,2003) and meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. Sport category (GP, showjumping, dressage, eventing, racing), level (nonelite or elite) and diagnosis were recorded. Effects of sport category and level on probability of a specific diagnosis were assessed using chisquared tests. Logistic regression was used to determine which competitive sports and levels increased risk of injury compared with GP. Results: Overall there was a significant effect of sport category and level on diagnosis (P<0.0001). There was significant difference between anatomical site injured and sport category (P<0.0001); a high risk of forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon injury in elite eventing (P<0.0001) and elite showjumping (P=0.02); distal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) injury in elite showjumping (P=0.002); and hindlimb suspensory ligament injury in elite (P<0.0001) and nonelite (P=0.001) dressage. There was a low risk of tarsal injury in elite eventing (P=0.01) and proximal DDFT injury in dressage (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Horses competing in different sports are predisposed to specific injuries; particular sports may increase the risk of injury at certain anatomical sites; and the type and site of injury may reflect the type and level of performance. Potential relevance: These findings could guide clinicians in the diagnosis of sport related injuries. [source]


    A Descriptive Comparison of Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Cannulation of the Internal Jugular Vein to Landmark-based Subclavian Vein Cannulation

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
    Daniel Theodoro MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The safest site for central venous cannulation (CVC) remains debated. Many emergency physicians (EPs) advocate the ultrasound-guided internal jugular (USIJ) approach because of data supporting its efficiency. However, a number of physicians prefer, and are most comfortable with, the subclavian (SC) vein approach. The purpose of this study was to describe adverse event rates among operators using the USIJ approach, and the landmark SC vein approach without US. Methods:, This was a prospective observational trial of patients undergoing CVC of the SC or internal jugular veins in the emergency department (ED). Physicians performing the procedures did not undergo standardized training in either technique. The primary outcome was a composite of adverse events defined as hematoma, arterial cannulation, pneumothorax, and failure to cannulate. Physicians recorded the anatomical site of cannulation, US assistance, indications, and acute complications. Variables of interest were collected from the pharmacy and ED record. Physician experience was based on a self-reported survey. The authors followed outcomes of central line insertion until device removal or patient discharge. Results:, Physicians attempted 236 USIJ and 132 SC cannulations on 333 patients. The overall adverse event rate was 22% with failure to cannulate being the most common. Adverse events occurred in 19% of USIJ attempts, compared to 29% of non,US-guided SC attempts. Among highly experienced operators, CVCs placed at the SC site resulted in more adverse events than those performed using USIJ (relative risk [RR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 3.39). Conclusions:, While limited by observational design, our results suggest that the USIJ technique may result in fewer adverse events compared to the landmark SC approach. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:416,422 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


    Induction of an antitumour adaptive immune response elicited by tumour cells expressing de novo B7-1 mainly depends on the anatomical site of their delivery: the dose applied regulates the expansion of the response

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Silvia Sartoris
    Summary De novo expression of costimulatory molecules in tumours generally increases their immunogenicity, but does not always induce a protective response against the parental tumour. This issue was addressed in the mouse Sp6 hybridoma model, comparing different immunization routes (subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous) and doses (0·5 × 106 and 5 × 106 cells) of Sp6 cells expressing de novo B7-1 (Sp6/B7). The results can be summarized as follows. First, de novo expression of B7-1 rendered Sp6 immunogenic, as it significantly reduced the tumour incidence to ,15% with all delivery routes and doses tested, whereas wild-type Sp6 was invariably tumorigenic (100% tumour incidence). Second, long-lasting protection against wild-type Sp6 was mainly achieved when immunization with Sp6/B7 was subcutaneous: a dose of 0·5 × 106 Sp6/B7 cells elicited protection that was confined to sites in the same anatomical quarter as the immunizing injection. Repeated injections of the same dose extended protection against wild-type Sp6 to other anatomical districts, as well as a single injection of a 10-fold higher dose (5 × 106 cells). Finally, Sp6-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity was detected in draining lymph nodes, and the splenic expansion of Sp6-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursors quantitatively correlated with the dose of antigen. We conclude that activation of a protective immune response against Sp6 depends on the local environment where the immunogenic form of the ,whole tumour cell antigen' is delivered. The antigen dose regulates the anatomical extent of the protective response. [source]


    Prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus infection by penile site in uncircumcised Kenyan men

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 2 2010
    Jennifer S. Smith
    Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence was estimated from 2,705 sexually active, uncircumcised, human immunodeficiency virus seronegative men aged 17,28 years in Kisumu, Kenya. HPV prevalence was 51.1% (95% confidence interval: 49.2,53.0%) in penile cells from the glans/coronal sulcus and/or shaft. HPV prevalence varied by anatomical site, with 46.5% positivity in the glans/coronal sulcus compared with 19.1% in the shaft (p < 0.0001). High-risk HPV was detected in 31.2% of glans and 12.3% of shaft samples (p < 0.0001). HPV16 was the most common type and 29.2% of men were infected with more than one HPV type. Risk factors for HPV infection included presence of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhea, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, and less frequent bathing. Lifetime number of sexual partners and herpes simplex virus type-2 seropositivity were also marginally associated with HPV infection. [source]


    Should direct mesocolon invasion be included in T4 for the staging of gastric cancer?

    JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Jung Hoon Park MD
    Abstract Background and Objectives One of the sites most frequently invaded by gastric cancer is the mesocolon; however, the UICC does not mention this anatomical site as an adjacent structure involved in gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to characterize and classify mesocolon invasion from gastric cancer. Methods We examined 806 patients who underwent surgery for advanced gastric carcinoma from 1992 to 2007 at the Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Korea. Among these, patients who showed macroscopically direct invasion into the mesocolon were compared to other patients with advanced gastric cancer. Results The curability, number and extent of nodal metastasis, and the survival of the mesocolon invasion group were significantly worse than these factors in the T3 group. However, the survival of the mesocolon invasion group after curative resection was much better than that of patients who had incurable factors. Conclusions Mesocolon invasion should be included in T4 for the staging of gastric cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010; 101:205,208. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Malignant mesothelioma in Australia, 1945,2000,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2002
    James Leigh MB
    Abstract Background Australia has maintained a total national malignant mesothelioma case register since 1980. There has been a marked increase in the incidence of mesothelioma in the last 20 years. Currently 450,600 cases are notified annually in a population of 20 million. While the history of the Wittenoom (Western Australia) crocidolite mine and its aftermath is well known, these cases comprise only 5% of the total. This study describes the incidence of mesothelioma in Australia from 1945 to 2000. Methods Using register data, time trends in mesothelioma incidence were calculated. Analyses of incidence are reported by age, sex, anatomical site, and state of notification. Associations with occupational and environmental asbestos exposure histories are described. Lung fiber content measurements were made on a subset of cases. Results Australia has had 6,329 cases of mesothelioma from 1 January 1945 to 31 December 2000. (A further 620 cases were notified in the period from 1 January 2001 to 31 October 2001.) Annual incidence rates for Australia per million population ,,20 years (1997) were: male, 59.8; female, 10.9; total, 35.4. Incidence rates have been continually increasing and are the highest reported national rates in the world. While Western Australia has the highest rate (1997 total rate, 52.8), most cases arise from the two most populous eastern states, New South Wales and Victoria. In 88% (male 90%, female 61%) of cases, a history of asbestos exposure was obtained. Exposures occurred in a wide variety of occupational and environmental circumstances. In 80% of cases with no history of exposure, TEM lung asbestos fiber counts >,200,000 fibers >,2 ,m length per gm dry lung were obtained, suggesting unrecognized exposure. Conclusions Australia's high incidence of mesothelioma is related to high past asbestos use, of all fiber types, in a wide variety of occupational and environmental settings. The number of cases in total is expected to be about 18,000 by 2020, with about 11,000 yet to appear. Am. J. Ind. Med. 41:188,201, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Anatomic site-specific proteomic signatures of gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS, Issue 5 2009
    Yoshiyuki Suehara
    Abstract The gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Its clinical course ranges widely from a curable disorder to a highly malignant disease. Although its clinical and molecular characteristics depend on the anatomic site of origin, the molecular background of GIST arising in different anatomical site has not been studied yet. To investigate the proteomic background of GIST, we examined the proteomic features corresponding to the anatomic site of tumor origin. Comparison of the proteomic profile of gastric (23 cases) and small intestinal (9 cases) GIST by 2-DE revealed 105 protein spots with significantly different intensity (p <0.01) between the two groups. Mass spectrometric study identified 68 distinct proteins for these 105 protein spots, including cancer-associated ones such as prohibitin, pigment epithelium-derived factor, and alpha-actinin 4. The intensity of 37/105 (35.2%) protein spots was significantly concordant with the corresponding mRNA levels (p <0.01). Although both 2-D DIGE and microarray experiments showed significant up-regulation of vimentin expression in small intestinal GIST, Western blotting did not show a significant difference between the two groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the proteins specially expressed in GIST depending on their site of origin, as well as the unique advantage offered by use of proteomics to acquire such data. The identified proteins may provide clues to understanding the different characteristics of GIST depending on their site of origin. [source]


    A case of tenosynovial chondromatosis with tophus-like deposits,

    APMIS, Issue 9 2004
    Case report
    Tenosynovial chondromatosis has not been well recognized because of its rarity, but it is clinically important because of its high rate of recurrence. We report here a case of tenosynovial chondromatosis with deposits of crystalline material that appeared to be sodium urate (gouty tophi). A 37-year-old Japanese man was admitted because of a hard mass in his left third finger. He had undergone surgery at the same anatomical site four and seven years previously. The roentgenogram revealed a soft tissue mass in the flexor aspect of the proximal phalanx. At operation, the tumor was found to have arisen in the tendon sheath. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor was composed of well-defined, multiple, cartilaginous nodules that were surrounded by tenosynovial tissue. A few of the nodules were calcified. The chondrocytes had mild atypia, and were immunopositive for S-100 protein. A diagnosis of tenosynovial chondromatosis was made. The nodules also contained crystalline deposits, which bore a histological resemblance to gouty tophi. We were unable to define the exact nature of these deposits even by transmission electron microscopy and electron roentgenographic microanalysis. Crystalline deposits in chondromas of soft tissue have been reported but not in tenosynovial chondromatosis. [source]


