Geological Structures (geological + structure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

3D resistivity inversion using 2D measurements of the electric field

P.D. Jackson
Field and ,noisy' synthetic measurements of electric-field components have been inverted into 3D resistivities by smoothness-constrained inversion. Values of electrical field can incorporate changes in polarity of the measured potential differences seen when 2D electrode arrays are used with heterogeneous ,geology', without utilizing negative apparent resistivities or singular geometrical factors. Using both the X - and Y -components of the electric field as measurements resulted in faster convergence of the smoothness-constrained inversion compared with using one component alone. Geological structure and resistivity were reconstructed as well as, or better than, comparable published examples based on traditional measurement types. A 2D electrode grid (20 10), incorporating 12 current-source electrodes, was used for both the practical and numerical experiments; this resulted in 366 measurements being made for each current-electrode configuration. Consequently, when using this array for practical field surveys, 366 measurements could be acquired simultaneously, making the upper limit on the speed of acquisition an order of magnitude faster than a comparable conventional pole,dipole survey. Other practical advantages accrue from the closely spaced potential dipoles being insensitive to common-mode noise (e.g. telluric) and only 7% of the electrodes (i.e. those used as current sources) being susceptible to recently reported electrode charge-up effects. [source]

The influence of parent material on topsoil geochemistry in eastern England

B. G. Rawlins
Abstract The topsoil of around 10 000 km2 in eastern England has recently been sampled intensely at 4609 sites to characterize its geochemistry. The parent materials, which include both solid geology and Quaternary sediments, range in age from Permian to Holocene. The distributions of the concentrations of major and trace elements have been characterized geostatistically, and the role of parent material on their spatial structure (anisotropy) and their spatial relationships (coregionalization) have been investigated. Analysis of variance with the sites grouped by major parent material type showed that this classi,cation accounted for 14 to 48 per cent of the variance for the various elements. Global variograms of 13 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Ti, and U) have been computed and modelled. Eleven of the variograms seem to comprise two structures, both of which we modelled with spherical functions, one of short range, 35 to 9 km, and the other with a range of 15 to 23 km. The models included a nugget variance, which varied from 27 per cent (for As, Fe, and Mg) to 63 per cent (for P) of the total. The long-range structures are related to the separations of the major parent materials. The variograms of several elements showed appreciable anisotropy, most notably that of Mg. Anisotropy is evident at short ranges of less than 5 km. This accords with the geological structure of the beds which dip from west to east so that their outcrops are elongated from north to south. A linear model of coregionalization ,tted to the data emphasized several important geochemical associations, which we interpret. Elements commonly associated with clay minerals (Mg, Al) and the clay size fraction (Ti) are dominated by the long-range structure of the coregionalization, whilst several trace elements (As, Cr, Ni and U) are spatially correlated with Fe over short distances, through adsorption of the former on the surfaces of Fe oxyhydroxides. The topsoil around large urban areas is enriched in lead, but it is not clear whether anthropogenic sources are responsible for this metal's anomalous spatial relationships with other elements. Crown copyright 2003. Reproduced with the permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Of,ce. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Analysing soil variation in two dimensions with the discrete wavelet transform

R. M. Lark
Summary Complex spatial variation in soil can be analysed by wavelets into contributions at several scales or resolutions. The first applications were to data recorded at regular intervals in one dimension, i.e. on transects. The theory extends readily to two dimensions, but the application to small sets of gridded data such as one is likely to have from a soil survey requires special adaptation. This paper describes the extension of wavelet theory to two dimensions. The adaptation of the wavelet filters near the limits of a region that was successful in one dimension proved unsuitable in two dimensions. We therefore had to pad the data out symmetrically beyond the limits to minimize edge effects. With the above modifications and Daubechies's wavelet with two vanishing moments the analysis is applied to soil thickness, slope gradient, and direct solar beam radiation at the land surface recorded at 100-m intervals on a 60 101 square grid in south-west England. The analysis revealed contributions to the variance at several scales and for different directions and correlations between the variables that were not evident in maps of the original data. In particular, it showed how the thickness of the soil increasingly matches the geological structure with increasing dilation of the wavelet, this relationship being local to the strongly aligned outcrops. The analysis reveals a similar pattern in slope gradient, and a negative correlation with soil thickness, most clearly evident at the coarser scales. The solar beam radiation integrates slope gradient and azimuth, and the analysis emphasizes the relations with topography at the various spatial scales and reveals additional effects of aspect on soil thickness. [source]

Genetic population structure of the net-winged midge, Elporia barnardi (Diptera: Blephariceridae) in streams of the south-western Cape, South Africa: implications for dispersal

