Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Hydrograph

  • flood hydrograph
  • flow hydrograph
  • unit hydrograph

  • Terms modified by Hydrograph

  • hydrograph analysis
  • hydrograph separation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Hydrograph and unit hydrograph derivation in arid regions

    Abstract Arid and semi-arid regions expose special hydrological features that are distinctive from humid areas. Unfortunately, humid-region hydrological empirical formulations are used directly in the arid and semi-arid regions without care about the basic assumptions. During any storm rainfall in arid regions, rainfall, infiltration and runoff components of the hydrological cycle have impacts on water resources. The basis of the methodology presented in this paper is the ratio of runoff increment to rainfall increment during an infinitesimally small time duration. This is the definition of runoff coefficient for the same infinitesimal time duration. The ratio is obtained through rational, physical and mathematical combination of hydrological thinking and then integrated with the classical infiltration equation for the hydrograph determination. The parameters of the methodology are explained and their empirical estimations are presented. The methodology works for rainfall and runoff from ungauged watersheds where infiltration measurement can be performed. The comparison of the new approach with different classical approaches, such as the rational formula and Soil Conservation Service method, are presented in detail. Its application is performed for two wadis within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Semivirtual Watershed Model by Neural Networks

    James C. Y. Guo
    A semivirtual watershed model is presented in this study. This model places the design rainfall distribution on the input layer and the predicted runoff hydrograph on the output layer. The optimization scheme developed in this study can train the model to establish a set of weights under the guidance of the kinematic wave theory. The weights are time-dependent variables by which rainfall signals can be converted to runoff distributions by weighting procedures only. With the consideration of time dependence, the computational efficiency of virtual watershed models is greatly enhanced by eliminating unnecessary visitations between layers. The weighting procedure used in the semivirtual watershed model expands the rational method from peak runoff predictions to complete hydrograph predictions under continuous and nonuniform rainfall events. [source]

    Defining and measuring braiding intensity

    Roey Egozi
    Abstract Geomorphological studies of braided rivers still lack a consistent measurement of the complexity of the braided pattern. Several simple indices have been proposed and two (channel count and total sinuosity) are the most commonly applied. For none of these indices has there been an assessment of the sampling requirements and there has been no systematic study of the equivalence of the indices to each other and their sensitivity to river stage. Resolution of these issues is essential for progress in studies of braided morphology and dynamics at the scale of the channel network. A series of experiments was run using small-scale physical models of braided rivers in a 3 m , 20 m flume. Sampling criteria for braid indices and their comparability were assessed using constant-discharge experiments. Sample hydrographs were run to assess the effect of flow variability. Reach lengths of at least 10 times the average wetted width are needed to measure braid indices with precision of the order of 20% of the mean. Inherent variability in channel pattern makes it difficult to achieve greater precision. Channel count indices need a minimum of 10 cross-sections spaced no further apart than the average wetted width of the river. Several of the braid indices, including total sinuosity, give very similar numerical values but they differ substantially from channel-count index values. Consequently, functional relationships between channel pattern and, for example, discharge, are sensitive to the choice of braid index. Braid indices are sensitive to river stage and the highest values typically occur below peak flows of a diurnal (melt-water) hydrograph in pro-glacial rivers. There is no general relationship with stage that would allow data from rivers at different relative stage to be compared. At present, channel count indices give the best combination of rapid measurement, precision, and range of sources from which measurements can be reliably made. They can also be related directly to bar theory for braided pattern development. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Defining the moment of erosion: the principle of thermal consonance timing

    D. M. LawlerArticle first published online: 9 DEC 200
    Abstract Geomorphological process research demands quantitative information on erosion and deposition event timing and magnitude, in relation to fluctuations in the suspected driving forces. This paper establishes a new measurement principle , thermal consonance timing (TCT) , which delivers clearer, more continuous and quantitative information on erosion and deposition event magnitude, timing and frequency, to assist understanding of the controlling mechanisms. TCT is based on monitoring the switch from characteristically strong temperature gradients in sediment, to weaker gradients in air or water, which reveals the moment of erosion. The paper (1) derives the TCT principle from soil micrometeorological theory; (2) illustrates initial concept operationalization for field and laboratory use; (3) presents experimental data for simple soil erosion simulations; and (4) discusses initial application of TCT and perifluvial micrometeorology principles in the delivery of timing solutions for two bank erosion events on the River Wharfe, UK, in relation to the hydrograph. River bank thermal regimes respond, as soil temperature and energy balance theory predicts, with strong horizontal thermal gradients (often >1 K cm,1 over 6·8 cm). TCT fixed the timing of two erosion events, the first during inundation, the second 19 h after the discharge peak and 13 h after re-emergence from the flow. This provides rare confirmation of delayed bank retreat, quantifies the time-lag involved, and suggests mass failure processes rather than fluid entrainment. Erosion events can be virtually instantaneous, implying ,catastrophic retreat' rather than ,progressive entrainment'. Considerable potential exists to employ TCT approaches for: validating process models in several geomorphological contexts; assisting process identification and improving discrimination of competing hypotheses of process dominance through high-resolution, simultaneous analysis of erosion and deposition events and driving forces; defining shifting erodibility and erosion thresholds; refining dynamic linkages in event-based sediment budget investigations; and deriving closer approximations to ,true' erosion and deposition rates, especially in self-concealing scour-and-fill systems. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrologic and geomorphic effects of temporary ice-dammed lake formation during jökulhlaups

