Alternative Framework (alternative + framework)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The diffusion of regulatory impact analysis , Best practice or lesson-drawing?

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL RESEARCH, Issue 5 2004
CLAUDIO M. RADAELLI
Its main theoretical thrust is to explore the limitations of the conventional analysis of RIA in terms of de-contextualised best practice and provide an alternative framework based on the lesson-drawing literature. After having discussed how demand and supply of best practice emerge in the OECD and the European Union, some analytic (as opposed to normative) lessons are presented. The main lessons revolve around the politics of problem definition, the nesting of RIA into wider reform programmes, the political malleability of RIA, the trade-off between precision and administrative assimilation, the roles of networks and watchdogs, and institutional learning. The conclusions discuss the implications of the findings for future research. [source]


Deconstructing ,gender and development' for ,identities of women'

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WELFARE, Issue 2 2007
Shweta Singh
In this article, the gender and development paradigm is critically reviewed and an alternative framework of research ,identities of women, is proposed. This article contends that the gender and development paradigm is primarily guided by the tenets of Western feminisms and economic development. The article also highlights other limitations of the paradigm, including its preoccupation with male,female inequalities, macro generalisations and symbolic representation of women and a limited inclusion of local contexts. The identities of women framework proposes to address the limitations of the gender and development paradigm by studying women's conception of their environment and women's understanding of their relationship with these environments. The identities of women framework is informed by poststructuralist critique of feminism, cultural anthropology and a socio-psychological approach to identity. [source]


Rethinking NIMBYism: The role of place attachment and place identity in explaining place-protective action

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
Patrick Devine-Wright
Abstract The ,NIMBY' (Not In My Back Yard) concept is commonly used to explain public opposition to new developments near homes and communities, particularly arising from energy technologies such as wind farms or electricity pylons. Despite its common use, the concept has been extensively critiqued by social scientists as a useful concept for research and practice. Given European policy goals to increase sustainable energy supply by 2020, deepening understanding of local opposition is of both conceptual and practical importance. This paper reviews NIMBY literature and proposes an alternative framework to explain local opposition, drawing upon social and environmental psychological theory on place. Local opposition is conceived as a form of place-protective action, which arises when new developments disrupt pre-existing emotional attachments and threaten place-related identity processes. Adopting a social constructivist perspective and drawing on social representation theory, a framework of place change is proposed encompassing stages of becoming aware, interpreting, evaluating, coping and acting, with each stage conceived at multiple levels of analysis, from intrapersonal to socio-cultural. Directions for future research and potential implications of the place-based approach for public engagement by energy policy-makers and practitioners are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Operationalizing autonomy: solutions for mental health nursing practice

JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 1 2008
P. J. HARNETT rmn mbs
The new Mental Health Act (2001) became a law on 1 November 2006. The new Act, reflective of international legislative norms, outlines an agenda for the mental health services in Ireland which, in part, aims to maximize patient autonomy. This paper seeks to contextualize autonomy within nurse,patient interactions in the mental health care setting. The acceptance of autonomy as an unconditional principle, as outlined within traditional bioethics, is challenged. The paper draws on the social critique of normative ethics and suggests an alternative framework within which to operationalize patient autonomy. The authors conclude that a broader, more contextualized perspective on autonomy would more suitably inform mental health nursing. Narrative ethics and a framework of ,protective responsibility' are offered as an alternative to more traditional approaches. Practice-based initiatives to maximize patient autonomy and facilitate-reasoned ethical decision making are outlined. [source]


Fetal or Infantile Exposure to Ethanol Promotes Ethanol Ingestion in Adolescence and Adulthood: A Theoretical Review