M. J. Wishart
SUMMARY 1.,The net-winged midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae), with highly specific habitat requirements and specialised morphological adaptations, exhibit high habitat fidelity and a limited potential for dispersal. Given the longitudinal and hierarchical nature of lotic systems, along with the geological structure of catchment units, we hypothesise that populations of net-winged midge should exhibit a high degree of population sub-structuring. 2.,Sequence variation in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was examined to determine patterns of genetic variation and infer historical and contemporary processes important in the genetic structuring of populations of Elporia barnardi. The DNA variation was examined at sites within streams, between streams in the same range, and between mountain ranges in the south-western Cape of South Africa. 3.,Twenty-five haplotypes, 641 bp in length, were identified from the 93 individuals sampled. A neighbour-joining tree revealed two highly divergent clades (,5%) corresponding to populations from the two mountain ranges. A number of monophyletic groups were identified within each clade, associated with individual catchment units. 4.,The distribution of genetic variation was examined using analysis of molecular variance (amova). This showed most of the variation to be distributed among the two ranges (,80%), with a small percentage (,15%) distributed among streams within each range. Similarly, variation among streams on Table Mountain was primarily distributed among catchment units (86%). A Mantel's test revealed a significant relationship between genetic differentiation and geographical distance, suggesting isolation by distance (P < 0.001). 5.,Levels of sequence divergence between the two major clades, representing the two mountain ranges, are comparable with those of some intra-generic species comparisons. Vicariant events, such as the isolation of the Peninsula mountain chain and Table Mountain, may have been important in the evolution of what is now a highly endemic fauna. 6.,The monophyletic nature of the catchment units suggests that dispersal is confined to the stream environment and that mountain ridges provide effective physical barriers to dispersal of E. barnardi. [source]

Three-dimensional VP and VP,/VS models of the upper crust in the Friuli area (northeastern Italy)

G. F. Gentile
3-D images of P velocity and P - to S -velocity ratio have been produced for the upper crust of the Friuli area (northeastern Italy) using local earthquake tomography. The data consist of 2565 P and 930 S arrival times of high quality. The best-fitting VP and VP,/VS 1-D models were computed before the 3-D inversion. VP was measured on two rock samples representative of the investigated upper layers of the Friuli crust. The tomographic VP model was used for modelling the gravity anomalies, by converting the velocity values into densities along three vertical cross-sections. The computed gravity anomalies were optimized with respect to the observed gravity anomalies. The crust investigated is characterized by sharp lateral and deep VP and VP,/VS anomalies that are associated with the complex geological structure. High VP,/VS values are associated with highly fractured zones related to the main faulting pattern. The relocated seismicity is generally associated with sharp variations in the VP,/VS anomalies. The VP images show a high-velocity body below 6 km depth in the central part of the Friuli area, marked also by strong VP,/VS heterogeneities, and this is interpreted as a tectonic wedge. Comparison with the distribution of earthquakes supports the hypothesis that the tectonic wedge controls most of the seismicity and can be considered to be the main seismogenic zone in the Friuli area. [source]

Geomechanical simulation to predict open subsurface fractures

Helen Lewis
ABSTRACT Geomechanical simulation of the evolution of a geological structure can play an important role in predicting open fracture development for all stages in that structure's development. In this work, three such geomechanical simulations are used to predict the evolving stress and strain fields, including dilational and compactional changes in the rock fabric in developing fault and fold systems. Their consequences for open fracture development and flow are addressed. These simulated stress and strain fields show considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity that is consistent with deformation patterns observed in both natural examples and in laboratory-deformed analogues. But the stress and strain states that develop are neither co-axial nor do they bear a simple relationship to one another. The dilational and compactional strains, manifest as open fracturing or sealing, represent some significantly increased or significantly decreased flow rates. However, open-fracture predictions based on such geomechanical simulations are extremely difficult to validate with any degree of confidence as there is little direct evidence of sub-surface fracture distributions. In this context we also discuss possible integration of seismic anisotropy measurements, as an independent measure of open fracture alignment, to support the geomechanically derived fracture predictions. The focus of this work is on volumetric strains in fault zone evolution, though folding is also addressed. [source]

Ground water level influence on thermal response test in Adana, Turkey

. Bozda
Abstract For optimum design of borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) and ground sources heat pump (GSHP) applications, determination of underground thermal properties is required. The design and economic feasibility (number and depth of boreholes) of these systems need thermal conductivity of geological structure, , (W,m,1,K,1), and thermal resistance of ground heat exchanger, R (K,W,1,m). Thermal properties measured in laboratory experiments do not coincide with data of in situ conditions. Therefore, in situ thermal response test equipment has been developed and used in Canada, England, Germany, Norway, U.K., U.S.A. and Sweden to ensure precise designing of BTES systems. This paper describes the results and evaluations of the Adana continual thermal response test measurements. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parentage of low-grade metasediments in the Sanbagawa belt, eastern Shikoku, Southwest Japan, and its geotectonic implications

