Geographical Structure (geographical + structure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 6 2009
Mirvat El-Sibai
SUMMARY We have examined the male-specific phylogeography of the Levant and its surroundings by analyzing Y-chromosomal haplogroup distributions using 5874 samples (885 new) from 23 countries. The diversity within some of these haplogroups was also examined. The Levantine populations showed clustering in SNP and STR analyses when considered against a broad Middle-East and North African background. However, we also found a coastal-inland, east-west pattern of diversity and frequency distribution in several haplogroups within the small region of the Levant. Since estimates of effective population size are similar in the two regions, this strong pattern is likely to have arisen mainly from differential migrations, with different lineages introduced from the east and west. [source]


Cirsium species show disparity in patterns of genetic variation at their range-edge, despite similar patterns of reproduction and isolation

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 2 2003
Alistair S. Jump
Summary ,,Genetic variation was assessed across the UK geographical range of Cirsium acaule and Cirsium heterophyllum. A decline in genetic diversity and increase in population divergence approaching the range edge of these species was predicted based on parallel declines in population density and seed production reported seperately. Patterns were compared with UK populations of the widespread Cirsium arvense. ,,Populations were sampled along a latitudinal transect in the UK and genetic variation assessed using microsatellite markers. ,,Cirsium acaule shows strong isolation by distance, a significant decline in diversity and an increase in divergence among range-edge populations. Geographical structure is also evident in C. arvense, whereas no such patterns are seen in C. heterophyllum. ,,There is a major disparity between patterns of genetic variation in C. acaule and C. heterophyllum despite very similar patterns in seed production and population isolation in these species. This suggests it may be misleading to make assumptions about the geographical structure of genetic variation within species based solely on the present-day reproduction and distribution of populations. [source]


Hierarchical comparative analysis of genetic and genitalic geographical structure: testing patterns of male and female genital evolution in the scarab beetle Phyllophaga hirticula (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 1 2009
MAXI POLIHRONAKIS
It is generally accepted that genitalia are among the fastest evolving characters in insects and that selection on these structures may increase speciation rates in groups with polygamous mating systems. If selection is causing genitalic divergence between or among populations of a species, one prediction is that geographical structure of genitalic morphology would be in place before genetic structure of a rapidly evolving neutral marker. The current study tests this hypothesis in the geographically widespread scarab beetle Phyllophaga hirticula by evaluating whether standing variation in male and female genitalia is more or less geographically structured than a mitochondrial genetic marker. Geographical structure of mitochondrial (mt)DNA and male and female genitalic shape were analysed using analysis of variance, multivariate analysis of variance, Mantel tests, and tests of spatial autocorrelation. The results show that, although female genitalia are more geographically structured than mtDNA, male genitalia are not. This pattern suggests that selection on female genitalic variation may be causing divergence of these structures among populations. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 96, 135,149. [source]


Limited phylogeographic structure in the flightless ground beetle, Calathus ruficollis, in southern California

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 5 2007
Stylianos Chatzimanolis
ABSTRACT The California Floristic Province is home to more than 8000 species of beetles, yet their geographical patterns of supra- and infraspecific diversity remain largely unexplored. In this paper, we investigate the phylogeography and population demographics of a flightless ground beetle, Calathus ruficollis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in southern California. We sampled 136 specimens from 25 localities divided into 10 populations using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. We tested several hypotheses, including the association of geography with particular clades and populations, the degree of differentiation among regions, and the expansion of populations. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses along with nested clade analysis and amova indicate a deep split between the southern Sierra Nevada population and populations south and west. This split corresponds closely to the split between subspecies C. ruficollis ignicollis (southern Sierra Nevada) and C. ruficollis ruficollis. Populations otherwise exhibit limited geographical structure, though Fst values indicate some local differentiation. Mismatch distributions and Fu's Fs indicate range expansion of several populations, suggesting that some structure may have been obscured by recent exchange. The population of C. ruficollis on Santa Cruz Island, which might have been expected to be isolated, shares several haplotypes with mainland populations, appearing to represent multiple colonizations. [source]


Temporal and spatial responses of British Columbia steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations to ocean climate shifts

FISHERIES OCEANOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2000
Welch
The pattern of temporal change in recruitment of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) entering the ocean between 1963 and 1990 was geographically coherent in all regions of British Columbia. A major increase in recruitment was evident for smolts entering the ocean after 1977. Subsequently, an out-of-phase response occurred after 1990, indicating that the effect of a possible 1990 regime shift had both temporal and geographical structure. Steelhead entering northern regions had increasing recruitment, while steelhead entering southern BC coastal regions had sharply decreasing recruitment. The evidence clearly indicates that the overall recruitment response since 1977 was primarily shaped by changes in marine (not freshwater) survival. Similar sudden changes in adult recruitment also appear to be occurring for other species of Pacific salmon in BC and Oregon, such as coho (O. kisutch), which appear to occur suddenly and show considerable persistence. A possible explanation for the change is that ocean productivity declined in coastal regions of southern BC after 1990, reducing the marine growth of juvenile salmon. The Bakun upwelling index shows a pattern of geographical coherence along the west coast of North America that could in principle explain the observed pattern of changes in recruitment. However, no evidence for a temporal shift in this index occurring around 1977 and 1990 is apparent. The reason for the sudden and persistent decline in ocean survival is therefore uncertain. [source]


