Histological Appearance (histological + appearance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of a metastatic adult sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma in a lymph node

Richard L. Cantley M.D.
Abstract Adult sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (ASRMS) is a rare variant of rhabdomyosarcoma with a characteristic histological appearance of small, round cells in a dense, hyalinized stroma. Although nodal metastases of soft-tissue sarcomas are considered uncommon, up to 5% overall are associated with lymph node metastases. Nonetheless, there is little literature on the cytologic characteristics of metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas in lymph nodes, and to our knowledge, there are no reports of nodal metastasis of ASRMS diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. We report here a 55-year-old woman who presented with a right thigh mass and associated ipsilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the mass revealed a uniform population of small, round cells in a dense, sclerotic background. A diagnosis of ASRMS was rendered. Subsequently, the patient underwent FNA of an enlarged inguinal lymph node, which revealed an identical population of small, round cells in a dense, myxoid background. This case highlights the cytologic features of a rare form of rhabdomyosarcoma, and emphasizes the utility of FNA in the assessment of lymphadenopathy in the setting of a soft-tissue sarcoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010;38:761,764. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Photoaging and oxidative stress

Chikako Nishigori
Abstract Photoaging is significantly different from chronological aging in both clinical and histological appearance. It has been suggested that oxidative stress, generated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), leads to photoaging over a long period. The presence of 8-OHdG, and oxidatively modified proteins such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified protein, 3- l -nitro-tyrosine and N,,(carboxymethyl)lysine in UV-exposed skin specimens, supports this theory. The pathophysiology of photoaging of the skin caused by chronic inflammation after UVR is reviewed and discussed, with a focus on oxidative stress. [source]

Long-term entecavir therapy results in the reversal of fibrosis/cirrhosis and continued histological improvement in patients with chronic hepatitis B,,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
Ting-Tsung Chang
One year of treatment with entecavir (0.5 mg daily) in nucleoside-naive patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive or HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) resulted in significantly improved liver histology and virological and biochemical endpoints in comparison with lamivudine. Patients who received at least 3 years of cumulative entecavir therapy in phase 3 studies and a long-term rollover study and underwent long-term liver biopsy were evaluated for improvements in histological appearance. Sixty-nine patients [50 HBeAg-positive and 19 HBeAg-negative] receiving entecavir therapy underwent long-term liver biopsy (median time of biopsy = 6 years, range = 3-7 years). Histological improvement was analyzed for 57 patients who had adequate baseline biopsy samples, baseline Knodell necroinflammatory scores ,2, and adequate long-term biopsy samples. At the time of long-term biopsy, all patients in the cohort had a hepatitis B virus DNA level <300 copies/mL, and 86% had a normalized alanine aminotransferase level. Histological improvement (,2-point decrease in the Knodell necroinflammatory score and no worsening of the Knodell fibrosis score) was observed in 96% of patients, and a ,1-point improvement in the Ishak fibrosis score was found in 88% of patients, including all 10 patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis at the phase 3 baseline. Conclusion: The majority of nucleoside-naive patients with CHB who were treated with entecavir in this long-term cohort achieved substantial histological improvement and regression of fibrosis or cirrhosis. (HEPATOLOGY 2010) [source]

Intraepidermal animal-type melanoma

DiplomateNB, S. Punjabi MBBS
Animal-type melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma in humans.1 Its name is derived from its histological appearance, which is similar to that described in melanomas occurring in white or gray horses.2 All tumors are dermally located, and characterized by a proliferation of deeply pigmented elongated or rounded cells, showing moderate atypia and a low mitotic rate. In some tumors, secondary infiltration of the epidermis has been noted. More than half of the patients are younger than 30 years, and prognosis seems to be much better than that expected for a superficial spreading or nodular melanoma of the same size. We report the first case of animal-type melanoma in situ. [source]

Rare benign tumours of oral cavity , capillary haemangioma of palatal mucosa: a case report