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2010
Kazuo KiminamiArticle first published online: 19 AUG 2010
Abstract This study examines the geology of low-grade (chlorite zone) metamorphic rocks in the Sanbagawa belt and of a Jurassic accretionary complex in the Northern Chichibu belt, eastern Shikoku, Japan. The bulk chemistries of metasandstones and metapelites in the Sanbagawa belt of eastern Shikoku are examined in order to determine their parentage. The Sanbagawa belt can be divided into northern and southern parts based on lithology and geologic structure. Geochemical data indicate that metasediments in the northern and southern parts are the metamorphic equivalents of the KS-II (Coniacian,Campanian) and KS-I (late Albian,early Coniacian) units of the Shimanto belt, respectively. The depositional ages of the parent sediments of low-grade metamorphic rocks found in the Sanbagawa belt and the Jurassic Northern Chichibu belt, indicate a north-younging polarity. In contrast, sedimentological evidence indicates younging to the south. These observations suggest that a tectonic event has resulted in a change from a northerly to southerly dip direction for schistosity and bedding in the Sanbagawa and Northern Chichibu belts of eastern Shikoku. The younging polarity observed in the Sanbagawa and Northern Chichibu belts, together with previously reported data on vitrinite reflectance and geological structure, indicate that the Northern Chichibu belt was part of the overburden formerly lying on top of the Sanbagawa low-grade metamorphic rocks. [source]

Landscape patterns of indicator plants for soil acidity in the Bavarian Alps

Sebastian Schmidtlein
Abstract Aim, Electronic distribution atlases and lists of ecological indicator values are becoming important tools in plant geography. In this contribution, we combine a geographical and an ecological data bank, and map out patterns of indicator value spectra (instead of single or average values) across a physiographically complex landscape. For our study, we select indicators of soil pH and carbonate content as key environmental factors that strongly affect overall plant diversity patterns in the temperate zone. Our goal is to relate the distribution and diversity of plant groups that are indicators of soil pH and carbonate content to environmental controls at the landscape-scale, and thus contribute to a causal understanding of species pools. Location, We studied the Bavarian Alps, which represent the German portion of the Northern Alps. Methods, Based on the existing floristic survey, we calculated relative frequencies of nine classes of indicator plants for soil pH and carbonate content in grid cells. The resulting attribute matrix (cells by indicator class frequencies) was subjected to principal components analysis and to k-means clustering. Results were compared and mapped out in the grid array of the whole region, resulting in continuous and discrete representations of species pool structure. We used a geographical information system to derive physiographical landscape properties from a geological map and a digital elevation model, and analysed their statistical relationship with the shapes of indicator spectra. Results and Main conclusions, Averages of indicator values for soil pH and carbonate content follow the geological structure quite closely. Surprisingly, the diversity of indicator plant groups does not appear to be a function of geological or topographic heterogeneity. Rather, it seems to be related to areas of high elevation with uniform geology. The effect is a matter of additional acidophytes in high mountain areas and, in the high calcareous Alps, extreme calciphytes, while species with intermediate requirements are rarer than usual. For explanation, we suggest two facts: (1) a frequent lack of mature soils at high elevations and (2) particularities in soil genetic processes occurring under the harsh climatic conditions of high mountains. [source]

Farmland degradation in the mountains of Nepal: a study of watersheds ,with' and ,without' external intervention

G. B. Thapa
Abstract Amidst growing concerns about farmlands conservation, this paper examines the status of farmlands in two mountain watersheds ,with' and ,without' external intervention, located in the western hills of Nepal. Information was obtained from a household survey and group discussions conducted during April to September 1999. The severity of soil erosion from farmers' perspectives, density of landslides, soil nutrient balance and change in crop yield have been adopted as indicators of the status of the land. Results of the analysis indicate that land resources in both watersheds are undergoing degradation, though the causes and extent of degradation vary from one type of land to another. Upland crop terraces, locally called bari, are undergoing degradation most seriously under the combined influence of severe soil erosion, landslide and the depletion of soil nutrients. In particular, soil erosion has severely affected nearly half of the upland crop terraces in both watersheds due to a number of natural and anthropogenic factors ranging from weak geological structure to arable agriculture. Landslide and nutrient depletion have affected all types of farmlands except homesteads in both watersheds. Overall, the extent and intensity of land degradation is relatively high in the non-project area, as farmers were not provided with necessary technical and financial support. A broad strategy has been outlined for effective conservation of farmlands. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prompt magnetic investigations of archaeological remains in areas of infrastructure development: Israeli experience

Lev V. Eppelbaum
Abstract Magnetic prospecting is the most widely used method for the investigation of archaeological remains in the world. This method is often applied before and during various engineering exploration (e.g. road construction, preparing areas for various types of building) and areas of agricultural utilization. Taking into account an extremely high concentration of archaeological sites of different age at Israeli territory, prompt geophysical,archaeological assessment of areas allocated for engineering and agricultural utilization, is a necessary preliminary component of the design process. However, noise both of natural and artificial origin strongly complicates interpretation of observed magnetic anomalies. The most significant disturbing factors are oblique magnetization (magnetization vector in the Israeli territory is inclined about 45), complex geological structure (presence of a variety of disturbing bodies) of investigated site, influence of rugged topography, as well as influence of modern iron-containing objects. The non-conventional procedures developed by the authors are intended for application in such complicated environments and include elimination of noise from various sources, selection of ,useful' anomalies against the noise background, qualitative and quantitative interpretation of anomalies and three-dimensional physical,geological modelling. Effective integration of these procedures with other interpretation methods allowed rapid localization of tens of archaeological remains and their protection from unpremeditated destruction. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Multiscale structure in sedimentary basins