    Matthew J. Roberts
    Abstract Glacial outburst ,oods (jökulhlaups) occur frequently in glaciated environments, and the resultant ,ooding causes geomorphic change and, in some instances, damage to local infrastructure. During some jökulhlaups, ,oodwater is stored temporarily in ice-marginal locations. In July 1999, a linearly rising jökulhlaup burst from Sólheimajökull, Iceland. During this remarkable event, subglacial ,oodwater pooled transiently in two relict ice-dammed lake basins, before draining suddenly back into Sólheimajökull. The signi,cance of such rapid formation and attendant drainage of temporary ice-dammed lakes during jökulhlaups has not been addressed. Consequently, this paper: (i) assesses the hydrologic and geomorphic effects of temporary ice-dammed lake formation caused by lake-basin ,retro-,lling'; and (ii) discusses the impact and signi,cance of transient retro-,lling under jökulhlaup conditions. Pre- and post-,ood ,eldwork at Sólheimajökull enabled the impact and signi,cance of lake-basin retro-,lling to be assessed. Field evidence demonstrates that the July 1999 jökulhlaup had an unusually rapid rise to peak discharge, resulting in subglacial ,oodwater being purged to ice-marginal locations. The propensity for temporary retro-,lling was controlled by rapid expulsion of ,oodwater from Sólheimajökull, coincident with locations suitable for ,oodwater storage. Floodwater inundated both ice-marginal lake basins, permitting signi,cant volumes of sediment deposition. Coarse-grained deltas prograding from the ice margin and boulders perched on scoured bedrock provide geomorphic records of sudden retro-,lling. The depositional characteristics of lake-basin deposits at Sólheimajökull are similar to jökulhlaup sediments documented in proglacial settings elsewhere; however, their depositional setting and association with ice-marginal landforms is distinctive. Findings suggest that temporary ice-dammed lake formation and drainage has the capacity to alter the shape of the ,ood hydrograph, especially if drainage of a temporary lake is superimposed on the original jökulhlaup. Deposits associated with lake-basin retro-,lling have a long-term preservation potential that could help to identify temporary ice-dammed lake formation in modern and ancient glacial environments. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Structural patterns in coarse gravelriver beds: typology, survey and assessment of the roles of grain size and river regime

    Lea Wittenberg
    The concept of river-bed stability as indexed by the occurrence of stable bed forms was examined in humid-temperate perennial streams and in Mediterranean ephemeral streams. The study examined the structural patterns of bed forms and their spatial distribution between temperate-humid and Mediterranean streams. Study sites in Northumberland, UK, and Mt. Carmel, Israel, were selected for their morphometric similarity, despite the contrast in climate, vegetation and hydrological regime. Fieldwork was based on a large number of Wolman grain size distributions and structure measurements along cross-sections at seven sites; Differences in mean grain size of bed structures were estimated using the general linear model (GLM) procedure and Duncan's multiple range test. Based on field evidence, river-bed configurations were divided into structural categories, according to the depositional setting of each measured particle on the river bed. Statistical analysis confirmed former qualitative descriptions of small-scale bed forms. The study identified spatial segregation in bed form distribution. In general, 30,40%of the bed material in the surveyed perennial streams was clustered, in contrast to approximately 10%in the ephemeral counterparts. The sorting index revealed higher values for the perennial streams, namely 2.39,3.59 compared with 1.73,2.07 for the ephemeral counterparts. It is suggested that the degree of sediment sorting and the proportion of clusters are strongly related. Sediment sorting, sediment supply and the hydrological regime explain the mechanism of cluster formation. It is assumed that climate shifts or human interference within river basins might affect the regional characteristic flood hydrograph, and consequently alter the sedimentary character of the river bed. In the case where river bed stability is reduced owing to changes in cluster bed form distribution, rivers that normally do not yield a significant amount of sediment might be subject to notable sedimentation problems. [source]

    Development of design flood hydrographs using probability density functions

    Niranjan Pramanik
    Abstract Probability density functions (PDFs) are used to fit the shape of hydrographs and have been popularly used for the development of synthetic unit hydrographs by many hydrologists. Nevertheless, modelling the shapes of continuous stream flow hydrographs, which are probabilistic in nature, is rare. In the present study, a novel approach was followed to model the shape of stream flow hydrographs using PDF and subsequently to develop design flood hydrographs for various return periods. Four continuous PDFs, namely, two parameter Beta, Weibull, Gamma and Lognormal, were employed to fit the shape of the hydrographs of 22 years at a site of Brahmani River in eastern India. The shapes of the observed and PDF fitted hydrographs were compared and root mean square errors, error of peak discharge (EQP) and error of time to peak (ETP) were computed. The best-fitted shape and scale parameters of all PDFs were subjected to frequency analysis and the quartiles corresponding to 20-, 50-, 100- and 200-year were estimated. The estimated parameters of each return period were used to develop the flood hydrographs for 20-, 50-, 100- and 200-year return periods. The peak discharges of the developed design flood hydrographs were compared with the design discharges estimated from the frequency analysis of 22 years of annual peak discharges at that site. Lognormal-produced peak discharge was very close to the estimated design discharge in case of 20-year flood hydrograph. On the other hand, peak discharge obtained using the Weibull PDF had close agreement with the estimated design discharge obtained from frequency analysis in case of 50-, 100- and 200-year return periods. The ranking of the PDFs based on estimation of peak of design flood hydrograph for 50-, 100- and 200-year return periods was found to have the following order: Weibull > Beta > Lognormal > Gamma. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Multivariate homogeneity testing in a northern case study in the province of Quebec, Canada