Aydan Açikgözsurname
Haemangiomas are benign tumours composed of blood vessels, they are probably developmental rather than neoplastic in origin. Haemangiomas are often present at birth but may become more apparent during life. The tumours appear as a flat or raised reddish-blue lesions and are generally solitary. They are occasionally seen on the palatal mucosa. Haemangiomas are classified on the basis of their histological appearance as capillary, mixed, cavernous or a sclerosing variety that tends to undergo fibrosis. Their differential clinical diagnosis is based on appearance. The tumours may be slowly progressive, involving extensive portions of the superficial and deep blood vessels. Function may be affected where development of the lesion is extra-invasive. Colour change on pressure is a common finding with return to the original colour on withdrawal of pressure. The case presented here was referred because of swelling and recurrent periodontal bleeding. The lesion was diagnosed as a capillary haemangioma through histopathology. Although different therapeutic procedures have been reported, in this case surgical excision was carried out under general anaesthesia following hospitalization. Despite their benign origins and behaviour, haemangiomas in the region of oral cavity are always of clinical importance to the dental profession and require appropriate clinical management. Dental practitioners and oral surgeons need to be aware of these lesions because they may pose serious bleeding risks. [source]

BRIEF COMMUNICATION: Histology of the pouch epithelium and the mammary glands during chemically induced oestrus in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

Julie M. Old
Abstract Changes in the epithelium of the maternal pouch and the mammary gland of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) were examined after animals were treated to induce ovulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and oestradiol. The mammary glands were similar in appearance to those described in eutherian mammals and in previous studies on other marsupials. Exposure of possums to these compounds, particularly PSMG, appeared to result in changes in the mammary glands that could be associated with milk/secretion production. In contrast, the pouch epithelium had a similar histological appearance to that of epithelium from other parts of the body regardless of whether the animal was exposed to stimulants. These preliminary observations are discussed in the context of the purported role of the pouch epithelium and the mammary gland in production of secretions at oestrus and provision of immunological protection to the neonatal marsupial. [source]

Epigenetic changes play critical role in age-associated dysfunctions of the liver

AGING CELL, Issue 5 2010
Jingling Jin
Summary CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteins family proteins are important regulators of liver functions. Here, we show the critical role of C/EBP,-mediated chromatin remodeling in the age-associated dysfunctions of the liver and in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. Because ph-S193 isoform of C/EBP, is increased in livers of old mice, we have generated C/EBP,-S193D knockin mice, which mimic the ph-S193 isoform of C/EBP,. Analyses of these mice showed that the S193D mutation causes chromatin remodeling leading to histological appearance of ,foci-like' nodules, which are also observed in livers of old mice. These ,foci-like' structures contain K9 trimethylated histone H3, a marker of heterochromatin. The increase of heterochromatin regions in S193D mice correlates with the elevation of S193D-C/EBP,-HDAC1 complexes and with dys-regulation of gene expression including epigenetic silencing of cyclin D1 and D2 promoters and the inhibition of liver proliferation. The elimination of C/EBP,-HDAC1 complexes in S193D mice by inhibition of HDAC1 corrects chromatin structure and normalizes expression of cyclin D1 and D2. We found that epigenetic dys-regulation is also associated with the elevation of C/EBP, and with the increase of C/EBP,/, heterodimers in S193D mice. The C/EBP,/, heterodimers activate transcription of Glut4 and increase the levels of Glut4. As the result, S193D livers have accelerated uptake of glucose and accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Thus, this study demonstrates that the phosphorylation of C/EBP, at S193 leads to the appearance of heterochromatin regions, which correlates with the development of age-related dysfunctions of the liver. [source]

