High Penetrance (high + penetrance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Genetic aspects of the Paget's disease of bone: concerns on the introduction of DNA-based tests in the clinical practice.

Advantages, disadvantages of its application
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (7): 655,667 Abstract Background, A large amount of genetic studies have clearly demonstrated the existence of a genetic susceptibility to Paget's disease of bone (PDB). Although the disease is genetically heterogeneous, the SQSTM1/p62 gene, encoding a protein with a pathophysiological role in both osteoclast differentiation and activity, has been found worldwide to harbour germline mutations in most of the PDB patients from geographically distant populations originating from different areas of Europe, both in sporadic and familial cases. Materials and Methods, Thus, SQSTM1/p62 gene mutations may confer an increased lifetime risk of developing PDB. Results, Several different genotype-phenotype analyses have shown a high penetrance for such mutations. These results suggest the opportunity to perform genetic testing in affected individuals and then, after the identification of a SQSTM1/p62 gene germline mutation, in their relatives as a real and concrete strategy to increase the diagnostic sensitivity in most of the asymptomatic mutant carriers. However, it is of note to underlie that an incomplete penetrance for SQSTM1/p62 gene mutations has also been reported. Conclusions, In light of all these contradictory evidences, a review on whether, when and why apply the DNA test to those subjects, its interpretation and clinical application is necessary. In fact, a growing number of preventive care options are now available to affected patients and families and the process of systematically assessing risk is becoming increasingly important for both patients and physicians. [source]

Cre-mediated recombination in pituitary somatotropes

Igor O. Nasonkin
Abstract We report a transgenic line with highly penetrant cre recombinase activity in the somatotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Expression of the cre transgene is under the control of the locus control region of the human growth hormone gene cluster and the rat growth hormone promoter. Cre recombinase activity was assessed with two different lacZ reporter genes that require excision of a floxed stop sequence for expression: a chick ,-actin promoter with the CMV enhancer transgene and a ROSA26 knock-in. Cre activity is detectable in the developing pituitary after initiation of Gh transcription and persists through adulthood with high penetrance in Gh expressing cells and lower penetrance in lactotropes, a cell type that shares a common origin with somatotropes. This Gh-cre transgenic line is suitable for efficient, cell-specific deletion of floxed regions of genomic DNA in differentiated somatotropes and a subset of lactotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. genesis 47:55,60, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genotype,phenotype correlations in hereditary familial retinoblastoma,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 3 2007
Melissa Taylor
Abstract We studied 50 unrelated pedigrees with a family history of retinoblastoma (Rb) (165 carriers of a RB1 mutation) to delineate the spectrum of RB1 germline mutations in familial Rb and to identify genotype,phenotype correlations as well as putative modifiers. Patients were followed at Institut Curie and they were examined by an ophthalmologist, a pediatrician, and a geneticist. All cases of familial Rb were determined via genetic counseling. Clinical features included disease status, laterality, age at diagnosis, mutation type, follow-up, and disease,eye ratio (DER). To eliminate mosaic cases, first-generation carriers displaying low-penetrance (LP) Rb were excluded from the analysis. Complete penetrance was the rule for nonsense and frameshift mutations (25 families) and high penetrance was observed for large rearrangements (eight families). Promoter (two families) and missense (two families) mutations displayed heterogeneous phenotypes and LP. Variable penetrance was observed for splice abnormalities (13 families) and was explained by in/out of frame mutations or respect of functional domains. Surprisingly, two families with the LP g.45867G>T/IVS6+1G>T mutation presented data that conflicted with the data reported in previous publications, as unaffected carriers had paternally inherited mutant alleles. Moreover, RNA analyses suggested that the lack of penetrance in unaffected carriers could be explained by an increase in expression levels of the wild-type allele. This observation prompted us to define a new class "3" of LP alleles. We believe this is the first large-scale study of familial Rb with a high level of homogeneity in the clinical and genetic analysis of patients and their relatives, thereby allowing for reliable intrafamilial genotype,phenotype correlations. Our analysis suggests in some cases the influence of modifier factors probably involved in mRNA level regulation and/or pRB pathway regulation. Hum Mutat 28(3), 284,293, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Eight novel MSH6 germline mutations in patients with familial and nonfamilial colorectal cancer selected by loss of protein expression in tumor tissue,,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 3 2004
Jens Plaschke
Abstract Germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, predominantly in MLH1 and MSH2, are responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), a cancer-susceptibility syndrome with high penetrance. In addition, MSH6 mutations have been reported to account for about 10% of all germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations in HNPCC patients, and have been associated with a later age of onset of the disease compared to MLH1 and MSH2 mutations. Here, we report eight novel germline mutations in MSH6. The patients were selected by having developed tumors with loss of MSH6 protein expression. All tumors showed high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Seven mutations resulted in premature stop codons, comprised of two nonsense mutations (c.426G>A [p.W142X], c.2105C>A [p.S702X]), two insertions (c.2611_2614dupATTA [p.I872fsX10], c.3324dupT [p.I1109fsX3]) and three deletions (c.1190_1191delAT [p.Y397fsX3], c.1632_1635delAAAA [p.E544fsX26], c.3513_3514delTA [p.1171fsX5]). In addition, an amino acid substitution of an arginine residue (c.2314C>T [p.R772W]) conserved throughout a wide variety of mutS homologs has been found in a patient not fulfilling the Bethesda criteria for HNPCC. Our results emphasize the suitability of IHC as a pre-selection tool for MSH6 mutation analysis and the high frequency of germline mutation detection in patients with MSH6 -deficient tumors. In addition, our findings point towards a broad variability regarding penetrance associated with MSH6 germline mutations. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Wide expressivity variation and high but no gender-related penetrance in two dopa-responsive dystonia families with a novel GCH-I mutation