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2004
S. A. Stewart
Hierarchies of superimposed structures are found in maps of geological horizons in sedimentary basins. Mapping based on three-dimensional (3D) seismic data includes structures that range in scale from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Extraction of structures from these maps without a priori knowledge of scale and shape is analogous to pattern recognition problems that have been widely researched in disciplines outside of Geoscience. A number of these lessons are integrated and applied within a geological context here. We describe a method for generating multiscale representations from two-dimensional sections and 3D surfaces, and illustrate how superimposed geological structures can be topologically analysed. Multiscale analysis is done in two stages , generation of scale-space as a geometrical attribute, followed by identification of significant scale-space objects. Results indicate that Gaussian filtering is a more robust method than conventional moving average filtering for deriving multiscale geological structure. We introduce the concept of natural scales for identifying the most significant scales in a geological cross section. In three dimensions, scale-dependent structures are identified via an analogous process as discrete topological entities within a four-dimensional scale-space cube. Motivation for this work is to take advantage of the completeness of seismic data coverage to see ,beyond the outcrop' and yield multiscale geological structure. Applications include identifying artefacts, scale-specific features and large-scale structural domains, facilitating multiscale structural attribute mapping for reservoir characterisation, and a novel approach to fold structure classification. [source]

Effects of Near-Surface Absorption on Reflection Characteristics of Continental Interbedded Strata: the Dagang Oilfield as an Example

LI Guofa
Abstract: Due to the effects of seismic wave field interference, the reflection events generated from interbedded and superposed sand and shale strata no longer have an explicit corresponding relationship with the geological interface. The absorption of the near-surface layer decreases the resolution of the seismic wavelet, intensifies the interference of seismic reflections from different sand bodies, and makes seismic data interpretation of thin interbedded strata more complex and difficult. In order to concretely investigate and analyze the effects of the near-surface absorption on seismic reflection characteristics of interbedded strata, and to make clear the ability of current technologies to compensate the near-surface absorption, a geological model of continental interbedded strata with near-surface absorption was designed, and the prestack seismic wave field was numerically simulated with wave equations. Then, the simulated wave field was processed by the prestack time migration, the effects of near-surface absorption on prestack and poststack reflection characteristics were analyzed, and the near-surface absorption was compensated for by inverse Q -filtering. The model test shows that: (1) the reliability of prediction and delineation of a continental reservoir with AVO inversion is degraded due to the lateral variation of the near-surface structure; (2) the corresponding relationships between seismic reflection events and geological interfaces are further weakened as a result of near-surface absorption; and (3) the current technology of absorption compensation probably results in false geological structure and anomaly. Based on the model experiment, the real seismic data of the Dagang Oil Field were analyzed and processed. The seismic reflection characteristics of continental interbedded strata were improved, and the reliability of geological interpretation from seismic data was enhanced. [source]

Basic Types and Structural Characteristics of Uplifts: An Overview of Sedimentary Basins in China

Dengfa HE
Abstract: The uplift is a positive structural unit of the crust It is an important window for continental dynamics owing to its abundant structural phenomena, such as fault, fold, unconformity and denudation of strata. Meanwhile, it is the very place to store important minerals like oil, natural gas, coal and uranium. Giant and large-scale oil and gas fields in China, such as the Daqing Oilfield, Lunnan-Tahe Oilfield, Penglai 19,3 Oilfield, Puguang Gas Field and Jingbian Gas Field, are developed mainly on uplifts. Therefore, it is the main target both for oil and gas exploration and for geological study. The uplift can be either a basement uplift, or one developed only in the sedimentary cover. Extension, compression and wrench or their combined forces may give rise to uplifts. The development process of uplifting, such as formation, development, dwindling and destruction, can be taken as the uplifting cycle. The uplifts on the giant Precambrian cratons are large in scale with less extensive structural deformation. The uplifts on the medium- and small-sized cratons or neo-cratons are formed in various shapes with strong structural deformation and complicated geological structure. Owing to changes in the geodynamic environment, uplift experiences a multi-stage or multi-cycle development process. Its geological structure is characterized in superposition of multi-structural layers. Based on the basement properties, mechanical stratigraphy and development sequence, uplifts can be divided into three basic types , the succession, superposition and destruction ones. The succession type is subdivided into the maintaining type and the lasting type. The superposition type can be subdivided into the composite anticlinal type, the buried-hill draped type, the faulted uplift type and the migration type according to the different scales and superimposed styles of uplifts in different cycles. The destruction type is subdivided into the tilting type and the negative inverted type. The development history of uplifts and their controlling effects on sedimentation and fluids are quite different from one another, although the uplifts with different structural types store important minerals. Uplifts and their slopes are the main areas for oil and gas accumulation. They usually become the composite oil and gas accumulation zones (belts) with multiple productive formations and various types of oil and gas reservoirs. [source]

Characteristics of the Geotectonics in South China and Their Constraints on Primary Diamond