    Fateh Chebana
    Abstract In regional frequency analysis, the examination of the regional homogeneity represents an important step of the procedure. Flood events possess multivariate characteristics which can not be handled by classical univariate regional procedures. For instance, classical procedures do not allow to assess regional homogeneity while taking into consideration flood peak, volume and duration. Chebana and Ouarda proposed multivariate discordancy and homogeneity tests. They carried out a simulation study to evaluate the performance of these tests. In the present paper, practical aspects are investigated jointly on flood peak and flood volume of a data set from the Côte-Nord region in the province of Quebec, Canada. It is shown that, after removing the discordant sites, the remaining ones constitute a homogeneous region for the volumes and heterogeneous region for the peaks. However, if both variables are jointly considered, the obtained region is possibly homogeneous. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the usefulness of the bivariate test to take into account the dependence structure between the variables representing the event, and to take advantage of more information from the hydrograph. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrological behaviour and modelling of a volcanic tropical cultivated catchment

    Jean-Baptiste Charlier
    Abstract The hydrological behaviour of the cultivated Féfé catchment (17·8 ha) on the tropical volcanic island of Guadeloupe was studied to identify flow paths, to quantify water fluxes, and finally, to build a lumped model to simulate discharge and piezometer levels. The approach combined two steps, an experimental step and a modelling step, which covered two time scales, the annual and the storm event scale. The hydrological measurements were conducted over 2 years. The Féfé catchment is characterized by heavy rainfall (4229 mm year,1) on permeable Andosols; the results showed that underground flow paths involved two overlapping aquifers, and that the annual water balance in 2003 was shared among outflows of the deep aquifer (42%), evapotranspiration (31%), and streamflow (27%). On the event scale, the surface runoff coefficient ranges between 6·2% and 24·4% depending on antecedent dry or wet moisture conditions. Hortonian overland flow predominated over subsurface and saturation overland flow processes. Recharge of the shallow aquifer is mainly governed by a constant infiltration capacity of the Andosols with depth in the vadose zone. Outflows of this shallow aquifer were the baseflow of the main stream and the recharge of the deep aquifer. Volcanic deposits at Féfé promoted the underground flow path, and cultivated areas seemed to explain the high stormflow values relative to other tropical small catchments under rain forest. A conceptual lumped model integrating runoff, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and fluctuations of the two overlapping aquifers was developed. The model has six parameters and was calibrated and validated on the hydrograph at the outlet and on the two piezometers of the shallow and the deep aquifers. The results show fair to good agreement between measured and simulated variables, and consequently, the model was consistent with the main hydrological processes observed from experimental results in wet conditions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrogeologic controls on streamflow sensitivity to climate variation

    Anne Jefferson
    Abstract Climate models project warmer temperatures for the north-west USA, which will result in reduced snowpacks and decreased summer streamflow. This paper examines how groundwater, snowmelt, and regional climate patterns control discharge at multiple time scales, using historical records from two watersheds with contrasting geological properties and drainage efficiencies. In the groundwater-dominated watershed, aquifer storage and the associated slow summer recession are responsible for sustaining discharge even when the seasonal or annual water balance is negative, while in the runoff-dominated watershed subsurface storage is exhausted every summer. There is a significant 1 year cross-correlation between precipitation and discharge in the groundwater-dominated watershed (r = 0·52), but climatic factors override geology in controlling the inter-annual variability of streamflow. Warmer winters and earlier snowmelt over the past 60 years have shifted the hydrograph, resulting in summer recessions lasting 17 days longer, August discharges declining 15%, and autumn minimum discharges declining 11%. The slow recession of groundwater-dominated streams makes them more sensitive than runoff-dominated streams to changes in snowmelt amount and timing. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Subglacial modulation of the hydrograph from glacierized basins

    Gwenn E. Flowers
    Abstract The extent of basin glacierization has important implications for the hydrograph in part, because snow, firn and ice impart different delays in water transport through the system. Here, the significance of subglacial drainage morphology in modulating the hydrograph is examined with a one-dimensional physically based model. The conceptual model of subglacial drainage comprises both ,fast' and ,slow' elements, respectively associated with summer and winter drainage regimes. The additional possibility of a permeable glacier substrate is taken into account by allowing water transport in a subglacial aquifer. Forced by prescribed rates of melt-water delivery to the glacier bed, the model predicts glacier discharge by drainage system provenance. The effects of (1) ,hard' versus ,soft' glacier beds, (2) subsurface permeability and groundwater flow, and (3) glacier geometry are then investigated. Hydrograph character, in the form of peak timing and amplitude, symmetry with respect to the forcing, and the amplitude of diurnal fluctuations, is affected by the partitioning of water through the various flow elements. Hard beds and impermeable substrates maximize the discharge routed through the fast-drainage system in the simulations, generally resulting in higher seasonal discharge maxima and stronger diurnal variations in discharge. High hydraulic transmissivities, either at the glacier bed or in underlying strata, hinder the development of the fast-drainage system in the simulations, producing hydrographs of lower amplitude. Glacier geometry has a modest effect, with adverse bed slopes, very thick or very thin ice and short glacier lengths favouring prolonged drainage through the slow system. These results suggest that the morphology and evolution of the subglacial drainage system may play a significant role in determining the character of the hydrograph from glacierized basins. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The influence of elevation error on the morphometrics of channel networks extracted from DEMs and the implications for hydrological modelling

