Hypopnea Index (hypopnea + index)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Hypopnea Index

  • apnea hypopnea index

  • Selected Abstracts

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide for detection of cardiovascular stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Summary Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have an elevated incidence of cardiovascular events that may be related to an increased ventricular load and hypoxemia caused by apneas and hypopneas. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) appears to be an excellent marker of myocardial stretch and could serve as an indicator of subclinical cardiac stress, thereby identifying a patient population at risk for cardiac effects from OSAS. Adult patients presenting with suspected OSAS and scheduled for nocturnal polysomnography were recruited. Patients with heart or renal failure or severe lung disease were excluded. NTproBNP was measured the evening before and the morning after sleep. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored intermittently throughout the night. Fifteen male and 15 female subjects with a mean SD body mass index of 38.2 9.8 were studied. Mean Apnea,Hypopnea Index (AHI) was 38.4 26, with 17 subjects having severe OSAS (AHI > 30). No subject had a significant rise in BP. NTproBNP values overnight decreased in 19 patients and rose in 11 (mean change 3.8 33 pg mL,1), but only one patient had an abnormal morning value. Three patients had an abnormal NTproBNP value prior to sleep, but their levels decreased with sleep. No correlations were detected between the evening baseline or postsleep NTproBNP levels and OSAS. Monitoring pre- and postsleep NTproBNP levels revealed no association with the occurrence or degree of OSAS, making it unlikely that NTproBNP could serve as a marker of cardiac stress in OSAS patients with stable BP and without overt heart failure. [source]

    Effect of Nasal Surgery on Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2002
    Thomas Verse MD
    Abstract Objective/Hypothesis Single cases of patients who have experienced obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and who recovered completely after nasal surgery have been described in various studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of only nasal surgery 1) in a group of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and 2) in simple snorers. Study Design A prospective, controlled study with 26 adult patients who underwent nasal surgery as single treatment of their sleep-related breathing disorders. The cases were evaluated based on the severity level of their preoperative Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI). Material and Methods Between August 1996 and July 2000, 26 patients who snored and had impaired nasal breathing underwent attended polysomnography in the sleep laboratory as single treatment nasal surgery was performed. Postoperative polysomnographic findings and complications were reviewed. Results Nineteen of 26 patients (73.1%) were diagnosed as having OSA. Seven patients were simple snorers with an AHI below 10. The surgical response rates, defined as greater than or equal to 50% reduction in the postoperative AHI and a postoperative AHI of less than 20, was 15.8% in the apneics. For the whole group, the AHI decreased postoperatively from 31.6 to 28.9. However, daytime sleepiness improved significantly and arousals decreased significantly in both apneics and simple snorers after nasal surgery. Conclusions We conclude that nasal surgery has a limited efficacy in the treatment of adult patients with sleep apnea. Nevertheless, nasal surgery significantly improves sleep quality and daytime sleepiness independent of the severity of obstructive sleep-related breathing disorders. [source]

    Genetics of the apnea hypopnea index in Caucasians and African Americans: I. Segregation analysis

    Sarah G. Buxbaum
    Abstract Differences in age of presentation and anatomic risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in Caucasians and African Americans suggest possible racial differences in the genetic underpinnings of the disorder. In this study, we assess transmission patterns in a Caucasian sample consisting of 177 families (N = 1,195) and in an African American sample consisting of 125 families (N = 720) for two variables: 1) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) log transformed and adjusted for age, and 2) AHI log transformed and adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). We allowed for residual familial correlations and sex-specific means in all models. Analysis of the Caucasian sample showed transmission patterns consistent with that of a major gene that were stronger in the age-adjusted variable than in the age- and BMI-adjusted variable. However, in the African American families, adjusting for BMI in addition to age gave stronger evidence for segregation of a codominant gene with an allele frequency of 0.14, accounting for 35% of the total variance. These results provide support for an underlying genetic basis for OSA that in African Americans is independent of the contribution of BMI. Genet. Epidemiol. 22:243,253, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Clinical significance of geriatric sleep apnea syndrome

    Shinji Teramoto
    The prevalence of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is known to increase with advancing age, contributing to excessive daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular dysfunction and the impairment of health-related quality of life. However SAS is often undiagnosed and overlooked in the elderly. It is important to note that SAS is a differential diagnosis of insomnia, dementia, and depression in the elderly. For an accurate diagnosis of geriatric SAS, the apnea and hypopnea index as measured by polysomnography must be greater than 10 or 15. Many untoward effects of SAS on the health status of the elderly are considered to be clinically significant. Although it has been suggested that geriatric SAS has less effect on the mortality and morbidity of sufferers than does middle-aged SAS, sleep apnea in any age group, if severe and accompanied by symptoms, should be treated. However, the clinical significance of geriatric SAS should be further elucidated. [source]