    Accuracy of Linear Measurement Provided by Cone Beam Computed Tomography to Assess Bone Quantity in the Posterior Maxilla: A Human Cadaver Study

    CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH, Issue 4 2008
    Sophie Veyre-Goulet DDS
    ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess, for implant placement in the posterior maxilla, the accuracy of linear measurements provided by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using an image intensifier tube and television (TV) chain as an X-ray detector despite a loss of contrast resolution. The NewTom® 9000 (Quantitative Radiology, Verona, Italy) was used to explore the posterior maxilla. Materials and Methods: Fourteen measurements were taken in three dry maxillaries. On every anatomical site, three fiducial markers were placed on the bony crest to define a plane. Dry maxillaries were submitted to CBCT imaging examination. The maxillaries were then sawn according to the previously defined planes, and bone height and width were assessed using a caliper. The same measurements were taken on images. Results: Clinical analysis demonstrated no difference between real measurements and image measurements. Conclusions: Although cadaver bone density may not correspond to the density of vital bone, this in vitro study indicates that CBCT images provided by technique using image intensifier tube and TV chain as an X-ray detector are reliable to define the bone volume of the posterior maxilla for the purpose of planning the implant axis. [source]


    Treatment of Vitiligo on Difficult-to-Treat Sites Using Autologous Noncultured Cellular Grafting

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 1 2009
    SANJEEV V. MULEKAR MD
    BACKGROUND Because of the limitations of medical treatment, various surgical therapies have been developed and are being accepted to treat vitiligo. However, certain areas such as the fingers and toes, palms and soles, lips, eyelids, nipples and areolas, elbows and knees, and genitals are considered difficult-to-treat areas. OBJECTIVE To evaluate data pertaining to individual sites considered to be difficult to treat and highlight that noncultured melanocyte,keratinocyte transplantation (MKT) does not require any special precautions to treat these anatomical sites. METHODS AND MATERIALS Forty patients (13 male and 27 female) with bilateral vitiligo and nine (4 male and 5 female) with unilateral vitiligo were treated using noncultured MKT, for "difficult-to-treat" sites at the National Center for Vitiligo and Psoriasis, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and were analyzed for response according to region. Repigmentation was graded as excellent with 95% to 100% pigmentation, good with 65% to 94%, fair with 25% to 64%, and poor with 0% to 24% of the treated area. RESULTS For bilateral vitiligo, more than 50% of patients treated for difficult sites showed more than 65% repigmentation of the treated areas. For unilateral vitiligo, all of the patients except for two treated for the eyelids showed more than 65% repigmentation of the treated area. CONCLUSIONS The concept of a "difficult-to-treat site" is a relative term and depends upon the technique used. The noncultured MKT does not require any special precautions to treat these anatomical sites. This review may help physicians to change the concept of "difficult-to-treat site." [source]


    Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of 264 horses with foot pain: The podotrochlear apparatus, deep digital flexor tendon and collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
    S. DYSON
    Summary Reasons for performing study: To improve understanding of the interrelationships between injuries of the podotrochlear apparatus and deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT). Hypotheses: There is a difference in frequency of different types of lesions at different anatomical sites of the DDFT. Lesions of the collateral sesamoidean ligament (CSL), distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL), distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and navicular bursa are seen in association with lesions of the navicular bone. Methods: The magnetic resonance (MR) images of 264 horses with unilateral or bilateral foot pain were analysed and graded. Descriptive statistics were performed to establish the frequency of occurrence of DDFT lesion types at different anatomical levels, and lesions of the CSL, DSIL, navicular bursa, DIP joint and collateral ligaments (CLs) of the DIP joint. A Chi-square test was used to test for a difference in the proportion of navicular bone grades between limbs with and without DDFT lesions at each level, and to compare navicular bone grades for limbs with and without each of DSIL, CSL, navicular bursa or DIP joint lesions. Results: Lesions of the DDFT occurred in 82.6% of limbs, occurring most commonly at the level of the CSL (59.4%) and the navicular bone (59.0%). Core lesions predominated at the level of the proximal phalanx (90.3%), whereas at the level of the CSL and navicular bone core lesions, sagittal splits and dorsal abrasions were most common. There was a positive association between DDFT lesions and navicular bone pathology involving all aspects of the bone. Lesions of the DSIL (38.2% limbs) were more common than those of the CSL (10.5%), but the presence of either was associated with abnormalities of the navicular bone, especially involving the proximal or distal borders and the medulla. Conclusions and clinical relevance: There are close interactions between injuries of the components of the podotrochlear apparatus, the DDFT, the navicular bursa and the DIP joint. Further knowledge about the biomechanical risk factors for injury may have importance for both disease prevention and management. [source]