    John B. Lindsay
    Abstract Stream network morphometrics have been used frequently in environmental applications and are embedded in several hydrological models. This is because channel network geometry partly controls the runoff response of a basin. Network indices are often measured from channels that are mapped from digital elevation models (DEMs) using automated procedures. Simulations were used in this paper to study the influence of elevation error on the reliability of estimates of several common morphometrics, including stream order, the bifurcation, length, area and slope ratios, stream magnitude, network diameter, the flood magnitude and timing parameters of the geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) and the network width function. DEMs of three UK basins, ranging from high to low relief, were used for the analyses. The findings showed that moderate elevation error (RMSE of 1·8 m) can result in significant uncertainty in DEM-mapped network morphometrics and that this uncertainty can be expressed in complex ways. For example, estimates of the bifurcation, length and area ratios and the flood magnitude and timing parameters of the GIUH each displayed multimodal frequency distributions, i.e. two or more estimated values were highly likely. Furthermore, these preferential estimates were wide ranging relative to the ranges typically observed for these indices. The wide-ranging estimates of the two GIUH parameters represented significant uncertainty in the shape of the unit hydrograph. Stream magnitude, network diameter and the network width function were found to be highly sensitive to elevation error because of the difficulty in mapping low-magnitude links. Uncertainties in the width function were found to increase with distance from outlet, implying that hydrological models that use network width contain greater uncertainty in the shape of the falling limb of the hydrograph. In light of these findings, care should be exercised when interpreting the results of analyses based on DEM-mapped stream networks. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Physically-based modelling of double-peak discharge responses at Slapton Wood catchment

    Stephen J Birkinshaw
    Abstract Heavy winter rainfall produces double-peak hydrographs at the Slapton Wood catchment, Devon, UK. The first peak is saturation-excess overland flow in the hillslope hollows and the second (i.e. the delayed peak) is subsurface stormflow. The physically-based spatially-distributed model SHETRAN is used to try to improve the understanding of the processes that cause the double peaks. A three-stage (multi-scale) approach to calibration is used: (1) water balance validation for vertical one-dimensional flow at arable, grassland and woodland plots; (2) two-dimensional flow for cross-sections cutting across the stream valley; and (3) three-dimensional flow in the full catchment. The main data are for rainfall, stream discharge, evaporation, soil water potential and phreatic surface level. At each scale there was successful comparison with measured responses, using as far as possible parameter values from measurements. There was some calibration but all calibrated values at one scale were used at a larger scale. A large proportion of the subsurface runoff enters the stream from three dry valleys (hillslope hollows), and previous studies have suggested convergence of the water in the three large hollows as being the major mechanism for the production of the delayed peaks. The SHETRAN modelling suggests that the hillslopes that drain directly into the stream are also involved in producing the delayed discharges. The model shows how in the summer most of the catchment is hydraulically disconnected from the stream. In the autumn the catchment eventually ,wets up' and shallow subsurface flows are produced, with water deflected laterally along the soil-bedrock interface producing the delayed peak in the stream hydrograph. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dynamics of suspended sediment transport at field-scale drain channels of irrigation-dominated watersheds in the Sonoran Desert, southeastern California

    Peng Gao
    Abstract Suspended sediment is a major source of pollution in irrigation-dominated watersheds. However, little is known about the process and mechanisms of suspended sediment transport in drain channels directly connected to agricultural fields. This paper explains sediment dynamics using averaged 5 min flow discharge Q (m3 s,1) and suspended sediment concentration C (mg l,1) collected during one crop season in a small catchment containing a first-order drain channel and its connected six agricultural fields within the Salton Sea watershed. The statistical properties and average trends of Q and C were investigated for both early (i.e. November) and late (i.e. January) stages of a crop season. Further in-depth analysis on sediment dynamics was performed by selecting two typical single-field irrigation events and two multiple-field irrigation events. For each set of irrigation events, the process of suspended sediment transport was revealed by examining hydrograph and sediment graph responses. The mechanisms underlying suspended sediment transport were investigated by analysing the types of corresponding hysteresis loop. Finally, sediment rating curves for both hourly and daily data at early and late stages and for the entire crop season were established to seek possible sediment-transport predictive model(s). The study suggests that the complicated processes of suspended sediment transport in irrigation-dominated watersheds require stochastic rather than deterministic forecasting. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrodynamics and geomorphic work of jökulhlaups (glacial outburst floods) from Kverkfjöll volcano, Iceland