    Electroencephalographic arousals during sleep do not alter the pressor response to Cheyne,Stokes respiration in subjects with chronic heart failure

    Summary This study examined the influence of electroencephalographic (EEG) arousal on the magnitude and morphology of the pressor response to Cheyne,Stokes respiration (CSR) in subjects with congestive heart failure (CHF). Thirteen subjects with stable CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction, 26 7%) and CSR (apnea,hypopnea index 52 15 h,1) underwent overnight polysomnography with beat-to-beat measurement of systemic arterial blood pressure (BP). CSR events were divided into those with or without an EEG arousal defined according to the criteria of the American Sleep Disorders Association. The pressor response was quantified in terms of the delta BP change (difference between the minimum BP during apnea and maximum BP during hyperpnea). Changes in the morphology of the pressor response were assessed by subdividing individual respiratory events into six periods (three during apnea: A1, A2, A3; and three during hyperpnea: H1, H2, H3). Considerable fluctuations in BP and heart rate (HR) were observed across the CSR cycle (delta mean BP 20.2 6.5 mmHg). The presence of an EEG arousal did not alter the amplitude of fluctuations in BP. Mean blood pressure (MBP) increased 21.0 7.5 mmHg with arousal versus 19.3 5.8 mmHg without arousal (NS). A repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant interaction between the presence of arousal and the proportional change in mean BP across the six periods, indicating that an EEG arousal had no effect on the morphology of MBP change during CSR [F(5,60) = 1.44, P = 0.22]. This study showed that EEG-defined arousal does not amplify the pressor response to CSR in CHF. [source]

    Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Chronic Opioid Therapy

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
    Lynn R. Webster MD
    ABSTRACT Objective., To assess the relation between medications prescribed for chronic pain and sleep apnea. Design., An observational study of chronic pain patients on opioid therapy who received overnight polysomnographies. Generalized linear models determined whether a dose relation exists between methadone, nonmethadone opioids, and benzodiazepines and the indices measuring sleep apnea. Setting., A private clinic specializing in the treatment of chronic pain. Patients., Polysomnography was sought for all consecutive (392) patients on around-the-clock opioid therapy for at least 6 months with a stable dose for at least 4 weeks. Of these, 147 polysomnographies were completed (189 patients declined, 56 were directed to other sleep laboratories by insurance companies, and data were incomplete for seven patients). Available data were analyzed on 140 patients. Outcome Measures., The apnea,hypopnea index to assess overall severity of sleep apnea and the central apnea index to assess central sleep apnea. Results., The apnea,hypopnea index was abnormal (,5 per hour) in 75% of patients (39% had obstructive sleep apnea, 4% had sleep apnea of indeterminate type, 24% had central sleep apnea, and 8% had both central and obstructive sleep apnea); 25% had no sleep apnea. We found a direct relation between the apnea,hypopnea index and the daily dosage of methadone (P = 0.002) but not to other around-the-clock opioids. We found a direct relation between the central apnea index and the daily dosage of methadone (P = 0.008) and also with benzodiazepines (P = 0.004). Conclusions., Sleep-disordered breathing was common in chronic pain patients on opioids. The dose,response relation of sleep apnea to methadone and benzodiazepines calls for increased vigilance. [source]

    Increased cell-free DNA concentrations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Chol Shin md
    Aim:, Blood concentrations of cell-free DNA, which is considered to be released during apoptosis, are elevated under some pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cell-free DNA concentrations has not been reported so far. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between OSA and plasma DNA concentrations. Methods:, A case,control study was conducted using a total of 164 men aged 39,67 years, who were free of coronary heart disease and cancer. Laboratory-based overnight polysomnography was performed for all participants. Results:, On the basis of polysomnography, patients with an apnea,hypopnea index (AHI) = 5,30 events/h were defined as having mild,moderate OSA (n = 33) and those with >30 events/h were defined as having severe OSA (n = 49). All 82 controls had AHI < 5 events/h. Plasma DNA concentrations from all participants were analyzed for the ,-globin gene using fluorescence-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher plasma DNA concentrations than persons with mild,moderate OSA and those without OSA (P < 0.05). AHI was significantly associated with body mass index (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and plasma DNA concentration (P < 0.05). Conclusion:, After taking into account hypertension and other potential risk factors, persons with high plasma DNA concentrations (>8 g/L) had approximately fourfold higher odds of OSA than those with low DNA levels. Further data are warranted to confirm the association for men and to evaluate the association for women. [source]