Differentiating Human Bone from Animal Bone: A Review of Histological Methods

Maria L. Hillier M.Sc.
ABSTRACT: This review brings together a complex and extensive literature to address the question of whether it is possible to distinguish human from nonhuman bone using the histological appearance of cortical bone. The mammalian species included are rat, hare, badger, racoon dog, cat, dog, pig, cow, goat, sheep, deer, horse, water buffalo, bear, nonhuman primates, and human and are therefore not exhaustive, but cover those mammals that may contribute to a North American or Eurasian forensic assemblage. The review has demonstrated that differentiation of human from certain nonhuman species is possible, including small mammals exhibiting Haversian bone tissue and large mammals exhibiting plexiform bone tissue. Pig, cow, goat, sheep, horse, and water buffalo exhibit both plexiform and Haversian bone tissue and where only Haversian bone tissue exists in bone fragments, differentiation of these species from humans is not possible. Other primate Haversian bone tissue is also not distinguishable from humans. Where differentiation using Haversian bone tissue is undertaken, both the general microstructural appearance and measurements of histological structures should be applied. Haversian system diameter and Haversian canal diameter are the most optimal and diagnostic measurements to use. Haversian system density may be usefully applied to provide an upper and lower limit for humans. [source]

Use of a bioscaffold to improve healing of a patellar tendon defect after graft harvest for ACL reconstruction: A study in rabbits

Sinan Karaoglu
Abstract Following harvest of a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft, the central third of the patellar tendon (PT) does not heal well. The healing tissues also form adhesions to the fat pad and can cause abnormal patellofemoral joint motion. The hypotheses were that a bioscaffold could enhance patellar tendon healing through contact guidance and chemotaxis, and the scaffold could serve as a barrier to decrease adhesion formation between the neo-PT and infrapatellar fat pad. In 20 New Zealand White rabbits, a central-third PT defect was created. One strip of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) was attached to both the anterior and posterior sides of the PT defect of the SIS-treated group (n,=,10). For comparison, a central defect was left nontreated (n,=,10). At 12 weeks, histomorphology was examined using Masson's trichrome staining. The cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined with a laser micrometer, and the central BPTB complexes were tested in uniaxial tension. SIS-treated samples showed a greater amount of healing tissue with denser and well-oriented collagen fibers and more spindle-shaped cells. There was no noticeable adhesion formation in the SIS-treated group. For the nontreated group, there were significantly more and diffuse adhesive formations. The SIS-treated group also had a 68% increase in neo-PT CSA, 98% higher stiffness, and 113% higher ultimate load than that in the nontreated group. SIS treatment increased the quantity of healing tissue, improved the histological appearance and biomechanical properties of the neo-PT, and prevented adhesion formation between the PT and fat pad. © 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:255,263, 2008 [source]

Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions: unveiling the early lesion

C. Gorrel
The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the factors initiating feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORLs). Fifty-six teeth (clinically and radiographically unaffected by ORLs) were harvested. Of these, 43 were from cats that had ORLs in other teeth (group A) and 13 were from cats with no clinical or radiographic evidence of ORLs in any teeth (group B). Twenty-six teeth in group A and one tooth in group B showed histological evidence of external root resorption (surface resorption and replacement resorption resulting in ankylosis). Some teeth in group B showed healed cementum resorption. It has previously been assumed that FORLs were similar to lesions associated with peripheral inflammatory root resorption, and were associated with periodontal disease. These histological findings suggest instead that a FORL is a non-inflammatory replacement resorption, resulting in ankylosis. The periodontal ligament of resorbing teeth lacked normal fibrous architecture, but was not inflamed. Resorption was not identified in cervical cementum. However, the histological appearance of the cervical cementum differed between the two groups. Several aetiopathogenetic explanatory models which arise from these observations are discussed. [source]

Apoptosis and Dysregulated Ceramide Metabolism in a Murine Model of Alcohol-Enhanced Lipopolysaccharide Hepatotoxicity