Antonino Uncini MD
Abstract We describe the clinical and molecular correlates in two Italian families with dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) and the same novel mutation of GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH-I) gene. Thirty-five subjects were examined and the genotype correlated to phenotype. Childhood onset foot dystonia is present in 7 subjects currently under the age of 40. In 1 patient bilateral foot dystonia was evident at birth suggesting that dystonia may be active as early as in utero. In another patient, dystonia spontaneously remitted in adolescence, to relapse 8 years later, as writer's cramp. Dystonia and parkinsonian signs are present in 5 other patients. In 2 subjects an isolated parkinsonism started over the age of 45. A 5-base pair insertion at codon 242 within exon 6 of GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH-I) gene that shifts the reading frame and results in a premature stop at codon 247 with truncation of the polypeptide has been detected in 21 subjects. Considering dystonia and parkinsonism the overall penetrance is 0.71 and not significantly different in men (0.69) and women (0.75). Genealogical studies seem to exclude that these families are related but haplotype analysis suggests a single founder. Our findings in subjects with the same mutation indicate a wide intrafamilial variation in expressivity and high penetrance in DRD but do not confirm the reported influence of gender on GCH-I gene mutation penetrance. 2004 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Mouse mutants with neural tube closure defects and their role in understanding human neural tube defects,

Muriel J. Harris
Abstract BACKGROUND: The number of mouse mutants and strains with neural tube closure defects (NTDs) now exceeds 190, including 155 involving known genes, 33 with unidentified genes, and eight "multifactorial" strains. METHODS: The emerging patterns of mouse NTDs are considered in relation to the unknown genetics of the common human NTDs, anencephaly, and spina bifida aperta. RESULTS: Of the 150 mouse mutants that survive past midgestation, 20% have risk of either exencephaly and spina bifida aperta or both, parallel to the majority of human NTDs, whereas 70% have only exencephaly, 5% have only spina bifida, and 5% have craniorachischisis. The primary defect in most mouse NTDs is failure of neural fold elevation. Most null mutations (>90%) produce syndromes of multiple affected structures with high penetrance in homozygotes, whereas the "multifactorial" strains and several null-mutant heterozygotes and mutants with partial gene function (hypomorphs) have low-penetrance nonsyndromic NTDs, like the majority of human NTDs. The normal functions of the mutated genes are diverse, with clusters in pathways of actin function, apoptosis, and chromatin methylation and structure. The female excess observed in human anencephaly is found in all mouse exencephaly mutants for which gender has been studied. Maternal agents, including folate, methionine, inositol, or alternative commercial diets, have specific preventative effects in eight mutants and strains. CONCLUSIONS: If the human homologs of the mouse NTD mutants contribute to risk of common human NTDs, it seems likely to be in multifactorial combinations of hypomorphs and low-penetrance heterozygotes, as exemplified by mouse digenic mutants and the oligogenic SELH/Bc strain. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Clinical and molecular aspects of aniridia

H Kokotas
Kokotas H, Petersen MB. Clinical and molecular aspects of aniridia. Aniridia is a severe, congenital ocular malformation inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion with high penetrance and variable expression. Eye morphogenesis in humans involves a molecular genetic cascade in which a number of developmental genes interact in a highly organized process during the embryonic period to produce functional ocular structures. Among these genes, paired box gene 6 (PAX6) has an essential role as it encodes a phylogenetically conserved transcription factor almost universally employed for eye formation in animals with bilateral symmetry, despite widely different embryological origins. To direct eye development, PAX6 regulates the tissue-specific expression of diverse molecules, hormones, and structural proteins. In humans, PAX6 is located in chromosome 11p13, and its mutations lead to a variety of hereditary ocular malformations of the anterior and posterior segment, among which aniridia and most probably foveal hypoplasia are the major signs. Aniridia occurs due to decreased dosage of the PAX6 gene and exists in both sporadic and familial forms. The mutations are scattered throughout the gene and the vast majority of those reported so far are nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations, or splicing errors that are predicted to cause pre-mature truncation of the PAX6 protein, causing haploinsufficiency. Here we review the data regarding the mechanisms and the mutations that relate to aniridia. [source]