    Jonathan L. Carrivick
    Abstract Jökulhlaups (glacial outburst floods) occur frequently within most glaciated regions of the world and cause rapid landscape change, infrastructure damage, and human disturbance. The largest jökulhlaups known to have occurred during the Holocene within Iceland drained from the northern margin of Vatnajökull and along the Jökulsá á Fjöllum. Some of these jökulhlaups originated from Kverkfjöll volcano and were routed through anastomosing, high gradient and hydraulically rough channels. Landforms and sediments preserved within these channels permit palaeoflow reconstructions. Kverkfjöll jökulhlaups were reconstructed using palaeocompetence (point measurements), slope,area (one-dimensional), and depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic modelling techniques. The increasing complexity of 2D modelling required a range of assumptions, but produced information on both spatial and temporal variations in jökulhlaup characteristics. The jökulhlaups were volcanically triggered, had a linear-rise hydrograph and a peak discharge of 50 000,100 000 m3 s,1, which attenuated by 50,75% within 25 km. Frontal flow velocities were ,2 m s,1; but, as stage increased, velocities reached 5,15m s,1. Peak instantaneous shear stress and stream power reached 1 × 104 N m,2 and 1 × 105 W m,2 respectively. Hydraulic parameters can be related to landform groups. A hierarchy of landforms is proposed, ranging from the highest energy zones (erosional gorges, scoured bedrock, cataracts, and spillways) to the lowest energy zones (of valley fills, bars, and slackwater deposits). Fluvial erosion of bedrock occurred in Kverkfjallarani above ,3 m flow depth, ,7m s,1 flow velocity, ,1 × 102 N m,2 shear stress, and 3 × 102 W m,2 stream power. Fluvial deposition occurred in Kverkfjallarani below ,8 m flow depth, 11 m s,1 flow velocity, 5 × 102 N m,2 shear stress, and 3 × 103 W m,2 stream power. Hence, erosional and depositional ,envelopes' have considerable overlap, probably due to transitional flow phenomena and the influence of upstream effects, such as hydraulic ponding and topographic constrictions, for example. Holocene Kverkfjöll jökulhlaups achieved geomorphic work comparable to that of other late Pleistocene ,megafloods'. This work was a result of steep channel gradients, topographic channel constrictions, and high hydraulic roughness, rather than to extreme peak discharges. The Kverkfjöll jökulhlaups have implications for landscape evolution in north-central Iceland, for water-sediment inputs into the North Atlantic, and for recognizing jökulhlaups in the rock record. 2D hydrodynamic modelling is likely to be important for hazard mitigation in similar landscapes and upon other glaciated volcanoes, because it only requires an input hydrograph and a digital elevation model to run a model, rather than suites of geomorphological evidence and field-surveyed valley cross-sections, for example. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Assessment of rainfall-runoff models based upon wavelet analysis

    Stuart N. Lane
    Abstract A basic hypothesis is proposed: given that wavelet-based analysis has been used to interpret runoff time-series, it may be extended to evaluation of rainfall-runoff model results. Conventional objective functions make certain assumptions about the data series to which they are applied (e.g. uncorrelated error, homoscedasticity). The difficulty that objective functions have in distinguishing between different realizations of the same model, or different models of the same system, is that they may have contributed in part to the occurrence of model equifinality. Of particular concern is the fact that the error present in a rainfall-runoff model may be time dependent, requiring some form of time localization in both identification of error and derivation of global objective functions. We explore the use of a complex Gaussian (order 2) wavelet to describe: (1) a measured hydrograph; (2) the same hydrograph with different simulated errors introduced; and (3) model predictions of the same hydrograph based upon a modified form of TOPMODEL. The analysis of results was based upon: (a) differences in wavelet power (the wavelet power error) between the measured hydrograph and both the simulated error and modelled hydrographs; and (b) the wavelet phase. Power difference and wavelet phase were used to develop two objective functions, RMSE(power) and RMS(phase), which were shown to distinguish between simulated errors and model predictions with similar values of the commonly adopted Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index. These objective functions suffer because they do not retain time, frequency or time-frequency localization. Consideration of wavelet power spectra and time- and frequency-integrated power spectra shows that the impacts of different types of simulated error can be seen through retention of some localization, especially in relation to when and the scale over which error was manifest. Theoretical objections to the use of wavelet analysis for this type of application are noted, especially in relation to the dependence of findings upon the wavelet chosen. However, it is argued that the benefits of localization and the qualitatively low sensitivity of wavelet power and phase to wavelet choice are sufficient to warrant further exploration of wavelet-based approaches to rainfall-runoff model evaluation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Runoff and suspended sediment yields from an unpaved road segment, St John, US Virgin Islands

    Carlos E. Ramos-Scharrón
    Abstract Unpaved roads are believed to be the primary source of terrigenous sediments being delivered to marine ecosystems around the island of St John in the eastern Caribbean. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure runoff and suspended sediment yields from a road segment; (2) develop and test two event-based runoff and sediment prediction models; and (3) compare the predicted sediment yields against measured values from an empirical road erosion model and from a sediment trap. The runoff models use the Green,Ampt infiltration equation to predict excess precipitation and then use either an empirically derived unit hydrograph or a kinematic wave to generate runoff hydrographs. Precipitation, runoff, and suspended sediment data were collected from a 230 m long, mostly unpaved road segment over an 8-month period. Only 3,5 mm of rainfall was sufficient to initiate runoff from the road surface. Both models simulated similar hydrographs. Model performance was poor for storms with less than 1 cm of rainfall, but improved for larger events. The largest source of error was the inability to predict initial infiltration rates. The two runoff models were coupled with empirical sediment rating curves, and the predicted sediment yields were approximately 0·11 kg per square meter of road surface per centimetre of precipitation. The sediment trap data indicated a road erosion rate of 0·27 kg m,2 cm,1. The difference in sediment production between these two methods can be attributed to the fact that the suspended sediment samples were predominantly sand and silt, whereas the sediment trap yielded mostly sand and gravel. The combination of these data sets yields a road surface erosion rate of 0·31 kg m,2 cm,1, or approximately 36 kg m,2 year,1. This is four orders of magnitude higher than the measured erosion rate from undisturbed hillslopes. The results confirm the importance of unpaved roads in altering runoff and erosion rates in a tropical setting, provide insights into the controlling processes, and provide guidance for predicting runoff and sediment yields at the road-segment scale. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    One- and two-dimensional modelling of overland flow in semiarid shrubland, Jornada basin, New Mexico