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2000
Ion V. Deaciuc
Background: The role of apoptosis in EtOH-induced liver injury has not been investigated much. Therefore, the question whether apoptosis is a contributory factor to alcoholic liver disease remains to be answered. The purpose of this study was to characterize the liver apoptotic response in a murine model of alcohol-enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) hepatotoxicity. Methods: Mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet for 49 days followed by an acute LPS challenge. The liver state was judged on the basis of histological appearance, plasma liver enzyme activity (alanine:2-oxoglutarate and aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferases, as markers of hepatocytolysis), and plasma hyaluronan levels (as a marker of the sinusoidal endothelial cell scavenging function). The liver apoptotic response was assessed by DNA fragmentation (TUNEL procedure), and caspases-3 and -8 activity. To determine if ceramide played a role in the liver apoptotic response, the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase and tissue content of ceramide were also quantified. Results: Alcohol exposure induced fat accumulation and sensitized the liver to LPS injurious effects. Plasma liver enzyme activity was elevated by alcohol and this effect was potentiated by LPS. Liver apoptosis was augmented by both alcohol and LPS treatment as reflected by high frequency of positive TUNEL staining nuclei and by an increased activity of caspase-3 and -8. Acidic sphingomyelinase activity was also increased and it was associated with an elevated tissue content of ceramide. In addition, LPS also increased plasma TNF- , levels. These changes were accompanied by elevated plasma hyaluronan, reflecting an impaired sinusoidal endothelial cell scavenging function. Conclusions: These results provide a more complete description of the liver apoptotic response to both alcohol and LPS and may constitute the basis for further mechanistic studies on a possible role apoptosis may play in alcoholic liver injury. [source]

New model for simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation in mice

MICROSURGERY, Issue 2 2003
Minghui Wang M.D.
In clinical settings, combined heart and kidney transplantation results in a lower incidence of cardiac graft and renal graft rejection as compared to isolated heart and kidney transplantation. To study the phenomenon in an experimental setting, we developed a model of combined heart and kidney transplantation in mice. According to our technique, we kept the patch of the infrarenal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) as long as possible during the donor's kidney explantation, and then, after finishing the kidney implantation with conventional techniques, we anastomosed the innominate artery and pulmonary artery of the heart graft to the patch of the infrarenal aorta and IVC of the renal graft, respectively, instead of the recipient's aorta and IVC. With the use of our method, combined heart and kidney transplantation in mice can be performed to get enough suture room for the second graft, to avoid prolonging the occlusion time of the recipient's circulation, and to profoundly decrease postoperative complications such as paraplegia and mortality. Of the 14 recipients with combined heart-kidney isografting, 10 have been successful (71.4%), surviving over 100 days with normal function of both grafts, and with lack of change in histological appearance. This suggests that the technique is feasible and reliable. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MICROSURGERY 23:164,168 2003 [source]

Incidental calcifying fibrous tumor of the stomach presenting as a polyp

Gülsüm Özlem Elpek
Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is an uncommon lesion of uncertain cause and pathogenesis that has a unique histological appearance. These lesions are described mainly in the subcutaneous or deep soft tissues, followed by subserosal locations. Intrinsic visceral CFT is extremely rare. Herein is described a rare case of CFT that involved the gastric wall, along with a review of the literature. An incidental small polypoid lesion was excised during urgent surgery for penetrating injury at the lesser curvature in a 25-year-old man, previously healthy. The lesion was a well-demarcated, small (10 mm) tumor that occupied the submucosa. The characteristic histopathological features and the presence of spindle cells that express factor XIIIa allowed a diagnosis of CFT to be made. The present case and the review revealed that, despite their frequent subperitoneal location, intra-abdominal CFT might present as intrinsic visceral lesions and might be found incidentally. These lesions tend to be smaller when compared to their symptomatic counterparts. The diffuse factor XIIIa expression in CFT might be useful to differentiate this entity from other intra-abdominal soft-tissue tumors in problematic cases. Although rarity of intrinsic visceral CFT necessitates new cases to determine their exact biological behavior, the present case highlights their presence in the stomach as a symptomless small polypoid lesion. [source]

Multiple minute carcinoids in type A gastritis: Attempt at 3-D reconstruction

Takuya Nojiri
In type A gastritis, the numbers of endocrine cell micronests (ECM) and carcinoids increase through the trophic action of gastrin. This study examined the characteristics and growth of carcinoids in type A gastritis. A total of 395 lesions in five surgically removed stomachs with type A gastritis were investigated, in terms of number, size, distribution and histological appearance, to clarify the tumorigenesis and progression of carcinoids. 3-D reconstruction using serial paraffin sections was used to study carcinoid progression. Our findings suggest that in type A gastritis, carcinoids arise in areas where minute carcinoids are present at a high density. They also suggest that early stage carcinoids not only become large expansively, but also develop in a very complex manner, by maintaining contact with surrounding minute carcinoids. [source]