    Association of type of sport and performance level with anatomical site of orthopaedic injury diagnosis

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue S36 2006
    R. C. MURRAY
    Summary Reason for performing study: Although anecdotal reports of increased orthopaedic injury risk in equine sports exist, there is little scientific evidence to support this. Objectives: To test whether horses undertaking a single competitive sport have increased risk of specific injuries compared to those used for general purpose riding (GP); and whether injury type varies with sport category and performance level. Methods: Data from 1069 records of horses undergoing orthopaedic evaluation (1998,2003) and meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. Sport category (GP, showjumping, dressage, eventing, racing), level (nonelite or elite) and diagnosis were recorded. Effects of sport category and level on probability of a specific diagnosis were assessed using chisquared tests. Logistic regression was used to determine which competitive sports and levels increased risk of injury compared with GP. Results: Overall there was a significant effect of sport category and level on diagnosis (P<0.0001). There was significant difference between anatomical site injured and sport category (P<0.0001); a high risk of forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon injury in elite eventing (P<0.0001) and elite showjumping (P=0.02); distal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) injury in elite showjumping (P=0.002); and hindlimb suspensory ligament injury in elite (P<0.0001) and nonelite (P=0.001) dressage. There was a low risk of tarsal injury in elite eventing (P=0.01) and proximal DDFT injury in dressage (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Horses competing in different sports are predisposed to specific injuries; particular sports may increase the risk of injury at certain anatomical sites; and the type and site of injury may reflect the type and level of performance. Potential relevance: These findings could guide clinicians in the diagnosis of sport related injuries. [source]


    Abnormal radiographic findings in 865 French Standardbred trotters and their relationship to racing performance

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue S36 2006
    A. COUROUCÉ-MALBLANC
    Summary Reason for performing study: Developmental orthopaedic lesions are commonly found in French Standardbred horses. One of the main questions asked by trainers, owners and veterinarians is what impact these lesions have on the racing career and racing performances of horses. Objectives: To study the prevalence and distribution of developmental orthopaedic lesions in young French Standardbred trotters and to relate them to racing performance. Methods: Feet, fetlock, tarsus and stifle regions were radiographed in 865 two-year-old French Standardbred trotters. Abnormal radiographic findings (ARF) were evaluated for 12 anatomical sites identified in these areas, and a severity index given. Performance criteria were: success in qualification for racing, maximal and mean index of trot (ITR), an annual index calculated on the basis of the logarithm of earnings per starts, total earnings at 5 years, placed races compared to starts and longevity of the racing career. Analysis of variance were calculated to study the relationships between racing performance and the number of ARF or the severity index. Results: A total of 363 horses (42.0%) showed ARF. Prevalence of ARF was 18.3% in the plantar aspect of the hind fetlock and 10.6% in the proximal tarsus. Among the total population, 833 horses were considered for performance evaluation, 478 of them were qualified for racing. The number of ARF significantly affected racing longevity. However, the number of ARF did not affect performance categories according to maximal ITR. Concerning distribution of ARF, the number of plantar lesions in the fetlock significantly affected mean ITR. The index of severity did not provide more information for prognosis than the number of ARF. Conclusion: Longevity is the only criteria affected by ARF. When evaluating different sites, only the plantar fetlock region showed a significant relationship with mean ITR. Potential relevance: Number of ARF and radiographic score (RS) affect mean ITR and longevity but do not affect maximal ITR. A horse with a good racing ability will be a good performer but might have a racing career shortened because of orthopaedic problems in relation to developmental orthopaedic lesions. [source]


    Development of nephritis but not sialadenitis in autoimmune-prone BAFF transgenic mice lacking marginal zone B cells

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 9 2006
    Carrie
    Abstract B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) is a B cell survival factor required for B cell maturation. BAFF transgenic (Tg) mice develop autoimmune disorders characterized by autoantibody production, which leads to nephritis and salivary gland destruction (sialadenitis), features reminiscent of systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), respectively. Disease in BAFF Tg mice correlates with the expansion of the marginal zone (MZ) B cell compartment and the abnormal presence of MZ-like B cells in the blood, LN and inflamed salivary glands, suggesting a role for these cells in BAFF-induced autoimmunity. Lymphotoxin-, (LT,)-deficient mice show disrupted splenic architecture, lack MZ B cells and some peripheral LN, and are unable to mount T cell-dependent immune responses. BAFF Tg mice lacking LT, (LT,,-BTg) retained these defects, yet still developed nephritis associated with the presence of B-1 B cells in the kidneys. However, in contrast to old BAFF Tg mice, aging LT,,-BTg mice no longer developed sialadenitis. Thus, autoimmune disorders in BAFF Tg mice are possibly events coordinated by MZ and B-1 B cells at separate anatomical sites. [source]


    Oral lichen planus has a high rate of TP53 mutations.