    Three components of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome

    Takayuki Kumano-Go
    Abstract The aims of this study were to calculate the apnea,hypopnea index (AHI), which represented as the number of apnea,hypopnea occurrences per hour, the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI4) and the breathing-related arousal index (B-ArI) in polysomnographic studies of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients and to investigate whether there was any relationship between each pair of scoring schemes. Thirty-four cases of OSAHS were studied. Total OSAHS patients were subdivided into those with a high AHI (> 25), and those with a low AHI (< 25). The correlation between each pair of scoring schemes for OSAHS with a high AHI showed high value. The correlation between AHI and ODI4 for OSAHS with a low AHI was 0.18 and that between AHI and B-ArI showed a weak correlation of 0.59, while that between ODI4 and B-ArI was only ,0.078. Our results mean that oxygen desaturation and arousal occur separately in mild or moderate OSAHS patients, even though they are diagnosed with the same level of OSAHS by means of AHI. Breathing-related arousal without oxygen desaturation often occurs in mild or moderate OSAHS patients. We previously reported that AHI does not accurately reflect the severity of the increase in negativity of esophageal pressure manifested as respiratory efforts. We consider that the comprehension and assessment of OSAHS can be improved by the systematic differentiations among the three components: oxygen desaturation, arousals and respiratory efforts. [source]

    A case of sleep choking syndrome improved by the Kampo extract of Hange-koboku-to

    Abstract A case of sleep choking syndrome with typical symptoms is presented. A 44-year-old Japanese male suffered from multiple episodes of choking, which suddenly appeared with fear of impending death about 30 min after falling asleep almost every night. Overnight polysomnography showed an apnea index of 0.92 events/h, an apnea,hypopnea index of 2.77 events/h, and normal respiration during sleep with the exception of the episodes of apnea and hypopnea. No choking episode occurred in the sleep laboratory. The administration of 500 mg of acetazolamide was ineffective, but the choking episode improved after the administration of Kampo extract of Hange-koboku-to (Ban-xia-hou-pu-tang). Hange-koboku-to may be effective in treating choking sensation during sleep as well as during wakefulness. [source]

    The effect of multilevel upper airway surgery on continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome,,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2009
    FACS, Michael Friedman MD
    Abstract Objective: To investigate the effect of multilevel upper airway surgery (USA) on subsequent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Study Design: Fifty-two patients who underwent multilevel UAS with persistent symptoms of OSAHS represent the cohort for this study. All patients had undergone manual CPAP titrations both pre- and postoperatively. Patients were used as their own controls and were compared pre- and postoperatively with regard to body mass index, full night polysomnography (PSG), optimal CPAP pressure settings, presence of rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, identification of mouth leakage, and CPAP compliance. Results: Postoperative values for apnea index (AI), apnea hypopnea index (AHI), and minimum oxygen saturation (min SaO2) were all significantly decreased from their preoperative levels. Compliance with CPAP therapy significantly increased from a mean 0.02 0.14 hours per night prior to surgery to a 3.2 2.6 hours per night following surgery (P < .001). In addition, the optimal CPAP pressure setting decreased significantly for a preoperative value of 10.6 2.1 cm H2O to 9.8 2.1 cm H2O following surgery. Fifty of the 52 patients (96.2%) studied were able to maintain optimal pressure settings without mouth leak, postoperatively. Conclusions: In this study, most patients who had persistent symptoms of OSAHS after multilevel UAS did not have significant mouth leak that would preclude CPAP therapy. In this cohort of patients, CPAP pressure setting as well as compliance was significantly improved postoperatively. Laryngoscope, 119:193,196, 2009 [source]

    Impact of Adenotonsillectomy on Behavior in Children With Sleep-Disordered Breathing,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 7 2006
    Hsueh-Yu Li MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Children with sleep-disordered breathing may experience behavioral and learning problems such as inattentiveness and hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of adenotonsillectomy on sleep-related adverse events and behavioral problems in children with sleep-disordered breathing. Method: This prospective and interventional study enrolled 40 sleep-disordered breathing children (mean age, 8.4 1.6 years) with hypertrophic tonsils and adenoids. All patients completed two polysomnographies, tests of variables of attention (TOVAs), and Child Behavior Checklists, one at baseline and the other 6 months after adenotonsillectomy. Results: The apnea,hypopnea index (P < .001), TOVA scores (P < .001), and 8 of 9 individual domains of the Child Behavior Checklist scores (P < .05) significantly improved after surgery. However, the change in the apnea,hypopnea index was not negatively correlated with TOVA score (r = ,0.17, P = .38). Conclusion: Adenotonsillectomy could significantly improve behavior (TOVA) scores, but the improvement may not simply be attributable to changes in sleep apnea events. [source]