TANG Wenquan
Abstract The Asian continent is one of the best places in the world to study continental dynamics. In this region the tectonic framework of the South China plate is related to the activity of the Pacific plate and Indian plate since the Mesozoic. In the South China plate, as the ophiolitic mlange of the middle Proterozoic in the Shaoxing-Yingtan-Tengxian-Beihai faulted zone was confirmed to be a subducting ocean, the evolution of the Yangtze block and Cathaysian block, which are located on both sides of the fault zone, becomes clearer and clearer. A primary diamond deposit, which was first found by Bao Chaomin and his colleagues in Longyou County of Zhejiang Province in 1998, originated from kimberlitoid pipes. The pipes are located in the Cretaceous basin beside this deep fault and the diamond-bearing pipe was formed deep within a favourable geological structure. Diamond there occurs as octahedral crystals without visual impurities. There are more than 100 similar pipes in the area, which have been poorly studied so far, so this area should have great prospects for diamond exploration. [source]

Investigations regarding Alpine talus slopes using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in the Bavarian Alps, Germany

Oliver Sass
Abstract The applicability of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for the investigation of loose debris was tested at two sites (Viererkar and Zugspitzplatt). A pulseEKKO 100 GPR system equipped with 25 MHz antennae was utilized. The aim of the investigation was to record the base of the debris layer, and thereby acquire an estimation of the backweathering rates of the adjacent rockwalls. The study areas are situated in the Northern Alps near the German,Austrian border. The sites are characterized by steep limestone rockwalls and extensive talus accumulations. A total of six profiles was surveyed. The method is suitable and effective for a quick survey in this dry, high-ohmic substrate. The GPR system was able to deliver information about the subsurface stratigraphy to c. 70 m depth. The boundary line to the bedrock was discovered , depending upon the profile surveyed ,5 to 25 m below the surface. The base of the debris material sometimes shows no distinct reflection. Buried features (V-shaped furrows, zones overdeepened by ice action, geological structures) could be detected. Arched structures well below the talus,bedrock interface can be interpreted as drainage systems in the karstic bedrock. A thick scree layer of Late Glacial age was separated from a thinner layer on the talus surface, which was related to the Holocene. The backweathering rates were fixed by a calculation of talus volume to c. 100 mm/103 a during the Holocene (Viererkar) and 150,300 mm/103 a (Zugspitzplatt). The detrital formation in north-exposed sites is twice as intense as in south-exposed sites. These results match the rates of recent rockfall in the same area of investigation. The calculated backweathering for the late glacial period is 150,730 mm/103 a. The magnitude of the calculated rockwall retreat lies well within the range of previous measurements. The discrepancy between some weathering rates highlights the fact that recent and past relief formation must be differentiated. Otherwise recent removal rates may be overestimated. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


ABSTRACT. Complex landslides, capable of reactivation, are typical slope movements in high relief areas. Due to their distribution, size and kinematics, these landforms represent a major hazard, posing a high risk to populations, settlements and infrastructures. This paper integrates geomorphological analyses, instrumental measurements and dendrochronological approaches in assessing a large, reactivated landslide system on the southern piedmont of Monte Sirino (southern Italy). The landslide system is associated with weak geological structures, earthquake activity, and rapid recent incision of the mid-Pleistocene Noce lake deposits. Potential reactivation triggers include a higher regional annual rainfall, one of the highest in southern Italy, and more frequent heavy snowfalls in recent decades. Reactivation of the Sirino landslide system has important implications for the motorway connecting Salerno and Reggio Calabria, which crosses it. The results of our study show that the slide is reactivated with an almost decadal frequency and that major reactivations are correlated to prolonged snowfall, which occurs with increasing frequency in the southern Apennines. The last observation suggests the need for similar studies on the behaviour of other landslide systems in the southern Apennines, performing integrated approaches such as geotechnical and dendrogeomorphological analysis. [source]

Using analytic signal to determine magnetization/density ratios of geological structures

Wen-Bin Doo
SUMMARY The Poisson theorem provides a simple relationship between the gravity and magnetic potentials, which is useful in interpreting joint data sets of gravity and magnetic data. Based on the simple Poisson theorem, magnetization/density ratio (MDR) can be estimated. However, potential field data is often ambiguous in datum level and multisources interference that may cause bias in interpretation. Here, we propose an improved Poisson theorem to estimate MDR by using analytic signals of gravity and magnetic data. The major advantage of using the analytic signal is that we can also determine the sources locations and boundaries supposing that we know the ambient magnetic parameters. Besides, we can also avoid the determination error from uncertain datum levels. We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method in 2-D and 3-D synthetic models. The proposed method is also applied to a profile across the offshore area of northern Taiwan. Comparing with the reflection seismic profile, our result can help identify the existence of a deep-seated igneous body beneath the area of Mienhuayu and Pengchiagu islands off northern Taiwan. [source]

