Hormonal Milieu (hormonal + milieu)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Role of orexins in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian relationships

P. Silveyra
Abstract Appropriate nutritional and vigilance states are needed for reproduction. In previous works, we described the influence of the hormonal milieu of proestrus on the orexinergic system and we found that orexin receptor 1 expression in the hypothalamus, but not other neural areas, and the adenohypophysis was under the influence of oestradiol and the time of the day. Information from the sexual hormonal milieu of proestrous afternoon impacts on various components of the orexinergic system and alertness on this particular night of proestrus would be of importance for successful reproduction. In this review, we summarize the available experimental data supporting the participation of orexins in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian relationships. All together, these results suggest a role of the orexinergic system as an integrative link among vital functions such as reproduction, food intake, alertness and the inner biological clock. [source]

Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men

W. Marieke Schoonen
Abstract Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal milieu and contains chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), which may alter tumor cell growth. Data from a population-based case-control study in King County, WA, were utilized to evaluate the association of alcohol consumption with prostate cancer in middle-aged men. A total of 753 newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases, 40,64 years of age, participated in the study. Seven hundred three control subjects, frequency matched to cases by age, were selected through random digit dialing. All participants completed an in-person interview on lifetime alcohol consumption and other risk factors for prostate cancer. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and assess significance (95% confidence intervals [CI]). All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. No clear association with prostate cancer risk was seen for overall alcohol consumption. Each additional glass of red wine consumed per week showed a statistically significant 6% decrease in relative risk (OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.90,0.98), and there was evidence for a decline in risk estimates across increasing categories of red wine intake (trend p = 0.02). No clear associations were seen for consumption of beer or liquor. Our present study suggests that consumption of beer or liquor is not associated with prostate cancer. There may be, however, a reduced relative risk associated with increasing level of red wine consumption. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential negative association between red wine intake and prostate cancer risk. [source]

Prevalence and phenotypic evaluation of Candida dubliniensis in pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidosis in a university hospital in Ankara

MYCOSES, Issue 1 2007
E. Us
Summary Candida dubliniensis is very similar to Candida albicans in terms of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. As the hormonal milieu of the vagina during pregnancy, characterised by a lack of maternal cell-mediated immunity, enhances Candida colonisation and serves as a risk factor for symptomatic expression, investigation into the isolation of C. dubliniensis in vaginal discharges of pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidosis was made. A total of 77 Candida isolates obtained from 60 patients positive for vulvovaginal candidosis collected from 218 pregnant women were investigated for C. dubliniensis subsistence. In total 41 Candida species phenotypically identified as C. albicans on the basis of a positive germ tube test and carbohydrate assimilation tests were screened for the presence of C. dubliniensis. Phenotypic tests for differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans, such as growth at 42 and 45 °C on Sabouraud dextrose agar, appearance on CHROMagar and colony morphology on Cornmeal,Tween-80 agar and Staib agar were carried out. Only one strain (2.43%) was phenotypically identified as C. dubliniensis. According to our study, a combination of at least five phenotypic methods is necessary for an exact diagnosis of C. dubliniensis. Large-scale studies of pregnant women are required to discover the aetiological importance of this yeast. [source]

Contraceptive effects of Phyllanthus amarus in female mice

Mandava V. Rao
Abstract Antifertility effects of an alcohol extract of the whole plant, Phyllanthus amarus at a dose of 100,mg/kg body weight for 30 days orally was investigated in cyclic adult female mice. The results revealed no ­significant change in absolute body and organ weights in extract-fed animals, indicating no alteration in general metabolic status. Further, feeding had no effect on haematological and clinical biochemical tests reflecting its non-toxicity. Similarly, uterine and ovarian biochemical tests showed no change except in 3, and 17, hydroxy steroid dehydrgenase (HSDs) levels, probably affecting hormonal conversions in the latter. Cohabited females with normal male mice were unable to become pregnant as their cyclicity was affected. These factors are related to a change in the hormonal milieu that governs female reproductive function. Upon withdrawal of feeding for 45 days, these effects were reversible. Thus this extract manifests a definite contraceptive effect in female mice. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Twenty years of experience with Krzeski's cystovaginoplasty for vaginal agenesis in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster,Hauser syndrome: anatomical, histological, cytological and functional results

Andrzej Borkowski
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the long-term anatomical results using the original method of vaginal reconstruction with a pedicled bladder flap (Krzeski's cystovaginoplasty, CVP) in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster,Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and the evaluation of radiological, histological, cytohormonal and functional results of CVP. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between 1981 and 2000, 38 patients (mean age 22.5 years, range 18,40) with MRKHS underwent CVP. A physical examination was used to evaluate the anatomical results, 27 patients had vaginography, and biopsies of the neovaginal wall and cytohormonal smears were taken in two. Functional sexual and urinary results, and opinions on CVP, were evaluated by an inventory mailed to 37 patients in 2000. RESULTS The anatomical result was good in 37 patients during a mean (range) follow-up of 9 (0.25,19) years; the result was good in 30 patients, but seven developed vaginal stenosis that was successfully repaired. There were two cases of post-coital vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) at 18 months after CVP. Vaginal biopsies showed epithelialization of the posterior vaginal wall and gradual metaplastic changes from urothelium to stratified nonsquamous epithelium. Cytological smears showed a normal biphasic pattern and neovaginal susceptibility to hormonal milieu. In all, 27 patients (73%) responded to the questionnaire. All had sexual partners and started sexual intercourse at a mean of 14 months after CVP; 89% experience orgasms and in 48% the vagina was the source; 40% sometimes used lubricants and seven (26%) used vaginal dilators. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after CVP were reported by 19 (66%) of the women and in six the LUTS were persistent. One patient was not satisfied with the functional and anatomical result of CVP, 89% declared that it improved sexual life, 93% would undergo CVP again and in 92% the quality of their sexual life was improved. All patients, when asked, stated that they would recommend CVP to another patient with MRKHS. CONCLUSIONS Vaginal reconstruction by CVP is characterized by good anatomical and functional results, sustained by long-term observation. The resultant epithelium is very similar to that of the native vagina in histology and function. All vaginas are functional and the level of patient satisfaction was high. The level of complications was acceptable, but in some patients LUTS can persist. [source]