    David A. Howes
    Abstract Two distributed parameter models, a one-dimensional (1D) model and a two-dimensional (2D) model, are developed to simulate overland flow in two small semiarid shrubland watersheds in the Jornada basin, southern New Mexico. The models are event-based and represent each watershed by an array of 1-m2 cells, in which the cell size is approximately equal to the average area of the shrubs. Each model uses only six parameters, for which values are obtained from field surveys and rainfall simulation experiments. In the 1D model, flow volumes through a fixed network are computed by a simple finite-difference solution to the 1D kinematic wave equation. In the 2D model, flow directions and volumes are computed by a second-order predictor,corrector finite-difference solution to the 2D kinematic wave equation, in which flow routing is implicit and may vary in response to flow conditions. The models are compared in terms of the runoff hydrograph and the spatial distribution of runoff. The simulation results suggest that both the 1D and the 2D models have much to offer as tools for the large-scale study of overland flow. Because it is based on a fixed flow network, the 1D model is better suited to the study of runoff due to individual rainfall events, whereas the 2D model may, with further development, be used to study both runoff and erosion during multiple rainfall events in which the dynamic nature of the terrain becomes an important consideration. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Assessment of flooding in urbanized ungauged basins: a case study in the Upper Tiber area, Italy

    T. Moramarco
    Abstract The reliability of a procedure for investigation of flooding into an ungauged river reach close to an urban area is investigated. The approach is based on the application of a semi-distributed rainfall,runoff model for a gauged basin, including the flood-prone area, and that furnishes the inlet flow conditions for a two-dimensional hydraulic model, whose computational domain is the urban area. The flood event, which occurred in October 1998 in the Upper Tiber river basin and caused significant damage in the town of Pieve S. Stefano, was used to test the approach. The built-up area, often inundated, is included in the gauged basin of the Montedoglio dam (275 km2), for which the rainfall,runoff model was adapted and calibrated through three flood events without over-bank flow. With the selected set of parameters, the hydrological model was found reasonably accurate in simulating the discharge hydrograph of the three events, whereas the flood event of October 1998 was simulated poorly, with an error in peak discharge and time to peak of ,58% and 20%, respectively. This discrepancy was ascribed to the combined effect of the rainfall spatial variability and a partial obstruction of the bridge located in Pieve S. Stefano. In fact, taking account of the last hypothesis, the hydraulic model reproduced with a fair accuracy the observed flooded urban area. Moreover, incorporating into the hydrological model the flow resulting from a sudden cleaning of the obstruction, which was simulated by a ,shock-capturing' one-dimensional hydraulic model, the discharge hydrograph at the basin outlet was well represented if the rainfall was supposed to have occurred in the region near the main channel. This was simulated by reducing considerably the dynamic parameter, the lag time, of the instantaneous unit hydrograph for each homogeneous element into which the basin is divided. The error in peak discharge and time to peak decreased by a few percent. A sensitivity analysis of both the flooding volume involved in the shock wave and the lag time showed that this latter parameter requires a careful evaluation. Moreover, the analysis of the hydrograph peak prediction due to error in rainfall input showed that the error in peak discharge was lower than that of the same input error quantity. Therefore, the obtained results allowed us to support the hypothesis on the causes which triggered the complex event occurring in October 1998, and pointed out that the proposed procedure can be conveniently adopted for flood risk evaluation in ungauged river basins where a built-up area is located. The need for a more detailed analysis regarding the processes of runoff generation and flood routing is also highlighted. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Errors of kinematic wave and diffusion wave approximations for time-independent flows with infiltration and momentum exchange included

    V. P. Singh
    Abstract Error equations for kinematic wave and diffusion wave approximations were derived for time-independent flows on infiltrating planes and channels under one upstream boundary and two downstream boundary conditions: zero flow at the upstream boundary, and critical flow depth and zero depth gradient at the downstream boundary. These equations specify error in the flow hydrograph as a function of space. The diffusion wave approximation was found to be in excellent agreement with the dynamic wave approximation, with errors below 2% for values of KF (e.g. KF , 7·5), where K is the kinematic wave number and F is the Froude number. Even for small values of KF (e.g. KF = 2·5), the errors were typically less than 3%. The accuracy of the diffusive approximation was greatly influenced by the downstream boundary condition. For critical flow depth downstream boundary condition, the error of the kinematic wave approximation was found to be less than 10% for KF , 7·5 and greater than 20% for smaller values of KF. This error increased with strong downstream boundary control. The analytical solution of the diffusion wave approximation is adequate only for small values of K. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Performance analysis of different meteorological data and resolutions using MaScOD hydrological model

    Roshan Shrestha
    Abstract Distributed meteorological data collected from different sources are rarely identical within the same domain of space and time. Discrepancies of these data in magnitude, pattern, and resolution play an important role in hydrological simulation. Using four different sets of distributed meteorological data (from the HUBEX-Intense Observation Period and GAME experimental products at different resolutions), hydrological simulations are conducted through a distributed hydrological model called MaScOD (macro-scale OHyMoS assisted distributed) hydrological model. The model's performance is measured using 12 different indexes. Based on these indexes, a relative normalized score is calculated to evaluate the overall performance of the result from each data set. Three sub-basins of the Huaihe River basin in China, taking the cases at Bengbu (132 350 km2), Wangjiaba (29 844 km2) and Suiping (2093 km2), are used for numerical experiments. This study shows the competence of coarse-resolution meteorological data, the GAME reanalysis 1·25° data, to apply in hydrological simulations of large catchments. However, that data failed to simulate the hydrograph in smaller catchments. The results are significantly improved by including spatial variability at finer resolution in that data. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A geomorphological explanation of the unit hydrograph concept

