Hydrous Minerals (hydrous + mineral)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Up-temperature flow of surface-derived fluids in the mid-crust: the role of pre-orogenic burial of hydrated fault rocks

Abstract The Walter-Outalpa shear zone in the southern Curnamona Province of NE South Australia is an example of a shear zone that has undergone intensely focused fluid flow and alteration at mid-crustal depths. Results from this study have demonstrated that the intense deformation and ductile shear zone reactivation, at amphibolite facies conditions of 534 20 C and 500 82 MPa, that overprint the Proterozoic Willyama Supergroup occurred during the Delamerian Orogeny (c. 500 Ma) (EPMA monazite ages of 501 16 and 491 19 Ma). This is in contrast to the general belief that the majority of basement deformation and alteration in the southern Curnamona Province occurred during the waning stages of the Olarian Orogeny (c. 1610,1580 Ma). These shear zones contain hydrous mineral assemblages that cut wall rocks that have experienced amphibolite facies metamorphism during the Olarian Orogeny. The shear zone rock volumes have much lower ,18O values (as low as 1,) than their unsheared counterparts (7,9,), and calculated fluid ,18O values (5,8,) consistent with a surface-derived fluid source. Hydrous minerals show a decrease in ,D(H2O) from ,14 to ,22,, for minerals outside the shear zones, to ,28 to ,40,, for minerals within the shear zones consistent with a contribution from a meteoric source. It is unclear how near-surface fluids initially under hydrostatic pressure penetrate into the middle crust where fluid pressures approach lithostatic, and where fluid flow is expected to be dominantly upward because of pressure gradients. We propose a mechanism whereby faulting during basin formation associated with the Adelaidean Rift Complex (c. 700 Ma) created broad hydrous zones containing mineral assemblages in equilibrium with surface waters. These panels of fault rock were subsequently buried to depths where the onset of metamorphism begins to dehydrate the fault rock volumes evolving a low ,18O fluid that is channelled through shear zones related to Delamerian Orogenic activity. [source]

Mineral evolution of a garnet-pyroxenite nodule within eclogite, eastern Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane, East China

Abstract Detailed microtextural observations and bulk chemical analysis were undertaken on a garnet-pyroxenite nodule within retrograde eclogites from the NE Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) terrane. The results suggest that the protolith was a cumulate from a gabbroic body. The nodule consists primarily of coarse clinopyroxene grains with a very high content of the Ca-Tschermakite molecule. Microscopic observations and back-scattered electron images (BSE) demonstrate a complicated intergrowth of clinopyroxene, garnet and ilmenite, which represents the peak metamorphic assemblage. The primary clinopyroxene grains are armoured with a thin garnet corona up to 0.5 mm wide that forms an interconnected network. Within the clinopyroxene grains, four sets of garnet lamellae are distributed along crystallographic planes; locally, a vermicular intergrowth of garnet and diopside is developed. Besides the garnet, parallel arrays of ilmenite blebs are common within the clinopyroxene. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole, zoisite and titanite formed at later stages, and replaced diopside, garnet and ilmenite respectively. The P,T conditions determined for the formation of the garnet lamellae indicate that the garnet pyroxenite experienced UHP metamorphism at the same peak P,T condition as its host eclogite. The very high Ca-Tschermakite content (31,34 mol.%) of the primary clinopyroxene indicates crystallization at about 9,17 kbar and 1250,1450 C, and together with the microtextural observations, suggests that the protolith of the garnet pyroxenite was a cumulate from a former gabbroic body, in which case, the host eclogite might represent the gabbroic body. [source]

Lithospheric structure of an active backarc basin: the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