Local ex vivo gene therapy with bone marrow stromal cells expressing human BMP4 promotes endosteal bone formation in mice

Xiao S. Zhang
Abstract Background Bone loss in osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance between resorption and formation on endosteal surfaces of trabecular and cortical bone. We investigated the feasibility of increasing endosteal bone formation in mice by ex vivo gene therapy with bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) transduced with a MLV-based retroviral vector to express human bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). Methods We assessed two approaches for administering transduced MSCs. ,-Galactosidase (,-Gal) transduced C57BL/6J mouse MSCs were injected intravenously via tail vein or directly injected into the femoral bone marrow cavity of non-marrow-ablated syngenic recipient mice and bone marrow cavity engraftment was assessed. BMP4- or ,-Gal-transduced cells were injected into the femoral bone marrow cavity and effects on bone were evaluated by X-ray, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and histology. Results After tail-vein injection less than 20% of recipient mice contained ,-Gal-positive donor cells in femur, humerus or vertebra marrow cavities combined, and in these mice only 0.02,0.29% of injected cells were present in the bone marrow. In contrast, direct intramedullary injection was always successful and an average of 2% of injected cells were present in the injected femur marrow cavity 24 hours after injection. Numbers of donor cells decreased over the next 14 days. Intramedullary injection of BMP4-transduced MSCs induced bone formation. Trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) determined by pQCT increased 20.5% at 14 days and total BMD increased 6.5% at 14 days and 10.4% at 56 days. Conclusions The present findings support the feasibility of using ex vivo MSC-based retroviral gene therapy to induce relatively sustained new bone formation, with normal histological appearance, at endosteal bone sites. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Implications of Prognostic Factors and Risk Groups in the Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer,

Ashok R. Shaha MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis The outcome in differentiated thyroid cancer generally depends on the stage of the disease at the time of presentation; prognostic factors such as age, grade, size, extension, or distant metastasis; and risk groups (eg, low or high risk). The author has reviewed a large number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer to analyze their hypothesis and to confirm that various risk groups have a major implication in relation to extent of the treatment and outcome. Differentiated thyroid cancers make up 90% of all thyroid tumors. The prognostic factors are well defined, such as age, size of the tumor, extrathyroidal extension, presence of distant metastasis, histological appearance, and grade of the tumor. The author has previously divided the risk groups into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories based on prognostic factors. The study describes the author's treatment approach related to the extent of thyroidectomy and adjuvant therapy based on various risk groups and the long-term survival. Study Design Retrospective. Methods In a retrospective review of 1038 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, various prognostic factors were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. The significant prognostic factors were studied in detail and, based on these prognostic factors, the patients were divided into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups. The survival curves were plotted by Kaplan-Meier method. Results The long-term survivals in low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups were 99%, 87%, and 57% respectively. Based on these risk groups, a decision tree was made regarding extent of thyroidectomy and adjuvant treatment. In the high-risk group and selected patients in the intermediate-risk group, aggressive surgery including removal of all gross disease and extrathyroidal extension with postoperative radioactive iodine ablation is recommended. In the low-risk group and selected patients in the intermediate-risk group, lobectomy appears to be satisfactory with excellent long-term outcome. The surgical treatment offers the best long-term results in low-risk patients, and the role of adjuvant treatment in this group is questionable. Conclusion The decisions in the management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer should be based on various prognostic factors and risk groups. The long-term survival in the low-risk group is excellent, and consideration should be given to conservative surgical resection depending on the extent of the disease. In the high-risk group and selected patients in the intermediate-risk group, total thyroidectomy with radioactive ablation is warranted. A consideration may be given to external-beam radiation therapy in selected high-risk patients. It is apparent, based on the author's clinical experience and critical retrospective analysis, that the author's hypothesis that risk groups are extremely important in the long-term outcome of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is correct. Based on various risk groups, the author currently is able to guide the treatment policies for thyroid cancer. [source]