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 3 2002
    A study of oral mucosa in Iceland
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world-wide health problem. In addition to external exposure (smoking and alcohol), certain oral lesions may increase the risk of oral cancer (e.g. leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral lichen planus). TP53 has been implicated in OSCC, but there are limited studies of mutations in premalignant oral lesions. In this study, 55 samples from OSCC, 47 from hyperkeratotic (HK) oral mucosa, clinically diagnosed as white patches, 48 samples from oral lichen planus (OLP), and 12 biopsies from normal oral mucosa were studied immunohistochemically for expression of TP53 protein. From all the carcinoma samples and selected non-malignant samples showing moderate or strong TP53 protein expression, malignant cells or TP53-positive nuclei were microdissected and screened for mutations in exons 5,8 by constant denaturation gel electrophoresis. Moderate to strong TP53 protein staining was seen in 56% of OSCC, 32% of OLP but only in 13% of HK. All OLP samples showed a characteristic pattern of positive nuclei confined to the basal layer, whereas TP53 staining was seen in suprabasal nuclei in HK. Mutation rate was 11 out of 52 for OSCC, three out of 20 tested for HK and, remarkably, nine out 27 tested for OLP. There was no correlation between TP53 protein staining and TP53 mutations. No associations were found with anatomical sites or disease progression. The unexpectedly high mutation rate of OLP might explain the premalignant potential of this lesion. [source]


    Functional behaviour of bone around dental implants,

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Clark M. Stanford
    Achieving a long-term stable implant interface is a significant clinical issue when there is insufficient cortical bone stabilisation at implant placement. Clinical outcomes studies suggest that the higher risk implants are those placed in compromised cortical bone (thin, porous, etc.) in anatomical sites with minimal existing trabecular bone (characterised as type IV bone). In establishing and maintaining an implant interface in such an environment, one needs to consider the impact of masticatory forces, the response of bone to these forces and the impact of age on the adaptive capacity of bone. These forces, in turn, have the potential to create localised changes in interfacial stiffness through viscoelastic changes at the interface. Changes in bone as a function of age (e.g. localised hypermineralised osteopetrosis and localised areas of osteopenia) will alter the communication between osteocytes and osteoblasts creating the potential for differences in response of osteoblastic cells in the older population. A key to understanding the biomechanical and functional behaviour of implants in the older population is to control the anticipated modelling and remodelling behaviour through implant design that takes into account how tissues respond to the mechanically active environment. [source]


    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors in skin ageing: a review

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    M. A. Farage
    Synopsis As the proportion of the ageing population in industrialized countries continues to increase, the dermatological concerns of the aged grow in medical importance. Intrinsic structural changes occur as a natural consequence of ageing and are genetically determined. The rate of ageing is significantly different among different populations, as well as among different anatomical sites even within a single individual. The intrinsic rate of skin ageing in any individual can also be dramatically influenced by personal and environmental factors, particularly the amount of exposure to ultraviolet light. Photodamage, which considerably accelerates the visible ageing of skin, also greatly increases the risk of cutaneous neoplasms. As the population ages, dermatological focus must shift from ameliorating the cosmetic consequences of skin ageing to decreasing the genuine morbidity associated with problems of the ageing skin. A better understanding of both the intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the ageing of the skin, as well as distinguishing the retractable aspects of cutaneous ageing (primarily hormonal and lifestyle influences) from the irretractable (primarily intrinsic ageing), is crucial to this endeavour. Résumé Comme le pourcentage de la population vieillissante dans les pays industrialisés s'accroît, les préoccupations dermatologiques des personnes âgées augmentent en importance sur le plan médical. Les modifications structurelles intrinsèques sont une conséquence naturelle du vieillissement et sont génétiquement déterminées. La vitesse de vieillissement diffère significativement selon les différentes populations et selon les différents sites anatomiques, même pour un seul individu. La vitesse intrinsèque du vieillissement de la peau pour un individu peut être aussi très influencée par les facteurs personnels et environnementaux, en particulier le taux d'exposition à la lumière ultra-violette. La photodégradation qui accélère considérablement le vieillissement visible de la peau augmente également beaucoup le risque de formation de néoplasme cutané. Au fur et à mesure que la population vieillit, il faut davantage se préoccuper de diminuer la morbidité réelle associée au vieillissement de la peau, plutôt que de palier à ses conséquences cosmétiques. Il est donc crucial de s'efforcer à mieux comprendre les facteurs intrinsèques et extrinsèques qui agissent sur le vieillissement de la peau et aussi de faire la distinction entre les aspects réversibles du vieillissement cutané (facteurs essentiellement hormonaux et mode de vie) et les aspects irréversibles (principalement le vieillissement intrinsèque). [source]


    Site-specific percutaneous absorption of methyl salicylate and VX in domestic swine