    C. Cudennec
    Abstract The water path from any point of a basin to the outlet through the self-similar river network was considered. This hydraulic path was split into components within the Strahler ordering scheme. For the entire basin, we assumed the probability density functions of the lengths of these components, reduced by the scaling factor, to be independent and isotropic. As with these assumptions, we propose a statistical physics reasoning (similar to Maxwell's reasoning) that considers a hydraulic length symbolic space, built on the self-similar lengths of the components. Theoretical expressions of the probability density functions of the hydraulic length and of the lengths of all the components were derived. These expressions are gamma laws expressed in terms of simple geomorphological parameters. We validated our theory with experimental observations from two French basins, which are different in terms of size and relief. From the comparisons, we discuss the relevance of the assumptions and show how a gamma law structure underlies the river network organization, but under the influence of a strong hierarchy constraint. These geomorphological results have been translated into travel time probability density functions, through the hydraulic linear hypothesis. This translation provides deterministic explanations of some famous a priori assumptions of the unit hydrograph and the geomorphological unit hydrograph theories, such as the gamma law general shape and the exponential distribution of residence time in Strahler states. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Application of the distributed hydrology soil vegetation model to Redfish Creek, British Columbia: model evaluation using internal catchment data

    Andrew Whitaker
    Abstract The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model is applied to the Redfish Creek catchment to investigate the suitability of this model for simulation of forested mountainous watersheds in interior British Columbia and other high-latitude and high-altitude areas. On-site meteorological data and GIS information on terrain parameters, forest cover, and soil cover are used to specify model input. A stepwise approach is taken in calibrating the model, in which snow accumulation and melt parameters for clear-cut and forested areas were optimized independent of runoff production parameters. The calibrated model performs well in reproducing year-to-year variability in the outflow hydrograph, including peak flows. In the subsequent model performance evaluation for simulation of catchment processes, emphasis is put on elevation and temporal differences in snow accumulation and melt, spatial patterns of snowline retreat, water table depth, and internal runoff generation, using internal catchment data as much as possible. Although the overall model performance based on these criteria is found to be good, some issues regarding the simulation of internal catchment processes remain. These issues are related to the distribution of meteorological variables over the catchment and a lack of information on spatial variability in soil properties and soil saturation patterns. Present data limitations for testing internal model accuracy serve to guide future data collection at Redfish Creek. This study also illustrates the challenges that need to be overcome before distributed physically based hydrologic models can be used for simulating catchments with fewer data resources. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Towards integrating tracer studies in conceptual rainfall-runoff models: recent insights from a sub-arctic catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland

    Chris Soulsby
    Abstract Hydrochemical tracers (alkalinity and silica) were used in an end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) of runoff sources in the 10 km2 Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment. A three-component mixing model was used to separate the hydrograph and estimate, to a first approximation, the range of likely contributions of overland flow, shallow subsurface storm flow, and groundwater to the annual hydrograph. A conceptual, catchment-scale rainfall-runoff model (DIY) was also used to separate the annual hydrograph in an equivalent set of flow paths. The two approaches produced independent representations of catchment hydrology that exhibited reasonable agreement. This showed the dominance of overland flow in generating storm runoff and the important role of groundwater inputs throughout the hydrological year. Moreover, DIY was successfully adapted to simulate stream chemistry (alkalinity) at daily time steps. Sensitivity analysis showed that whilst a distinct groundwater source at the catchment scale could be identified, there was considerable uncertainty in differentiating between overland flow and subsurface storm flow in both the EMMA and DIY applications. Nevertheless, the study indicated that the complementary use of tracer analysis in EMMA can increase the confidence in conceptual model structure. However, conclusions are restricted to the specific spatial and temporal scales examined. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    On morphometric properties of basins, scale effects and hydrological response

    Roger Moussa
    Abstract One of the important problems in hydrology is the quantitative description of river system structure and the identification of relationships between geomorphological properties and hydrological response. Digital elevation models (DEMs) generally are used to delineate the basin's limits and to extract the channel network considering pixels draining an area greater than a threshold area S. In this paper, new catchment shape descriptors, the geometric characteristics of an equivalent ellipse that has the same centre of gravity, the same principal inertia axes, the same area and the same ratio of minimal inertia moment to maximal inertia moment as the basin, are proposed. They are applied in order to compare and classify the structure of seven basins located in southern France. These descriptors were correlated to hydrological properties of the basins' responses such as the lag time and the maximum amplitude of a geomorphological unit hydrograph calculated at the basin outlet by routing an impulse function through the channel network using the diffusive wave model. Then, we analysed the effects of the threshold area S on the topological structure of the channel network and on the evolution of the source catchment's shape. Simple models based on empirical relationships between the threshold S and the morphometric properties were established and new catchment shape indexes, independent of the observation scale S, were defined. This methodology is useful for geomorphologists dealing with the shape of source basins and for hydrologists dealing with the problem of scale effects on basin topology and on relationships between the basin morphometric properties and the hydrological response. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrological and erosional response to natural rainfall in a semi-arid area of south-east Spain