Candidate's Thesis: The Application of Sentinel Node Radiolocalization to Solid Tumors of the Head and Neck: A 10-Year Experience,

James C. Alex MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis The goals of the research study were to develop an easily mastered, accurate, minimally invasive technique of sentinel node radiolocalization with biopsy (SNRLB) in the feline model; to compare it with blue-dye mapping techniques; and to test the applicability of sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy in three head and neck tumor types: N0 malignant melanoma, N0 Merkel cell carcinoma, and N0 squamous cell carcinoma. Study Design Prospective consecutive series studies were performed in the feline model and in three head and neck tumor types: N0 malignant melanoma (43 patients), N0 Merkel cell carcinoma (8 patients), and N0 squamous cell carcinoma (20 patients). Methods The technique of sentinel node radiolocalization with biopsy was analyzed in eight felines and compared with blue-dye mapping. Patterns of sentinel node gamma emissions were recorded. Localization success rates were determined for blue dye and sentinel node with radiolocalization biopsy. In the human studies, all patients had sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy performed in a similar manner. On the morning of surgery, each patient had sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy of the sentinel lymph node performed using an intradermal or peritumoral injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Sentinel nodes were localized on the skin surface using a handheld gamma detector. Gamma count measurements were obtained for the following: 1) the "hot" spot/node in vivo before incision, 2) the hot spot/node in vivo during dissection, 3) the hot spot/node ex vivo, 4) the lymphatic bed after hot spot/node removal, and 5) the background in the operating room. The first draining lymph node(s) was identified, and biopsy of the node was performed. The radioactive sentinel lymph node(s) was submitted separately for routine histopathological evaluation. Preoperative lymphoscintigrams were performed in patients with melanoma and patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. In patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the relationship between the sentinel node and the remaining lymphatic basin was studied and all patients received complete neck dissections. The accuracy of sentinel node radiolocalization with biopsy, the micrometastatic rate, the false-negative rate, and long-term recurrence rates were reported for each of the head and neck tumor types. In the melanoma study, the success of sentinel node localization was compared for sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy, blue-dye mapping, and lymphoscintigraphy. In the Merkel cell carcinoma study, localization rates were evaluated for sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy and lymphoscintigraphy. In the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma study, the localization rate of sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy and the predictive value of the sentinel node relative to the remaining lymphatic bed were determined. All results were analyzed statistically. Results Across the different head and neck tumor types studied, sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy had a success rate approaching 95%. Sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy was more successful than blue-dye mapping or lymphoscintigraphy at identifying the sentinel node, although all three techniques were complementary. There was no instance of a sentinel node-negative patient developing regional lymphatic recurrence. In the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma study, there was no instance in which the sentinel node was negative and the remaining lymphadenectomy specimen was positive. Conclusion In head and neck tumors that spread via the lymphatics, it appears that sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy can be performed with a high success rate. This technique has a low false-negative rate and can be performed through a small incision. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the histological appearance of the sentinel node does appear to reflect the regional nodal status of the patient. [source]

Ovarian maturation stages of the mud crab Scylla serrata

Emilia T Quinitio
Abstract Ovarian maturation in adult wild-sourced and pond-grown Scylla serrata (Forsskål) was determined based on gross morphology and histological appearance. There were no significant differences noted in the histological features of both wild and pond-reared S. serrata females. Ovarian maturation was classified into five stages: immature, early maturing, late maturing, fully mature and spent. The immature ovaries are thin and translucent to off white and contain oogonia, primary oocytes with large nuclei. The follicle cells were found around the periphery of the lobes and an area among groups of oogonia and oocytes. The follicle cells gradually enclosed the oocytes. The early-maturing ovaries were yellow and small yolk globules started to appear in larger oocytes. In late-maturing ovaries, the colour became light orange and lobules were apparent. Yolk globules occurred in the cytoplasm with larger globular inclusions towards the periphery, while follicle cells were hardly recognizable. Fully mature ovaries were orange to deep orange and had swollen lobules. Large yolk globules were apparent in the entire cytoplasm. Follicle cells were hardly seen. Spent ovaries were similar to the early-maturing and late-maturing stage in partially spawned females. The ovarian development was correlated closely to the gonadosomatic index, oocyte diameter, and ovarian histology. The classification of ovarian maturation provides baseline information for further studies on reproductive biology. Likewise, the information provides a guide for broodstock management in the hatchery. [source]