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    E. J. Scott Duncan
    Abstract The site specificity of the percutaneous absorption of methyl salicylate (MeS) and the organophosphate nerve agent VX (O -ethyl S -(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate) was examined in anaesthetized domestic swine that were fully instrumented for physiological endpoints. Four different anatomical sites (ear, perineum, inguinal crease and epigastrium) were exposed to the MeS and the serum levels were measured over a 6-h time period. The dose absorbed at the ear region was 11 ,g cm,2 with an initial flux of 0.063 ,g cm,2min,1, whereas at the epigastrium region the dose absorbed was 3 ,g cm,2 with an initial flux of 0.025 ,g cm,2min,1. For this reason further studies were carried out with VX on the ear and the epigastrium only. In animals treated with agent on the epigastrium, blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity began to drop 90 min after application and continued to decline at a constant rate for the remainder of the experiment to ca. 25% of awake control activity. At this time there were negligible signs of poisoning and the medical prognosis was judged to be good. In contrast, the ChE activity in animals receiving VX on the ear decreased to 25% of awake control values within 45 min and levelled out at 5,6% by 120 min. Clinical signs of VX poisoning paralleled the ChE inhibition, progressing in severity over the duration of the exposure. It was judged that these animals would not survive. The dramatic site dependence of agent absorption leading to vastly different toxicological endpoints demonstrated in this model system has important ramifications for chemical protective suit development, threat assessment, medical countermeasures and contamination control protocols. Copyright © 2002 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Site-Specific Deterioration of Trabecular Bone Architecture in Men and Women With Advancing Age

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 12 2008
    Eva-Maria Lochmüller
    Abstract We tested the hypothesis that the age dependence of trabecular bone microstructure differs between men and women and is specific to skeletal site. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the microstructural pattern of bone loss in aging. Microstructural properties of trabecular bone were measured in vitro in 75 men and 75 age-matched women (age, 52,99 yr) using ,CT. Trabecular bone samples were scanned at a 26-,m isotropic resolution at seven anatomical sites (i.e., distal radius, T10 and L2 vertebrae, iliac crest, femoral neck and trochanter, and calcaneus). DXA measurements were obtained at the distal radius and proximal femur and QCT was used at T12. No significant decrease in bone density or structure with age was found in men using ,CT, DXA, or QCT at any of the anatomical sites. In women, a significant age-dependent decrease in BV/TV was observed at most sites, which was strongest at the iliac crest and weakest at the distal radius. At most sites, the reduction in BV/TV was associated with an increase in structure model index, decrease in Tb.N, and an increase in Tb.Sp. Only in the calcaneus was it associated with a significant decrease in Tb.Th. In conclusion, a significant, site-specific correlation of trabecular bone microstructure with age was found in women but not in men of advanced age. The microstructural basis by which a loss of BV/TV occurs with age can vary between anatomical sites. [source]


    Striae treated by a novel combination treatment , sand abrasion and a patent mixture containing 15% trichloracetic acid followed by 6,24 hrs of a patent cream under plastic occlusion

    JOURNAL OF COSMETIC DERMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    M A Adatto
    Summary Background, Striae are a common cosmetic problem, especially for women. Little has been published about chemical peel treatment of striae. Objective, To recount 5 years experience of striae treated by a novel combination treatment , sand abrasion and a patent mixture containing 15% trichloracetic acid followed by 6,24 h of a patent cream under plastic occlusion. Materials and methods, Sixty-nine females of various phototypes, aged 14,63 years, were treated at various anatomical sites: abdomen (43), lateral thighs (11), breasts (4), back (3), waist (3) and others (5). Striae of all types: fresh, old, mild and severe, were treated. Average follow up was 18 months. Results, After 1,8 treatments (median 4.2), appearance of the striae improved by 70%. Results were best in fresher and more superficial striae. Conclusions, A novel combination treatment is reported which safely, predictably and effectively improved striae in all skin types. [source]


    Oral cancer over four decades: epidemiology, trends, histology, and survival by anatomical sites

    JOURNAL OF ORAL PATHOLOGY & MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
    Avraham Zini
    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 299,305 Background:, Oral cancer is one of the few life-threatening oral diseases. The subtypes and different sites of oral cancer has different etiology epidemiology and survival rate. Prevalence of the various anatomical oral sites provided potential baseline for improvement of clinical approach. Methods:, Incidence and survival rates were derived from the Israel National Cancer Registry and included all registered data between 1970 and 2006. Oral cancer included the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, gums, vestibulum, floor of the mouth, and palate. Results:, Most prevalent oral cancer subtype was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among men above the age of 55 years. Females had a higher incidence of SCC in lateral border of tongue, gums and buccal mucosa. Lymphoma and sarcoma were the most prevalent under the age of 20. Melanomas and metastatic disease revealed the lowest survival rate, while invasive or infiltrating basal cell carcinoma in the lips had the highest rate. The highest oral survival rate was for the lip, and the lowest was for the tongue and gums. Conclusions:, Early detection of oral cancer is important for all the medical health team. Decrease in lip carcinoma may be a result of occupational or awareness changes and should be studied. Non-epithelial tumors under the age of 20 should be considered as a differential diagnosis. A basic oral examination should be included in all routine medical examinations, with emphasis on high-risk patients and high-risk oral sites. [source]