The sedimentary structure of the Lomonosov Ridge between 88N and 80N

Wilfried Jokat
SUMMARY While the origin of the 1800-km-long Lomonosov Ridge (LR) in the Central Arctic Ocean is believed to be well understood, details on the bathymetry and especially on the sediment and crustal structure of this unique feature are sparse. During two expeditions in 1991 and 1998 into the Central Arctic Ocean several high quality seismic lines were collected along the margin of the ridge and in the adjacent Makarov Basin (MB). The lines collected between 8736,N and 80N perpendicular to and along the LR show a sediment starved continental margin with a variety of geological structures. The different features may reflect the different geological histories of certain ridge segments and/or their different subsidence histories. The sediments in the deep MB have thicknesses up to 2.2 km (3 s TWT) close to the foot of the ridge. At least in part basement reflections characteristics suggest oceanic crust. The acoustically stratified layers are flat lying, except in areas close to the ridge. Seismic units on the LR can be divided into two units based on refraction velocity data and the internal geometry of the reflections. Velocities <3.0 km s,1 are considered to represent Cenozoic sediments deposited after the ridge subsided below sea level. Velocities >4.0 km s,1 are associated with faulted sediments at deeper levels and may represent acoustic basement, which was affected by the Late Cretaceous/Early Cenozoic rift events. Along large parts of the ridge the transition of the two units is associated with an erosional unconformity. Close to the Laptev Sea such an erosional surface may not be present, because of the initial great depths of the rocks. Here, the deeper strata are affected by tectonism, which suggests some relative motion between the LR and the Laptev Shelf. Stratigraphic correlation with the Laptev Sea Shelf suggests that the ridge has not moved as a separate plate over the past 10 Myr. The seismic and regional gravity data indicate that the ridge broadens towards the Laptev Shelf. Although the deeper structure may be heavily intruded and altered, the LR appears to extend eastwards as far as 155E, a consequence of a long-lived Late Cretaceous rift event. The seismic data across LR support the existence of iceberg scours in the central region of the ridge as far south as 81N. However, no evidence for a large erosional events due to a more than 1000-m-thick sea ice cover is visible from the data. South of 85N the seismic data indicate the presence of a bottom simulating reflector along all lines. [source]

Geoelectric dimensionality in complex geological areas: application to the Spanish Betic Chain

Anna Mart
SUMMARY Rotational invariants of the magnetotelluric impedance tensor may be used to obtain information on the geometry of underlying geological structures. The set of invariants proposed by Weaver et al. (2000) allows the determination of a suitable dimensionality for the modelling of observed data. The application of the invariants to real data must take into account the errors in the data and also the fact that geoelectric structures in the Earth will not exactly fit 1-D, 2-D or simple 3-D models. In this work we propose a method to estimate the dimensionality of geoelectric structures based on the rotational invariants, bearing in mind the experimental error of real data. A data set from the Betic Chain (Spain) is considered. We compare the errors of the invariants estimated by different approaches: classical error propagation, generation of random Gaussian noise and bootstrap resampling, and we investigate the matter of the threshold value to be used in the determination of dimensionality. We conclude that the errors of the invariants can be properly estimated by classical error propagation, but the generation of random values is better to ensure stability in the errors of strike direction and distortion parameters. The use of a threshold value between 0.1 and 0.15 is recommended for real data of medium to high quality. The results for the Betic Chain show that the general behaviour is 3-D with a disposition of 2-D structures, which may be correlated with the nature of the crust of the region. [source]

Analysis of the 2002 May earthquake sequence in the central Pyrenees, consequences for the evaluation of the seismic risk at Lourdes, France

Noalwenn Dubos
SUMMARY Three earthquakes of magnitudes 4.6, 4.3 and 3.7 occurred in 2002 May at two locations 20 km from the pilgrimage city of Lourdes in the French Pyrenees. They were well recorded by the permanent Pyrenean seismic networks, by a temporary local network, as well as by accelerometric stations. In order to understand their tectonic contexts, and to come to a better evaluation of the seismic risk at Lourdes, a detailed analysis of these events is performed. The first two events are located south of Lourdes in an area where only a few earthquakes have occurred up to now. Their focal solutions derived from first-motion polarities indicate reverse faulting, with a N110E strike consistent with the geological structures. 10 aftershocks were recorded and relocated with respect to the main events, benefiting from the waveform similarity of the various events. This analysis reveals that the two main events concern probably the same fault, the second rupture being in the prolongation of the first one, whereas the other small aftershocks are located on fault segments in the vicinity of the hypocentre of the second event. The third large event, located to the SE of Lourdes, involves a normal mechanism with a N120E plane parallel to the main geological structures. It occurred in a region of intense activity, including in particular an event of maximum macroseismic intensity IX in 1660. The first two events are at the boundary of a large quiet zone. In order to understand the related structural context, a new crustal tomographic model has been computed. It reveals that this quiet zone coincides with a block of high P -velocity. In contrast, the seismicity appears to be stronger at the northern and eastern boundaries of this block. The accelerometric data of the three main events recorded at Lourdes have been used to estimate the maximum peak ground accelerations in this city if a large event occurred, similar to those which damaged the city in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Horizontal accelerations of 0.25 0.07 g are predicted in the frequency domain 1,5 Hz at the location of the Sanctuary for a magnitude 6 event occurring 10 km away from the city. Taking into account the error bars, these values could in some cases exceed those specified by the building codes in this region. [source]