Airsac cystadenocarcinomas in cockatoos

The clinical signs, radiographic and pathological findings of four histologically similar neoplasms that occurred as unilateral tumours projecting from the left axilla in three galahs (Eolophus roseicapillus) and one sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) are described. In each case, the main reason for clinical presentation was respiratory distress. All cases were eventually fatal due to airway obstruction with evidence of extensive neoplastic invasion of the lungs, major airways and or humerus in all cases. A diagnosis of airsac cystadenocarcinoma was made in each bird on the basis of gross and histological appearance. The neoplasms were composed of fluid or air-filled sacs of proliferative cuboidal to squamous epithelial cells that stained positively with cytokeratin and negatively with vimentin. This was supported by a thin fibrovascular network although at least some areas in all four birds resembled airsac tissue. In some cases areas of haemorrhage, erythrophagocytosis, haemosiderosis and nodules of haemosiderophage infiltration with acicular cholesterol clefts were present in some parts of the sectioned tissue. [source]

Surgical removal of an ovarian tumour in a koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Ultrasonography, radiography and exploratory coeliotomy were used to diagnose and treat a large intracoelomic neoplasm from a female koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented for abdominal enlargement of several months duration. Feed was withheld for 1 week immediately prior to surgery and the fish was sedated with isoeugenol (AQUI-S®) at a dose rate of 10 mL/L to facilitate diagnostic imaging techniques. Surgical anaesthesia was induced by adding tricaine (MS-222) 50 mg/L to the water and an exploratory coeliotomy and tumour removal was performed. The fish was allowed to recover in fresh water at 18°C and salt was added slowly to the water over a period of 1 hour to a concentration of 5 g/L This concentration was maintained in a recovery pond for 1 week postoperatively. Enrofloxacin was administered intramuscularly (10 mg/kg) immediately, 3 days and 1 week postoperatively. A diagnosis of undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma was made on the basis of the histological appearance of the neoplasm and immunohistochemical staining. [source]

Histological evolution of recurrent basal cell carcinoma and therapeutic implications for incompletely excised lesions

S. Boulinguez
Summary Background, It has been proposed that the management of incompletely excised recurrent basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) should depend on their histological appearance, and that nonaggressive recurrent BCCs may not require re-excision. Objectives, To determine the histological evolution of recurrent BCCs. Methods, In a 14-year retrospective study analysing histological sections of recurrent BCCs, 390 specimens from 191 patients were blindly classified by three physicians into aggressive and nonaggressive types according to Sexton's classification. Initial histological sections were available for 33 of the recurrent BCCs. Descriptive analysis was performed. Results, Eight of 33 (24%) recurrent BCCs became histologically more aggressive. Four of 20 (20%) originally nonaggressive BCCs became aggressive during recurrence and four of 13 (31%) originally aggressive BCCs showed a more aggressive component during recurrence. These incompletely excised aggressive BCCs were sited in periorbital and perinasal areas and on the cheek, and were re-excised. Conclusions, Management of incompletely excised nonaggressive BCCs (nodular or superficial types) is still a matter of debate. Previously reported studies have shown recurrence in < 10% of nonaggressive incompletely excised BCCs. Our study showed that rare recurrences of these initially nonaggressive BCCs showed an aggressive component in 20% of cases. These results suggest that initially nonaggressive incompletely excised BCCs do not require re-excision except if they are located in sites with a poor prognosis. [source]