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2005
Norman E. Spear
Background: Despite good evidence that ethanol abuse in adulthood is more likely the earlier human adolescents begin drinking, it is unclear why the early onset of drinking occurs in the first place. A review of experimental studies with animals complemented by clinical, epidemiologic and experimental studies with humans supports the idea that precipitating conditions for ethanol abuse occur well before adolescence, in terms of very early exposure to ethanol as a fetus or infant. Experimental studies with animals indicate, accordingly, that ethanol intake during adolescence or adulthood is potentiated by much earlier exposure to ethanol as a fetus or infant. Methods: Two broad theoretical frameworks are suggested to explain the increase in affinity for ethanol that follows very early exposure to ethanol, one based on effects of mere exposure and the other on associative conditioning. Studied for 50 years or more in several areas of psychology, "effects of mere exposure" refers to enhanced preference expressed for flavors, or just about any stimuli, that are relatively familiar. An alternative framework, in terms of associative conditioning, is guided by this working hypothesis: During ethanol exposure the fetus or infant acquires an association between ethanol's orosensory (odor/taste) and pharmacological consequences, causing the animal subsequently to seek out ethanol's odor and taste. Results and Conclusions: The implication that ethanol has rewarding consequences for the fetus or young infant is supported by recent evidence with perinatal rats. Paradoxically, several studies have shown that such early exposure to ethanol may in some circumstances make the infant treat ethanol-related events as aversive, and yet enhanced intake of ethanol in adolescence is nevertheless a consequence. Alternative interpretations of this paradox are considered among the varied circumstances of early ethanol exposure that lead subsequently to increased affinity for ethanol. [source]


SOCIAL NETWORKS AND CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION: A NEW INTERPRETATION OF THE FEMALE TERRACOTTA FIGURINES OF HELLENISTIC BABYLON

OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
STEPHANIE M. LANGIN-HOOPER
Summary. In the study of the Hellenistic period in Babylon, cross-cultural interactions between Greeks and native Babylonians have been primarily interpreted using colonialist theories of Hellenisation, domination, and cultural isolation. This paper finds, however, that such theories cannot adequately explain the types of cross-cultural combinations seen in the archaeological record of female Hellenistic Babylonian terracotta figurines. The forms and functions of these terracotta figurines were substantially altered and combined throughout the Hellenistic period, resulting in Greek-Babylonian multicultural figurines as well as figurines that exhibited new features used exclusively in Hellenistic Babylonia. In order to facilitate a greater understanding of the full complexity of these Greek,Babylonian interactions, a new interpretation of cross,cultural interaction in Hellenistic Babylon is developed in this paper. This Social Networks model provides an alternative framework for approaching both how a hybrid material culture of terracotta figurines was developed and how Hellenistic Babylon became a multicultural society. [source]


Institutions and Development: A Conceptual Reanalysis

POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
Alejandro Portes
This essay reviews the concept of "institutions" as used in the recent economic literatures on firms and national development and notes its limitations. An alternative framework is proposed that draws on classic and contemporary sociological theory to position the concept of institutions in relation to other basic elements of culture and social structure. The framework is used to analyze (1) the failure of attempts to transplant institutions of developed countries into the global South and (2) the dynamics of massive privatization in Mexico. The bearing of this framework on current institutional theories of social change is examined, leading to the identification of sources of change at different levels of causal significance and scope. This modified theory of change is applied to the longstanding demographic debates on historical and institutional determinants of fertility transitions. The bearing of the proposed "thick institutionalist" framework on social theory and future development policies is discussed. [source]


Beyond Trauma-Focused Psychiatric Epidemiology: Bridging Research and Practice With War-Affected Populations

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 4 2006
Kenneth E. Miller PhD
This article examines the centrality of trauma-focused psychiatric epidemiology (TFPE) in research with war-affected populations. The authors question the utility of the dominant focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and other disorders of Western psychiatry, and they identify a set of critical research foci related to mental health work with communities affected by political violence. Core assumptions of TFPE and its roots in logical positivism and the biomedical model of contemporary psychiatry are explored. The authors suggest that an alternative framework,social constructivism,can serve as a bridge between researchers and practitioners by helping to refocus research efforts in ways that are conceptually and methodologically more attuned to the needs of war-affected communities and those working to address their mental health needs. [source]