    Hyoidthyroidpexia: A Surgical Treatment for Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 4 2005
    Cindy den Herder MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of primary hyoidthyroidpexia (HTP) and HTP after previous uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Study Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Thirty-one patients with obstruction at tongue base level and moderate to severe sleep apnea syndrome underwent HTP. Seventeen patients underwent surgery after an unsuccessful UPPP (secondary HTP), and in 14 patients, primary HTP was performed. Results: Patients who underwent primary HTP showed a significant decrease in apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (P = .007), whereas those patients who had secondary HTP did not (P = .06). Overall, the AHI significantly changed (P = .0005). Visual analogue scales for snoring and hypersomnolence and the Epworth sleepiness scores showed significant improvement for both groups, without any difference between them. HTP was considerably less painful when compared with UPPP. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that HTP, in particular as primary treatment in cases of obstruction at tongue base level, is a valuable addition to the therapeutic armamentarium of moderate to severe OSAS. Selection criteria are moderate to severe OSAS with preferably a body mass index less than 27, multilevel obstruction with emphasis on the base of tongue, small tonsils, and normal uvula, without a floppy epiglottis or a palatal stenosis after UPPP. [source]

    Preoperative Differences Between Male and Female Patients With Sleep Apnea,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 9 2001
    Regina Paloyan Walker MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis To evaluate the differences between female and male patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in the preoperative period. Study Design Nonrandomized cross-sectional study. Methods An analysis of 686 patients (111 women and 575 men) with OSAS was completed. Multivariate modeling techniques were employed to correlate gender with the preoperative respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea index (AI), hypopnea index (HI), body mass index (BMI), age, and initial symptoms. Results At presentation, the male patients were significantly younger and had a lower BMI and a higher RDI and AI than the female patients. For the entire OSAS population studied, the RDI increased as the BMI increased (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.35, P = <.001). For the female patients there was a weaker correlation (r = 0.21, P = .034), and in male patients there was a stronger correlation (r = 0.40, P <.001). For the entire population there was a negative correlation between age and RDI (r = ,0.15, P <.001). In female patients there was a nonsignificant correlation (r = ,0.09, P = .35), and in male patients the correlation was significant (r = ,0.16, P <.001). There was no difference in the reporting of the number of symptoms based on gender (P = .355). Female patients noted headaches on awakening more commonly than male patients (P = .001), and male patients noted snoring (P = .014) and stopping breathing during sleep (P = .001) more often than female patients. Conclusions The analysis demonstrated that within a surgical population sample, gender differences exist. The findings of this series were as follows: 1) Apnea severity in women was less weight-dependent than in men; (2) in men there was a significant negative correlation between age and apnea severity; and (3) female and male patients reported the same number of signs or symptoms on presentation, although certain signs and symptoms were more commonly reported based on gender. Current clinical evaluation practices must take into account this gender disparity. [source]

    Heart Rate Variability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Prospective Study and Frequency Domain Analysis

    Lorne J Gula F.R.C.P.C.
    Background: Cyclic variation of the heart rate is observed during apneic spells in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that autonomic changes would affect frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: We studied 20 patients (15 men, 5 women, mean age 47.2 12.2 years) with suspected OSA undergoing overnight polysomnography, and five patients (4 men, 1 woman, mean age 49.2 8.6 years) with recently diagnosed sleep apnea undergoing polysomnography while wearing continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Holter monitors were applied during sleep studies and data were analyzed in 5-minute blocks over the course of the night. Using spectral analysis, low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) powers were calculated for each interval. Overall mean and standard deviation (SD) for LF power, HF power, and the LF:HF ratio were recorded for each patient. Comparisons were made between patients with severe OSA (apnea hypopnea index (AHI) > 30, n = 8), moderate OSA (AHI 1,30, n = 5), without OSA (AHI < 10, n = 7), and patients wearing CPAP (n = 5). Results: Assessment of overnight LF or HF power revealed no significant difference between the four groups. The LF:HF ratio, which represents sympathovagal balance, was higher among those with moderate disease compared to normals and those with severe OSA (both P = 0.037). The standard deviation of the LF:HF ratio was higher among those with moderate disease compared to normals (P = 0.0064) and those with severe OSA (P = 0.0006). OSA patients receiving CPAP behaved like patients with moderate OSA, with increased SD of the LF:HF ratio. Conclusions: The observed changes in the LF:HF ratio and its SD suggest an increased sympathetic tone and discordance in sympathovagal activity in moderate OSA, which is blunted in severe OSA. CPAP may restore autonomic defects, characteristic of severe OSA, to moderate levels. [source]