New advances in regularized inversion of gravity and electromagnetic data

Michael S. Zhdanov
ABSTRACT The interpretation of potential and electromagnetic fields observed over 3D geological structures remains one of the most challenging problems of exploration geophysics. In this paper I present an overview of novel methods of inversion and imaging of gravity and electromagnetic data, which are based on new advances in the regularization theory related to the application of special stabilizing functionals, which allow the reconstruction of both smooth images of the underground geological structures and models with sharp geological boundaries. I demonstrate that sharp-boundary geophysical inversion can improve the efficiency and resolution of the inverse problem solution. The methods are illustrated with synthetic and practical examples of the 3D inversion of potential and electromagnetic field data. [source]

Euler deconvolution of the analytic signal and its application to magnetic interpretation

P. Keating
ABSTRACT Euler deconvolution and the analytic signal are both used for semi-automatic interpretation of magnetic data. They are used mostly to delineate contacts and obtain rapid source depth estimates. For Euler deconvolution, the quality of the depth estimation depends mainly on the choice of the proper structural index, which is a function of the geometry of the causative bodies. Euler deconvolution applies only to functions that are homogeneous. This is the case for the magnetic field due to contacts, thin dikes and poles. Fortunately, many complex geological structures can be approximated by these simple geometries. In practice, the Euler equation is also solved for a background regional field. For the analytic signal, the model used is generally a contact, although other models, such as a thin dike, can be considered. It can be shown that if a function is homogeneous, its analytic signal is also homogeneous. Deconvolution of the analytic signal is then equivalent to Euler deconvolution of the magnetic field with a background field. However, computation of the analytic signal effectively removes the background field from the data. Consequently, it is possible to solve for both the source location and structural index. Once these parameters are determined, the local dip and the susceptibility contrast can be determined from relationships between the analytic signal and the orthogonal gradients of the magnetic field. The major advantage of this technique is that it allows the automatic identification of the type of source. Implementation of this approach is demonstrated for recent high-resolution survey data from an Archean granite-greenstone terrane in northern Ontario, Canada. [source]

Accelerating the convergence of coupled geomechanical-reservoir simulations

L. Jeannin
Abstract The pressure variations during the production of petroleum reservoir induce stress changes in and around the reservoir. Such changes of the stress state can induce marked deformation of geological structures for stress sensitive reservoirs as chalk or unconsolidated sand reservoirs. The compaction of those reservoirs during depletion affects the pressure field and so the reservoir productivity. Therefore, the evaluation of the geomechanical effects requires to solve in a coupling way the geomechanical problem and the reservoir multiphase fluid flow problem. In this paper, we formulate the coupled geomechanical-reservoir problem as a non-linear fixed point problem and improve the resolution of the coupling problem by comparing in terms of robustness and convergence different algorithms. We study two accelerated algorithms which are much more robust and faster than the conventional staggered algorithm and we conclude that they should be used for the iterative resolution of coupled reservoir-geomechanical problem. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Age and early metamorphic history of the Sanbagawa belt: Lu,Hf and P,T constraints from the Western Iratsu eclogite

Abstract Two distinct age estimates for eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Sanbagawa belt have been proposed: (i) c. 120,110 Ma based on a zircon SHRIMP age for the Western Iratsu unit and (ii) c. 88,89 Ma based on a garnet,omphacite Lu,Hf isochron age from the Seba and Kotsu eclogite units. Despite the contrasting estimates of formation ages, petrological studies suggest the formation conditions of the Western Iratsu unit are indistinguishable from those of the other two units,all ,20 kbar and 600,650 C. Studies of the associated geological structures suggest the Seba and Western Iratsu units are parts of a larger semi-continuous eclogite unit. A combination of geochronological and petrological studies for the Western Iratsu eclogite offers a resolution to this discrepancy in age estimates. New Lu,Hf dating for the Western Iratsu eclogite yields an age of 115.9 0.5 Ma that is compatible with the zircon SHRIMP age. However, petrological studies show that there was significant garnet growth in the Western Iratsu eclogite before eclogite facies metamorphism, and the early core growth is associated with a strong concentration of Lu. Pre-eclogite facies garnet (Grt1) includes epidote,amphibolite facies parageneses equilibrated at 550,650 C and ,10 kbar, and this is overgrown by prograde eclogite facies garnet (Grt2). The Lu,Hf age of c. 116 Ma is strongly skewed to the isotopic composition of Grt1 and is interpreted to reflect the age of the pre-eclogite phase. The considerable time gap (c. 27 Myr) between the two Lu,Hf ages suggests they may be related to separate tectonic events or distinct phases in the evolution of the Sanbagawa subduction zone. [source]

