Amylase Secretion (amylase + secretion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Beer But Not Wine, Hard Liquors, or Pure Ethanol Stimulates Amylase Secretion of Rat Pancreatic Acinar Cells In Vitro

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2009
Andreas Gerloff
Background:, In contrast to pure ethanol, the effect of alcoholic beverages on the exocrine pancreas is greatly unknown. Besides ethanol, alcoholic beverages contain numerous nonalcoholic constituents which might have pathophysiological effects on the pancreas. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether some commonly used alcoholic beverages and pure ethanol influence the main function of rat pancreatic acinar cells, i.e., enzyme output in vitro. Methods:, Rat pancreatic AR4-2J cells were differentiated by dexamethasone treatment for 72 hours and freshly isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from Sprague,Dawley rats using collagenase digestion. After incubation of cells in the absence or presence of 1 to 10% (v/v) beer (containing 4.7% v/v ethanol), 10% (v/v) wine (containing 10.5 to 12.5% v/v ethanol), 10% (v/v) hard liquor (such as whisky, rum, and gin), or of the corresponding ethanol concentrations (4.03 to 80.6 mM) for 60 minutes, protein secretion was measured using amylase activity assay. Results:, Incubation of AR4-2J cells with beer caused a dose-dependent stimulation of basal amylase secretion that was significant at doses of beer above 0.5% (v/v). Stimulation with 10% (v/v) beer induced 92.7 25.2% of maximal amylase release in response to the most effective cholecystokinin (CCK) concentration (100 nM). In contrast, ethanol (up to 80.6 mM) did neither stimulate nor inhibit basal amylase release. Lactate dehydrogenase measurement after treatment of AR4-2J cells with beer for 24 hours indicated that the increase of amylase release was not due to cell membrane damage. Wine and hard liquor had no effect on basal amylase secretion neither diluted to the ethanol concentration of beer nor undiluted. In freshly isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells beer dose-dependently stimulated amylase secretion in a similar manner as in AR4-2J cells. Conclusions:, Our data demonstrate that beer dose-dependently increases amylase output. Since neither ethanol nor the other alcoholic beverages tested caused stimulation of amylase release, our findings indicate that nonalcoholic constituents specific for beer are responsible for this increase. These as yet unknown compounds have to be identified and considered in further studies of ethanol-induced pathological and functional changes of the pancreas. [source]


The role of free fatty acids, pancreatic lipase and Ca2+ signalling in injury of isolated acinar cells and pancreatitis model in lipoprotein lipase-deficient mice

ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
F. Yang
Abstract Aim and methods:, Recurrent pancreatitis is a common complication of severe hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) often seen in patients carrying various gene mutations in lipoprotein lipase (LPL). This study investigates a possible pathogenic mechanism of cell damage in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells and of pancreatitis in LPL-deficient and in wild type mice. Results:, Addition of free fatty acids (FFA) or of chylomicrons to isolated pancreatic acinar cells caused stimulation of amylase release, and at higher concentrations it also caused cell damage. This effect was decreased in the presence of the lipase inhibitor orlistat. Surprisingly, pancreatic lipase whether in its active or inactive state could act like an agonist by inducing amylase secretion, increasing cellular cGMP levels and converting cell damaging sustained elevations of [Ca2+]cyt to normal Ca2+ oscillations. Caerulein increases the levels of serum amylase and caused more severe inflammation in the pancreas of LPL-deficient mice than in wild type mice. Conclusion:, We conclude that high concentrations of FFA as present in the plasma of LPL-deficient mice and in patients with HTG lead to pancreatic cell damage and are high risk factors for the development of acute pancreatitis. In addition to its enzymatic effect which leads to the generation of cell-damaging FFA from triglycerides, pancreatic lipase also prevents Ca2+ overload in pancreatic acinar cells and, therefore, counteracts cell injury. [source]


Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction in sepsis

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 3 2003
B. Tribl
Abstract Background Sepsis in critical illness is associated with the progressive failure of multiple organs. This study aims to establish a correlation between the severity of sepsis and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Materials and methods In a prospective cohort study pancreatic exocrine function was tested by means of a secretin-cholecystokinin test in 21 critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis according to criteria of the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference Committee (ACCP/SCCM): 11 patients with shock and 10 patients without shock. Data were compared with seven healthy controls. Results The volume of duodenal fluid was not statistically different in the three groups. Sepsis patients without shock had significantly reduced content of amylase and chymotrypsin in duodenal juice compared with healthy controls (P < 001). Secretion of amylase, chymotrypsin, trypsin (P < 001 each) and bicarbonate in duodenal fluid (P < 005) was impaired in the septic shock patients when compared with the healthy controls. The content of trypsin was different between sepsis patients and septic shock patients (P < 005). Spearman correlation analysis was significant between the amylase secretion and the APACHE III and SOFA scores (P < 001). The SOFA score was also related to secretion of trypsin (P < 005). In patients on pressor therapy, use of norepinephrine was associated with a significant decrease in bicarbonate secretion (P < 005). Conclusions Sepsis is associated with secretory pancreatic dysfunction that is worse in septic shock than in sepsis without shock. Impaired exocrine function was significantly correlated to the APACHE III and SOFA scores. [source]


