High Income Countries (high + income_country)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The destinies of the low- and middle-income country submissions

J. Konradsen
Objective:, To measure the number of submissions to Acta Pyschiatrica Scandinavica from low- and middle-income countries (LIC/MIC) compared with submissions from high income countries (HIC), to compare the way through the peer review process for the three groups respectively, as well as how they do as published articles eventually. Method:, By help of the Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica editorial office database all submissions of reviews of the literature, clinical overviews, original articles, brief communications, and case reports from 2002 through 2005 were analysed as to external/in-house review, acceptance/rejection, number of downloads from Blackwell-Synergy, and number of citations [Institute of Scientific Information (ISI)] in a comparison between HIC and LIC/MIC. Results:, About 14.6% of the total submissions in 2002/2003 came from LIC and MIC countries, 15.5% for the 2004/2005 period. In both periods, a larger portion of LIC/MIC manuscripts were reviewed exclusively in-house compared with HIC ones and among those papers reviewed by external experts a smaller proportion of the submissions from HIC countries were rejected than of those from LIC and MIC countries. From the first to the second period there is a significant increase of proportion of submitted LIC/MIC papers accepted for publication compared with HIC papers. Full text download and citation statistics did not differ significantly between HIC and LIC/MIC. Conclusion:, Low- and middle-income countries manuscripts do gradually better in the competition with HIC papers in Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. The major observation is that the total number of LIC/MIC submissions to the journal is still low. [source]

Publication bias perpetuates use of ineffective drugs in stroke

K. Prasad
Drugs approved and used for treatment of stroke vary from country to country. This is, at least, partly because of variation in the standards of evidence that is required for approval of drugs across countries. For example, some countries, usually low and middle income ones, approve a drug on the basis of a small positive study or post hoc subgroup analysis in a overall negative study, while others, usually high income countries, require confirmatory or replication studies before approving the same drug. Needless to say that such confirmatory or replication studies need to be published and adequately disseminated as soon as possible so that approval decisions can be revised in the light of additional evidence. However, this does not always happen. The new evidence often remains hidden in the form of nonpublication or abbreviated publication. Sometimes, it is published but with undue delay. What is worrisome is that these problems occur more often when the new evidence does not favor the new drugs than when it favors them, a manifestation of what is called ,publication bias.' This bias is well documented in the stroke research literature (1, 2). [source]

Exportweltmeister Deutschland , ein Sommermärchen?

Bernhard Herz
We apply a standard gravity model estimating bilateral export flows of 184 countries and find that Germany's exports are positively affected by time-invariant factors, like its geographical location, but that these factors are not exceptional compared to other OECD countries. Time-varying parameters, like membership in international institutions, also have only limited positive effects on German exports as the positive impact of such institutions is mainly driven by other countries' willingness to participate. Taken together, Germany's current status as the world's leading exporter is not surprising given that it is a middle-sized open high income economy that is neighbor to other open high income countries. [source]

Winners and losers from regional integration agreements,

Anthony J. Venables
How are the benefits and costs of a customs union divided between member countries? Outcomes depend on the comparative advantage of members, relative to each other and relative to the rest of the world. Countries with a comparative advantage between that of their partners and the rest of the world do better than countries with an ,extreme' comparative advantage. Consequently, integration between low income countries tends to lead to divergence of member country incomes, while agreements between high income countries cause convergence. Results suggest that developing countries are likely to be better served by ,north-south' than by ,south-south' agreements. [source]

Child and adolescent mental disorders: the magnitude of the problem across the globe

Myron L. Belfer
Objective:, Describe objectively the global gaps in policy, data gathering capacity, and resources to develop and implement services to support child mental health. Methods:, Report on the World health Organization (WHO) child and adolescent mental health resources Atlas project. The Atlas project utilized key informants and was supplemented by studies that focused on policy. This report also draws on current epidemiological studies to provide a context for understanding the magnitude of the clinical problem. Results:, Current global epidemiological data consistently reports that up to 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling mental illness; that suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents; and that up to 50% of all adult mental disorders have their onset in adolescence. While epidemiological data appears relatively uniform globally, the same is not true for policy and resources for care. The gaps in resources for child mental health can be categorized as follows: economic, manpower, training, services and policy. Key findings from the Atlas project include: lack of program development in low income countries; lack of any policy in low income countries and absent specific comprehensive policy in both low and high income countries; lack of data gathering capacity including that for country-level epidemiology and services outcomes; failure to provide social services in low income countries; lack of a continuum of care; and universal barriers to access. Further, the Atlas findings underscored the need for a critical analysis of the ,burden of disease' as it relates to the context of child and adolescent mental disorders, and the importance of defining the degree of ,impairment' of specific disorders in different cultures. Conclusions:, The recent finding of substantial gaps in resources for child mental health underscores the need for enhanced data gathering, refinement of the economic argument for care, and need for innovative training approaches. [source]