Antony Harrison
SUMMARY Seismic data from both explosive and earthquake sources have been used to model the crustal and upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), an active backarc basin in central North Island, New Zealand. Volcanic sediments with P -wave velocities of 2.0,3.5 km s,1 reach a maximum thickness of 3 km beneath the central TVZ. Underlying these sediments to 16 km depth is material with velocities of 5.0,6.5 km s,1, interpreted as quartzo-feldspathic crust. East and west of the TVZ, crust with similar velocities is found to depths of 30 and 25 km, respectively. Beneath the TVZ, material with P -wave velocities of 6.9,7.3 km s,1 is found from 16 to 30 km depth and is interpreted as heavily intruded or underplated lower crust. The base of the crust at 30 km depth under the TVZ is marked by a strong seismic reflector, interpreted as the Moho. Modelling of arrivals from deep (>40 km) earthquakes near the top of the underlying subducting Pacific Plate reveals a region with low mantle velocities of 7.4,7.8 km s,1 beneath the crust of the TVZ. This region of low mantle velocities is best explained by the presence of partially hydrated upper mantle, resulting from dehydration of hydrous minerals (e.g. serpentinite) carried down by the underlying subducting plate. Within the lower crust beneath the TVZ, a region of high (0.34) Poisson's ratio is observed, indicating the presence of at least 1 per cent partial melt. This melt probably fractionates and assimilates crustal material before some of it migrates into the upper crust, where it provides a source for the voluminous rhyolitic magmas of the TVZ. [source]

Plagioclase replacement textures in partially eclogitised gabbros from the Sanddal mafic-ultramafic complex, Greenland Caledonides

H. M. Lang
Abstract The Sanddal mafic-ultramafic complex (SMUK) is a cluster of variably eclogitised mafic and ultramafic bodies that comprise the westernmost known eclogite facies locality in the North-East Greenland eclogite province (NEGEP). Although there are no true eclogites in the SMUK, we interpret three distinct textural types of plagioclase replacement to record sequential stages in adjustment of SMUK olivine gabbro-norites to eclogite facies conditions. The earliest stage, in which plagioclase was replaced by omphacite/spinel symplectite before nucleation of garnet (Type 1A & 1B) has not previously been described. Documentation of this texture provides clear evidence that, at least in some cases, garnet nucleation is delayed relative to nucleation of omphacite and is a rate-limiting step for eclogitisation. Type 1C domains were produced by scattered nucleation of garnet in the same sample. In Type 2 domains, plagioclase was replaced by a layered corona with an outer layer of garnet, an inner layer of omphacite and an interior of inclusion-rich plagioclase. In Type 3 domains, the omphacite layer was overgrown by the garnet rim, and omphacite is preserved only as inclusions in garnet. In more coarse grained leucogabbros, recrystallization was more complete, plagioclase replacement textures were less localised, and could not be divided into distinct stages. Plagioclase replacement in SMUK samples was not isochemical, and required diffusion of at least Mg and Fe from replacement of mafic phases in the surroundings. Strong compositional gradients in garnet reflect disequilibrium and were controlled by the different diffusion rates of Mg/Fe and Ca, different local chemical environments, and progress of the plagioclase breakdown reaction. The presence of small amounts of hydrous minerals (amphibole, phlogopite and clinozoisite) in local equilibrium in plagioclase domains of most SMUK samples indicates that a small amount of H2O was present during high pressure metamorphism. [source]

Eclogites of the Dabie Region: Retrograde Metamorphism and Fluid Evolution

GU Lianxing
Abstract, Based upon fluid effects, retrograde metamorphism of eclogites in the Dabie region can be divided into the fluid-poor, fluid-bearing and fluid-rich stages. The fluid-poor stage is marked by polymorphic inversion, recrystallization and exsolution of solid solutions, and is thought to represent eclogite-facies retrograde environments. The fluid-bearing stage is likely to have occurred at the late stage of ecologite-facies diaphthorosis and is represented by kyanite porphyroblasts, rutile, and sodic pyroxene in association with high-pressure hydrous minerals such as phengite and zoisite (clinozoisite) without significant amount of hydrous minerals such as amphibole, epidote and biotite. The fluid-rich stage might have commenced concomitantly with lower amphibolite-facies diaphthoresis and persisted all the way towards the near-surface environment. The product of this stage is characterized by plentiful hydrous and volatile-bearing phases. The dissemination-type rutile mineralizations in eclogites might have formed by preferential shearing-induced pressure solution of gangue minerals at the fluid-bearing stage. The accompanying vein rutile was precipitated from fluids of this stage after local transport and concentration, and may hence represent proximal mobilization of titanium from the eclogite. Therefore, rutile veins can be used as an exploration indicator for dissemination-type rutile deposits. [source]