Melatonin and its precursor, L -tryptophan: influence on pancreatic amylase secretion in vivo and in vitro

JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2004
Jolanta Jaworek
Abstract:, Melatonin, considered as a main pineal product, may be also synthetized in the gastrointestinal tract from l -tryptophan. Melatonin has been recently shown to affect insulin release and its receptors have been characterized in the pancreas however, the effects of melatonin on the pancreatic enzyme secretion have not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin or l -tryptophan on amylase secretion in vivo in anaesthetized rats with pancreato-biliary fistulas, and in vitro using isolated pancreatic acini. Melatonin (1, 5 or 25 mg/kg) or l -tryptophan (10, 50 or 250 mg/kg) given to the rats as a intraperitoneal (i.p.) bolus injection produced significant and dose-dependent increases in pancreatic amylase secretion under basal conditions or following stimulation of enzyme secretion by diversion of bile-pancreatic juice. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent rise in melatonin plasma level. Stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion caused by melatonin or l -tryptophan was completely abolished by vagotomy, deactivation of sensory nerves with capsaicin or pretreatment with CCK1 receptor antagonists (tarazepide or l -364,718). Pretreatment with luzindole, an antagonist of melatonin MT2 receptor failed to affect melatonin- or l -tryptophan-induced amylase secretion. Administration of melatonin (1, 5 or 25 mg/kg i.p.) or l -tryptophan (10, 50 or 250 mg/kg i.p.) to the rats resulted in the dose-dependent increase of cholecystokinin (CCK) plasma immunoreactivity. Enzyme secretion from isolated pancreatic acini was not significantly affected by melatonin or l -tryptophan used at doses of10,8,10,5 m. We conclude that exogenous melatonin, as well as that produced endogenously from l -tryptophan, stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion in vivo while increasing CCK release. Stimulatory effect of melatonin or l -tryptophan on the exocrine pancreas involves vagal sensory nerves and the CCK release by these substances. [source]


Beer But Not Wine, Hard Liquors, or Pure Ethanol Stimulates Amylase Secretion of Rat Pancreatic Acinar Cells In Vitro

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2009
Andreas Gerloff
Background:, In contrast to pure ethanol, the effect of alcoholic beverages on the exocrine pancreas is greatly unknown. Besides ethanol, alcoholic beverages contain numerous nonalcoholic constituents which might have pathophysiological effects on the pancreas. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether some commonly used alcoholic beverages and pure ethanol influence the main function of rat pancreatic acinar cells, i.e., enzyme output in vitro. Methods:, Rat pancreatic AR4-2J cells were differentiated by dexamethasone treatment for 72 hours and freshly isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from Sprague,Dawley rats using collagenase digestion. After incubation of cells in the absence or presence of 1 to 10% (v/v) beer (containing 4.7% v/v ethanol), 10% (v/v) wine (containing 10.5 to 12.5% v/v ethanol), 10% (v/v) hard liquor (such as whisky, rum, and gin), or of the corresponding ethanol concentrations (4.03 to 80.6 mM) for 60 minutes, protein secretion was measured using amylase activity assay. Results:, Incubation of AR4-2J cells with beer caused a dose-dependent stimulation of basal amylase secretion that was significant at doses of beer above 0.5% (v/v). Stimulation with 10% (v/v) beer induced 92.7 25.2% of maximal amylase release in response to the most effective cholecystokinin (CCK) concentration (100 nM). In contrast, ethanol (up to 80.6 mM) did neither stimulate nor inhibit basal amylase release. Lactate dehydrogenase measurement after treatment of AR4-2J cells with beer for 24 hours indicated that the increase of amylase release was not due to cell membrane damage. Wine and hard liquor had no effect on basal amylase secretion neither diluted to the ethanol concentration of beer nor undiluted. In freshly isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells beer dose-dependently stimulated amylase secretion in a similar manner as in AR4-2J cells. Conclusions:, Our data demonstrate that beer dose-dependently increases amylase output. Since neither ethanol nor the other alcoholic beverages tested caused stimulation of amylase release, our findings indicate that nonalcoholic constituents specific for beer are responsible for this increase. These as yet unknown compounds have to be identified and considered in further studies of ethanol-induced pathological and functional changes of the pancreas. [source]