    Epidemiological aspects of oral and pharyngeal cancers in the Basque Country

    JOURNAL OF ORAL PATHOLOGY & MEDICINE, Issue 9 2001
    M. Isabel Izarzugaza
    Abstract: Oral and pharyngeal cancer is an entity constituted by a group of tumours that arise in several heterogeneous anatomical sites, and for this reason it is difficult to establish comparisons. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of oropharyngeal cancer in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC), to learn the incidence rate and to establish comparisons. Data of cases are from the Basque Country Cancer Registry for the period 1986,1994, and the methodology used is descriptive. We included 2548 cases, and the sex ratio was 7.4:1. Diagnosis was made by histology in most cases (99%). The crude incidence rate was 24.1/100,000 population for men and 3.1/100,000 for women. Higher incidence rates were found in the tongue (6.6), lip (5.8) and oropharynx (4.9). No variation was found in the incidence during the period. In comparison with other Spanish registries, there is a high incidence in men of cancer in the oral cavity. The results obtained show the characteristics of oral and pharyngeal cancer in the BAC and its magnitude, highlighting the importance of future preventive actions. [source]


    A detailed assessment of the pattern of moxidectin tissue distribution after pour-on treatment in calves

    JOURNAL OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 6 2003
    J. M. Sallovitz
    The use of topical (pour-on) administration of endectocide drugs in cattle has reached world-wide acceptance. However, only limited information is available on the kinetic behaviour for topically administered moxidectin (MXD). To improve our understanding of the relationship between pharmacokinetics and efficacy for pour-on preparations, MXD concentration profiles were measured in tissues of endo- and ectoparasites location over 35 days postadministration. MXD distribution to the fluid content and mucosal tissue of the abomasum and different intestinal sections (duodenum, ileum, caecum and colon) was assessed. The comparative patterns of MXD distribution to skin and hypodermic tissue from different anatomical sites (backline, rib cage, thigh and face) were also investigated following the pour-on administration. Wide tissue distribution and long residence time characterized the kinetics of topically administered MXD. MXD was recovered between 1 and 35 days post-treatment in all the tissues investigated. The highest MXD availabilities were observed in the skin layers at the site of administration (backline) and in the fat tissue. The fluid contents of different intestinal sections showed MXD concentrations higher than those measured in their respective mucosal tissues, particularly at day 1 post-treatment. MXD concentrations in the skin (epidermis + dermis) were higher than those measured in the hypodermic tissue. Large differences in the availability of MXD in skin from different anatomical regions (backline > rib cage > thigh > face) were observed. The low plasma and the high skin availability indicate the formation of a skin depot of the drug, being released slowly to the plasma and reaching concentrations in systemic tissues (abomasal mucosa, lungs, etc.) similar to those measured after subcutaneous administration. These findings demonstrate that target parasites may be exposed to markedly different drug concentrations according to their location sites, which is particularly relevant for ectoparasites located in different anatomical regions. Knowledge of the tissue distribution of topically administered endectocides contributes to understand the differences observed in efficacy and/or persistence of activity and to optimize their use in cattle. [source]


    Acute and Chronic Pulmonary Vein Reconnection after Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: A Prospective Characterization of Anatomical Sites

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    KIM RAJAPPAN M.D.
    Background:Arrhythmia recurrence after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is often associated with pulmonary vein reconnection (PVR). We prospectively examined anatomical sites of both acute and chronic PVR. Methods:One hundred and fifty AF patients underwent PV wide encirclement and sites where immediate electrical isolation (EI) occurred were tagged using electroanatomic mapping/CT integration (CartomergeÔ, Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA). After 30 minutes PVs were checked and acute PVR sites marked at reisolation. Chronic PVR sites were marked at the time of repeat procedures. Results:On the left, immediate EI sites were predominantly on the intervenous ridge (IVR) and PV-left atrial appendage (PV-LAA) ridge. On the right they were at the roof, IVR, and floor of the PVs. Ninety-eight of one hundred and fifty patients had PVs checked after >30 minutes. Thirty-two of ninety-eight had acute PVR. This was mostly on the IVR and PV-LAA ridge on the left (88%), and on the roof and IVR on the right (78%). At repeat procedure, 38/39 patients had chronic PVR, predominantly on the IVR (61%) and PV-LAA ridge (21%) on the left, and on the roof, IVR, and floor of the right PVs (79%). There was minimal acute or chronic PVR posteriorly. Acutely PVR occurred close to the immediate EI site 60% of the time, but only 30% of the time chronically. Conclusion:Acute and chronic PVR sites have a preferential distribution. This may be determined by anatomical and technical factors. Knowledge of immediate EI sites may be beneficial acutely, but with chronic PVR a careful survey is required. These findings may help target ablation, improving safety and success. [source]