Cognitive factors affecting student understanding of geologic time

Jeff Dodick
A critical element of the earth sciences is reconstructing geological structures and systems that have developed over time. A survey of the science education literature shows that there has been little attention given to this concept. In this study, we present a model, based on Montagnero's (1996) model of diachronic thinking, which describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. For geology, three schemes of diachronic thinking are relevant: 1. Transformation, which is a principle of change; in geology it is understood through actualistic thinking (the idea that present proceeses can be used to model the past). 2. Temporal organization, which defines the sequential order of a transformation; in geology it is based on the three-dimensional relationship among strata. 3. Interstage linkage, which is the connections between successive stages of a transformation; in geology it is based on both actualism and causal reasoning. Three specialized instruments were designed to determine the factors which influence reconstructive thinking: (a) the GeoTAT which tests diachronic thinking skills, (b) the TST which tests the relationship between spatial thinking and temporal thinking, and (c) the SFT which tests the influence of dimensional factors on temporal awareness. Based on the model constructed in this study we define the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (a) the transformation scheme which influences the other diachronic schemes, (b) knowledge of geological processes, and (c) extracognitive factors. Among the students tested, there was a significant difference between Grade 9,12 students and Grade 7,8 students in their ability to reconstruct geological phenomena using diachronic thinking. This suggests that somewhere between Grades 7 and 8 it is possible to start teaching some of the logical principles used in geology to reconstruct geological structures. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 40: 415,442, 2003 [source]

Comparative assessment of the water balance and hydrology of selected Ethiopian and Kenyan Rift Lakes

Tenalem Ayenew
Abstract The study area is part of the East African Rift system, characterized by a cluster of lakes occupying an extremely faulted rift floor with geothermal manifestations. Some of the lakes illustrated contrasting water levels and size evolution over the last few decennia, believed to have been caused by various natural and anthropogenic factors. The relative importance of these factors, however, is unknown. This study attempts to present the hydrology of the lakes in a broader context, by giving more emphasis to lake water level fluctuations and to the water balance. These factors have far-reaching implications in regard to future management of the lake basin water. It also provides information on the relation of the groundwater with the lakes, and with the local and regional groundwater flow system from the adjacent highlands to the floor of the Rift. The methods utilized in this study include conventional hydrogeological field surveys, and hydrometeorological and data analyses, coupled with digital image processing and spatial analysis under a Geographic Information System environment. Ancillary supporting information has been obtained from environmental isotopes and hydrochemical data. The study results indicate the terminal Ethiopian lakes changed in size and water level significantly over the last half century. In contrast, the Kenyan lakes only exhibited slight changes. The lakes in both countries exhibit a striking similarity in their subsurface hydraulic connection, and are strongly governed by complex rift geological structures. Groundwater plays a vital role in the water balance of the study lakes. The study results indicate that future sustainable use of the study lakes demands that serious attention be given to the role of the groundwater component of the lake water balances. [source]

3D seismic technology: the geological ,Hubble'

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2005
Joe Cartwright
The proliferation of three-dimensional (3D) seismic technology is one of the most exciting developments in the Earth Sciences over the past century. 3D reflection seismic data provide interpreters with the ability to map structures and stratigraphic features in 3D detail to a resolution of a few tens of metres over thousands of square kilometres. It is a geological ,Hubble', whose resolving power has already yielded some fascinating (and surprising) insights and will continue to provide a major stimulus for research into geological processes and products for many decades to come. Academic and other research institutions have a major role to play in the use of this data by exploiting the enormous volume of geological information contained in 3D seismic surveys. This paper reviews some of the recent advances in basin analysis made using the medium of 3D seismic data, focusing on the fields of structural and sedimentary geology, fluid,rock interactions and igneous geology. It is noted that the increased resolution of the 3D seismic method provided the essential catalyst necessary to stimulate novel observations and discover new geological structures such as mud diapir feeders, km-long gas blow-out pipes, giant pockmarks and sandstone intrusions, and to capture the spatial variability of diagenetic fronts. The UKs first impact crater was also discovered using 3D seismic data. The potential for future developments in this field of geophysical interpretation is considerable, and we anticipate that new discoveries will be made in many years to come. [source]

Multiscale structure in sedimentary basins

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2004
S. A. Stewart
Hierarchies of superimposed structures are found in maps of geological horizons in sedimentary basins. Mapping based on three-dimensional (3D) seismic data includes structures that range in scale from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Extraction of structures from these maps without a priori knowledge of scale and shape is analogous to pattern recognition problems that have been widely researched in disciplines outside of Geoscience. A number of these lessons are integrated and applied within a geological context here. We describe a method for generating multiscale representations from two-dimensional sections and 3D surfaces, and illustrate how superimposed geological structures can be topologically analysed. Multiscale analysis is done in two stages , generation of scale-space as a geometrical attribute, followed by identification of significant scale-space objects. Results indicate that Gaussian filtering is a more robust method than conventional moving average filtering for deriving multiscale geological structure. We introduce the concept of natural scales for identifying the most significant scales in a geological cross section. In three dimensions, scale-dependent structures are identified via an analogous process as discrete topological entities within a four-dimensional scale-space cube. Motivation for this work is to take advantage of the completeness of seismic data coverage to see ,beyond the outcrop' and yield multiscale geological structure. Applications include identifying artefacts, scale-specific features and large-scale structural domains, facilitating multiscale structural attribute mapping for reservoir characterisation, and a novel approach to fold structure classification. [source]