Anecdotal Observations (anecdotal + observation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Can antenatal education influence how women push in labour?

A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial on Maternal Antenatal Teaching for Pushing in Second Stage of Labour (PUSH STUDY)
Background:, Antenatal education on the physiology of second stage of labour and effective pushing has not been studied in the literature. Anecdotal observation seems to indicate that some nulliparous women are (at least initially) unable to push effectively. A large proportion seem to reflexly contract the levator ani muscle when asked to push which may have the effect of slowing the progress of labour. Aims:, To test the effectiveness of structured antenatal education for pushing in the second stage of labour versus normal care and its impact on delivery outcome. Methods: One hundred nulliparous women between 35 and 37 weeks gestation were randomised. Intervention: Two 15-min structured education sessions, one week apart, utilising observation of the perineum and a vaginal examination to teach correct technique for relaxing the levator ani muscle and effective pushing. Results:, In both groups, 31 of 50 women (62%) delivered vaginally. Instrumental delivery and caesarean section rates did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.78, relative risk = 1). The mean duration of active second stage for the control group was 53.96 min compared with 57.26 min for the intervention group. This difference of 3.3 min was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Knowledge of women in the intervention group was increased and the majority of women found the educational sessions helpful. Conclusion:, Antenatal teaching to ensure effective maternal pushing in labour did not result in altered obstetric outcomes relative to the control group. However, there was a measurable qualitative effect from the intervention in that women clearly felt the education sessions to be helpful. [source]

Could exercise be a new strategy to revert some patients with atrial fibrillation?

P. Gates
Abstract Background: This study is the result of the anecdotal observation that a number of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) had noted reversion to sinus rhythm (SR) with exercise. We aimed to evaluate the potential role of exercise stress test (EST) for the reversion of AF. Methods: Patients with AF who were scheduled to undergo electrical cardioversion (DCR) underwent EST using a modified Bruce protocol. Results: Eighteen patients (16 male); aged 36,74 years (mean 58 years) were studied. Five patients (27.7%) had successful reversion with exercise (group 1). Thirteen patients remained in AF (group 2). No patient who failed to revert with exercise did so spontaneously before DCR 3 h to 7 months later (median 20 days). Comparison between group 1 and group 2 did not reveal any significant difference Conclusion: This small preliminary study suggests that in some patients it may be possible to revert AF to SR with exercise and avoid DCR and concomitant general anaesthesia. The authors suggest that a larger multicentre randomized trial is warranted to confirm or refute these initial results and if correct identify those who might benefit. [source]

Epidemiological investigation of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome infants , recommendations for future studies

P. Blair
Abstract In recent years the study of infant care practices within the sleeping environment has proved to be the single most important set of observations for reducing the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). To further reduce the number of deaths and resolve the debate on safe infant care practice, a closer scrutiny of this environment is required. However, anecdotal observation from uncontrolled death-scene investigations and a reluctance to diagnose SIDS because of adverse social conditions or circumstantial evidence at the time of death is undermining future research. To investigate SIDS now means investigating the wider umbrella of all Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Infancy (SUDI) because of the potential for misdiagnosis. In trying to find out why SIDS infants die we have increasingly been forced to search for why infants survive in the first few months of life and it is this comparative component of epidemiological observation that has saved so many lives. A death-scene investigation is vital to any planned future investigation of SIDS but equally essential is a sleep-scene investigation of surviving infants to put any findings into context. SIDS infants are no longer scattered across the social strata and the cot is not the only environment in which they are found, social deprivation and use of the parental bed are now more discernable. Future studies should therefore reflect these changes with a second control group of surviving infants more closely matched to the type of environment in which SIDS infants might be found. [source]

Headache and Psychological Functioning in Children and Adolescents

HEADACHE, Issue 9 2006
Scott W. Powers PhD
Headache can affect all aspects of a child's functioning, leading to negative affective states (eg, anxiety, depression, anger) and increased psychosocial problems (for instance, school absences, problematic social interactions). For children and adolescents who experience frequent headache problems, comorbid psychological issues are a well-recognized, but poorly understood, clinical phenomenon. The confusion surrounding the relationship between pediatric headache and psychopathology exists for several reasons. First, in some cases, headache has been inappropriately attributed to psychological or personality features based on anecdotal observations or interpretations that go beyond the available data. Additionally, measures of psychopathology have not always adhered to the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic criteria, thus reducing the reliability of diagnostic judgments. Furthermore, the diagnosis of headache has not always followed standard criteria, and has been complicated by the emergence of new terms and evolving measures. Finally, methodological shortcomings, such as incomplete descriptions of the procedures and criteria used for the study, inadequate descriptions of headache severity, lack of a control group for comparison with individuals without headaches, reliance primarily on cross-sectional research designs that are often discussed with inferences to causal hypotheses, and the use of unstandardized assessment measures, have significantly limited the validity of research findings. The goal of the current review is to examine the extant literature to provide the most up-to-date picture on what the research has made available about the magnitude, specificity, and causes of psychopathology in children and adolescents with headache, in an effort to further elucidate their relationship and prompt a more methodologically rigorous study of these issues. [source]

Improvement in a quantitative measure of bradykinesia after microelectrode recording in patients with Parkinson's disease during deep brain stimulation surgery

Mandy Miller Koop MS
Abstract It is widely accepted that patients with Parkinson's disease experience immediate but temporary improvement in motor signs after surgical implantation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulating electrodes before the electrodes are activated, although this has never been formally studied. Based on anecdotal observations that limb mobility improved just after microelectrode recording (MER) during deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures, we designed a prospective study to measure upper extremity bradykinesia using a quantitative measure of angular velocity. Measurements were made pre- and post-MER and during intraoperative DBS. Analysis of 98 STN DBS procedures performed on 61 patients showed that MER did not create adverse clinical symptoms despite concerns that MER increases morbidity. Quantitative upper extremity bradykinesia improved after MER alone, and further improvement was seen during intraoperative DBS. Electrophysiological data from each case were then compared to the improvement in bradykinesia post-MER alone and a significant correlation was found between the improvement in arm bradykinesia, the number of passes through the STN with somatosensory driving, and also with the number of arm cells with somatosensory driving in the STN, but not with total number of passes, total number of passes through the STN, or total number of cells with somatosensory driving in the STN. This study demonstrates that there is a significant improvement in upper extremity bradykinesia just after MER, before inserting or activating the DBS electrode in patients with Parkinson's disease who undergo STN DBS. 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

The Treatment of Cognitive Impairment Associated with Parkinson's Disease

David J. Burn FRCP
Abstract Cognitive impairment and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are common and often have devastating effects upon the patient and their family. Early cognitive impairment in PD is frequent, and the functional impact may be underestimated. Optimal management will rely upon better identification of the predominant symptoms and greater knowledge of their pathophysiological basis. The management of dementia in PD (PD-D) also has to consider the significant neuropsychiatric burden that frequently accompanies the cognitive decline, as well as fluctuations in attention. Atypical anti-psychotics have a limited role at present in treating PD-D, although new drugs are under development. The mainstay of drug management for people with PD-D is cholinesterase inhibitors, although recent trials have suggested that the N-methyl-D aspartate antagonist memantine may also have some benefit. Disease modification remains the ultimate goal for preventing the inexorable decline in PD-D, although effective interventions are still some way off. Limited benefit may, however, be possible through exercise programmes and so-called "medical foods", although randomised trials are required to confirm largely anecdotal observations. [source]