    M. Martinez-Mena
    Abstract A better knowledge of soil erosion by water is essential for planning effective soil and water conservation practices in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. The special climatic and hydrological characteristics of these areas, however, make accurate soil loss predictions difficult, particularly in the absence of minimal data. Two zero-order experimental microcatchments (328,759 m2), representative of an extensive semi-arid watershed with a high potential erosion risk in the south-east of Spain, were selected and monitored for 3 years (1991,93) in order to provide information on the hydrological and erosional response. A pluviogram and hydrograph recorded data at 1-min intervals during each storm, after which the soil loss was collected and the particle size of the sediment was analysed. Runoff coefficients of about 9% and soil losses of between 84·83 and 298·9 g m,2 year,1 were observed in the area. Rapid response times (geometric mean values lower than 2 h) and low runoff thresholds (mean values between 3·5 to 5·9 mm) were the norm in the experimental areas. A rain intensity of over 15 mm h,1 was considered as ,erosive rainfall' in these areas because of the total soil loss and the transport capacity of the overland flow. Differences in pore-size distribution explained the different hydrological responses observed between areas. The erosional response was more complex and basically seemed to be determined by soil aggregate stability and topographical properties. A greater proportion of finer particles in the eroded material than in the soil matrix indicated selective erosion and the transport of finer material. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Investigating mechanisms of stormflow generation by natural tracers and hydrometric data: a small catchment study in the Black Forest, Germany

    E. Hangen
    Abstract The importance and interaction of various hydrological pathways and identification of runoff source areas involved in solute transport are still under considerable debate in catchment hydrology. To reveal stormflow generating areas and flow paths, hydrometric behaviour of throughfall, soil water from various depths, runoff, and respective concentrations of the environmental tracers 18O, Si, K, SO4 and dissolved organic carbon were monitored for a 14-week period in a steep headwater catchment in the Black Forest Mountains, Germany. Two stormflow hydrographs were selected and, based on 18O and Si, chemically separated into three flow components. Their sources were defined using mixing diagrams. Additional information about stormflow generating mechanisms was derived from recession analyses of the basin's complete 5-year hydrograph record. By providing insight into storage properties and residence times of outflowing reservoirs of the basin, recession analysis proved to be a valuable tool in runoff model conceptualization. Its results agreed well with hydrometric and hydrochemical data. Supported by evaluation of 30 hillslope soil profiles a coherent concept of stormflow generation could be derived: whereas in many steeply sloped basins in the temperate region soil water from hillslopes appears to have an immediate effect on the shape of the stormflow hydrograph, its role at this basin is basically restricted to the recharge of the groundwater reservoir in the near-channel area. Storm hydrograph peaks appear to be derived from a small direct runoff component supplemented by a fast delivery of baseflow from the groundwater reservoir in the valley bottom. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    High-resolution, monotone solution of the adjoint shallow-water equations

    Brett F. Sanders
    Abstract A monotone, second-order accurate numerical scheme is presented for solving the differential form of the adjoint shallow-water equations in generalized two-dimensional coordinates. Fluctuation-splitting is utilized to achieve a high-resolution solution of the equations in primitive form. One-step and two-step schemes are presented and shown to achieve solutions of similarly high accuracy in one dimension. However, the two-step method is shown to yield more accurate solutions to problems in which unsteady wave speeds are present. In two dimensions, the two-step scheme is tested in the context of two parameter identification problems, and it is shown to accurately transmit the information needed to identify unknown forcing parameters based on measurements of the system response. The first problem involves the identification of an upstream flood hydrograph based on downstream depth measurements. The second problem involves the identification of a long wave state in the far-field based on near-field depth measurements. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ecologically Functional Floodplains: Connectivity, Flow Regime, and Scale,

    Jeffrey J. Opperman
    Opperman, Jeffrey J., Ryan Luster, Bruce A. McKenney, Michael Roberts, and Amanda Wrona Meadows, 2010. Ecologically Functional Floodplains: Connectivity, Flow Regime, and Scale. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(2):211-226. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00426.x Abstract:, This paper proposes a conceptual model that captures key attributes of ecologically functional floodplains, encompassing three basic elements: (1) hydrologic connectivity between the river and the floodplain, (2) a variable hydrograph that reflects seasonal precipitation patterns and retains a range of both high and low flow events, and (3) sufficient spatial scale to encompass dynamic processes and for floodplain benefits to accrue to a meaningful level. Although floodplains support high levels of biodiversity and some of the most productive ecosystems on Earth, they are also among the most converted and threatened ecosystems and therefore have recently become the focus of conservation and restoration programs across the United States and globally. These efforts seek to conserve or restore complex, highly variable ecosystems and often must simultaneously address both land and water management. Thus, such efforts must overcome considerable scientific, technical, and socioeconomic challenges. In addition to proposing a scientific conceptual model, this paper also includes three case studies that illustrate methods for addressing these technical and socioeconomic challenges within projects that seek to promote ecologically functional floodplains through river-floodplain reconnection and/or restoration of key components of hydrological variability. [source]


    Jiapeng Hua
    ABSTRACT: New formulas and procedures under the framework of the Rational Formula are presented that are applicable to flood design problems for a small basin if the geometry of the basin can be approximated as an ellipse or a rhombus. Instead of making the assumption in the traditional rational formula that the rainfall is uniformly distributed in the whole duration (Dw) of a design storm, the new method modifies that assumption as: the rainfall is uniformly distributed only in each time interval CD) of the design storm hyetograph, thus extending the rational formula applicable to the case that the rainfall duration is less than the basin concentration time (Tc). The new method can be applied to estimate the flood design peak discharge, and to generate the flood hydrograph simultaneously. The derivation of the formulas is provided in detail in this paper, and an example is also included to illustrate how to apply the new formulas to the flood design problems in small basins. [source]