Unusual recurrent orbital tumour

Purpose: We present a case of an unusual CD34+ recurrent orbital tumour. Methods: A 62-year-old male presented with progressive left proptosis and preserved visual acuity. CT scans showed a circumscribed mass at the inferomedial orbit. After incisional biopsy, the patient preferred conservative treatment and the lesion was debulked. Further debulking was necessary in other two occasions. With radiological signs of bone invasion, left orbital exenteration was agreed in the fourth relapse. Results: The lid skin sparing exenteration revealed a tumour mass (45 x 29 x 27 mm) in the inferomedial orbit. There was no evidence of invasion of either the globe or the optic nerve. In all occasions, the tumour consisted of spindle cells alternating vague storiform areas with patternless areas. The tumour was very cellular, showed low mitotic count and no necrosis or ulceration. There was focal invasion of fibrous tissue, extra-ocular muscle, fat and bony fragments. The tumour was diffusely and consistently positive for CD34, S100 and vimentin. EMA and CD99 were focally positive. Several other markers were negative. This slow growing lesion with low grade histological appearance and EM suggestive of Schwannian processes was diagnosed as a CD34 positive Schwannoma on the first debulking. In the next two recurrences, experts agreed with a diagnosis of a DFSP based on the diffuse positivity for CD34. In the exenteration specimen, due to the exceptional location of the presumable DFSP, this diagnosis was disputed and after EM and further reviews the case was concluded as variant of low grade MPNST. Conclusions: The consistent positivity for CD34 in our case has lead to diagnostic disagreement. Only after the fourth recurrence the final diagnosis of a CD34 positive low grade PNST could be made. [source]

The effect of enamel matrix proteins and deproteinized bovine bone mineral on heterotopic bone formation

Nikolaos Donos
Abstract Aim: To evaluate the osteoinductive potential of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in the muscle of rats. Material and methods: Sixteen rats were used in this study. The animals were divided in three groups. Group A: a pouch was created in one of the pectoralis profundis muscles of the thorax of the rats and DBBM particles (Bio-Oss®) were placed into the pouch. Healing: 60 days. Group B: a small pouch was created on both pectoralis profundis muscles at each side of the thorax midline. In one side, a mixture of EMD (Emdogain®) mixed with DBBM was placed into one of the pouches, whereas in the contralateral side of the thorax the pouch was implanted with DBBM mixed with the propylene glycol alginate (PGA , carrier for enamel matrix proteins of EMD). Healing: 60 days. Group C: the same procedure as group B, but with a healing period of 120 days. Qualitative histological analysis of the results was performed. Results: At 60 days, the histological appearance of the DBBM particles implanted alone was similar to that of the particles implanted together with EMD or PGA at both 60 and 120 days. The DBBM particles were encapsulated into a connective tissue stroma and an inflammatory infiltrate. At 120 days, the DBBM particles implanted together with EMD or PGA exhibited the presence of resorption lacunae in some cases. Intramuscular bone formation was not encountered in any group. Conclusion: The implantation of DBBM particles alone, combined with EMD or its carrier (PGA) failed to exhibit extraskeletal, bone-inductive properties. [source]

Prevalence and breed distribution of chronic pancreatitis at post-mortem examination in first-opinion dogs

P. J. Watson
Objectives: To assess the prevalence of canine chronic pancreatitis in first-opinion practice and identify breed associations or other risk factors. Methods: Three sections of pancreas were taken from 200 unselected canine post-mortem examinations from first-opinion practices. Sections were graded for inflammation, fibrosis and other lesions. Prevalence and relative risks of chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases were calculated. Results: The prevalence of chronic pancreatitis was 34 per cent omitting the autolysed cases. Cavalier King Charles spaniels, collies and boxers had increased relative risks of chronic pancreatitis; cocker spaniels had an increased relative risks of acute and chronic pancreatitis combined. Fifty-seven per cent of cases of chronic pancreatitis were classified histologically as moderate or marked. Forty-one per cent of cases involved all three sections. Dogs with chronic pancreatitis were more commonly female and overweight, but neither factor increased the relative risk of chronic pancreatitis. There were breed differences in histological appearances and 24·5 per cent of cases were too autolysed to interpret with an increased relative risk of autolysis in a number of large breeds. Clinical Significance: Chronic pancreatitis is a common, under-estimated disease in the first-opinion dog population with distinctive breed risks and histological appearances. [source]