    Localization of Accessory Pathways in the Wolff-Parkinson-White Pattern,Physician Versus Computer Interpretation of the Same Algorithm

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2007
    ANDREW D. McGAVIGAN M.D., M.R.C.P.
    Background: There are several published algorithms for the prediction of accessory pathway (AP) location in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome from the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Most depend on stepwise criteria, and minor disagreements between observers over QRS transition point or delta wave axis may lead to different classification of pathway location. We compared the utility of a computerized program in identifying pathway location from the ECG using the algorithm published by Fitzpatrick and coworkers3 against physician assessment with the same algorithm. Methods: Thirty-one 12-lead ECGs with an overt preexcitation pattern were examined by three physicians and AP localized to one of eight anatomical sites using the Fitzpatrick algorithm, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Similarly, pathway location was determined by the Glasgow ECG program with the Fitzpatrick algorithm incorporated into its logic. Results: The agreement between each physician and their consensus was 28/31, 29/31, and 29/31. Similarly, assessment by the Glasgow program produced agreement with the physician consensus in 29/31 cases. Of the 24 patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation, the program localized the pathway to the true or adjacent annular region in 20, compared to 20/24 by physician assessment of the algorithm, producing a similar predictive accuracy to published data. Conclusion: This study has shown that incorporation of the Fitzpatrick algorithm for AP location into a widely used computer program results in the same level of performance as that of experienced physicians and may be useful in clinical practice as an aid to referral for electrophysiological study and ablation. [source]


    Ocular toxoplasmosis: in the storm of the eye

    PARASITE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 12 2006
    L. A. JONES
    SUMMARY Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) can occur in the children of mothers infected with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy. It is not limited to the congenitally infected, but can also occur following adult-acquired infection or as a result of disease reactivation in immune-compromised and pregnant individuals. Many aspects of immune privilege in the eye, including constitutive TGF-, expression and reduced MHC class 1 expression, would appear at first to favour parasite survival. Conversely, many of the mechanisms that control parasite multiplication in other anatomical sites, such as nitric oxide expression, IFN-, and TNF-,, are known to disrupt immune privilege and are associated with ocular damage. Taking into account the opposing needs of limiting parasite multiplication and minimizing tissue destruction we review the pathogenesis of OT in the murine model. [source]


    Immunohistochemical detection of cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen in leiomyosarcoma: A systematic study of 100 cases

    PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2000
    Jun Iwata
    Although ,aberrant' expression of the epithelial markers, cytokeratin (CK) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), in leiomyosarcoma has been described previously, there has not been a study of this phenomenon with clinicopathological correlation in a large series of lesions at different anatomical sites. We investigated systematically the immunohistochemical reactivity for CK and EMA in 100 cases of leiomyosarcoma. CK and EMA were positive in 38% and 44% of the cases, respectively. Although staining was usually focal, extensive immunoreactivity was observed in 11% with CK and 6% with EMA. There was no correlation between immunoreactivity for CK and EMA in leiomyosarcomas and non-neoplastic smooth muscle at the same location. Immunoreactivity for CK and EMA was not correlated with the location, age, sex, histological grade, or histological features, except for more frequent EMA positivity in vascular and uterine tumors than in soft tissue cases. These results indicate that CK and/or EMA-positive leiomyosarcomas do not have distinctive clinicopathological features differing from those of negative cases. However, the considerable frequency of immunoreactivity for these epithelial markers in leiomyosarcoma, occasionally with diffuse and strong immunopositivity, should be recognized as a potentially serious diagnostic pitfall in the differential diagnosis of other malignant spindle cell neoplasms. [source]


    Use of the GlucoWatch® biographer in children and adolescents with diabetes

    PEDIATRIC DIABETES, Issue 3 2002
    Richard C. Eastman
    Abstract: Objective:, This study was done to evaluate the accuracy and safety of measuring glucose with the GlucoWatch® biographer in children and adolescents with diabetes. Methods:, Accuracy was assessed by comparing biographer glucose measurements with hourly blood glucose measurements using the HemoCue (Aktiebolaget Leo, Helsingborg, Sweden) Photometer for up to 12 h of monitoring. Safety was evaluated by examining the biographer application sites immediately upon removal of the devices, and then at regular intervals. Results: Sixty-six subjects each wore three biographers at sites including the forearm, upper arm, leg, and torso. For forearm biographers, the mean absolute relative difference between biographer readings and blood glucose was 21%. Ninety-five per cent of biographer readings fell into the A or B regions of the Clarke error grid, and 97.3% into the A or B regions of the consensus error grid. Data from biographers worn at the alternative sites were similar to data from the forearm biographers. Two strong reactions to the adhesive pad of the biographer AutoSensor were observed. Most skin reactions were mild. Conclusions:, The GlucoWatch biographer is well tolerated by children and adolescents with diabetes. Performance is similar when the device is worn at different anatomical sites, and is similar to the performance on the forearm, previously reported in adults. [source]