Eastern Beringian biogeography: historical and spatial genetic structure of singing voles in Alaska

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2010
Marcelo Weksler
Abstract Aim Pleistocene climatic cycles have left marked signatures in the spatial and historical genetic structure of high-latitude organisms. We examine the mitochondrial (cytochrome b) genetic structure of the singing vole, Microtus miurus (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Arvicolinae), a member of the Pleistocene Beringian fauna, and of the insular vole, Microtus abbreviatus, its putative sister species found only on the St Matthew Archipelago. We reconstruct the phylogenetic and phylogeographical structure of these taxa, characterize their geographical partitioning and date coalescent and cladogenetic events in these species. Finally, we compare the recovered results with the phylogenetic, coalescent and spatial genetic patterns of other eastern Beringian mammals and high-latitude arvicoline rodents. Location Continental Alaska (alpine and arctic tundra) and the St Matthew Archipelago (Bering Sea). Methods We generated and analysed cytochrome b sequences of 97 singing and insular voles (M. miurus and M. abbreviatus) from Alaska. Deep evolutionary structure was inferred by phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches; the geographical structure of genetic diversity was assessed using analysis of molecular variance and network analysis; ages of cladogenetic and coalescent events were estimated using a relaxed molecular clock model with Bayesian approximation. Results Regional nucleotide diversity in singing voles is higher than in other high-latitude arvicoline species, but intra-population diversity is within the observed range of values for arvicolines. Microtus abbreviatus specimens are phylogenetically nested within M. miurus. Molecular divergence date estimates indicate that current genetic diversity was formed in the last glacial (Wisconsinan) and previous interglacial (Sangamonian) periods, with the exception of a Middle Pleistocene split found between samples collected in the Wrangell Mountains region and all other singing vole samples. Main conclusions High levels of phylogenetic and spatial structure are observed among analysed populations. This pattern is consistent with that expected for a taxon with a long history in Beringia. The spatial genetic structure of continental singing voles differs in its northern and southern ranges, possibly reflecting differences in habitat distribution between arctic and alpine tundra. Our phylogenetic results support the taxonomic inclusion of M. miurus in its senior synonym, M. abbreviatus. [source]


Contrasting patterns of nuclear microsatellite genetic structure of Fraxinus mandshurica var. japonica between northern and southern populations in Japan

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2010
Li-Jiang Hu
Abstract Aim, The aim of this study is to detect extant patterns of population genetic structure of Fraxinus mandshurica var. japonica in Japan, and to provide insights into the post-glacial history of this species during the Holocene. Location, Hokkaido and Honshu islands, Japan (including the Oshima and Shimokita peninsulas). Methods, We examined nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci to assess genetic variation within and among 15 populations across almost the entire range of the species in Japan. Extant patterns of geographical structure were analysed using Bayesian clustering, Monmonier's algorithm, analysis of molecular variance, Mantel tests and principal coordinates analysis. Recent bottlenecks within populations and regional genetic variation were also assessed. Results, Northern populations (Hokkaido Island and the Shimokita Peninsula) formed a single homogeneous deme, maintaining the highest level of allelic diversity on the Oshima Peninsula. By contrast, southern populations (Honshu Island) demonstrated strong substructure on both coasts. Specifically, populations on the Pacific side of Honshu exhibited significant bottlenecks and erosion of allelic diversity but preserved distinct subclusters diverging from widespread subclusters on the Japan Sea side of this island. Main conclusions, Genetic evidence and life history traits suggest that F. mandshurica occupied cryptic northern refugia on the Oshima Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum, which is reflected in the species' extant northern distribution. Strong geographical structure in southern populations, in agreement with fossil pollen records, suggests geographical isolation by mountain ranges running north,south along Honshu. Given that this tree species is cold-adapted and found in riparian habitats, populations on the Pacific side of Honshu probably contracted into higher-elevation swamps during warm post-glacial periods, leading to a reduction of effective population sizes and rare allelic richness. [source]


Genetic structure of Hypochaeris uniflora (Asteraceae) suggests vicariance in the Carpathians and rapid post-glacial colonization of the Alps from an eastern Alpine refugium

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 12 2007
Patrik Mráz
Abstract Aim, The range of the subalpine species Hypochaeris uniflora covers the Alps, Carpathians and Sudetes Mountains. Whilst the genetic structure and post-glacial history of many high-mountain plant taxa of the Alps is relatively well documented, the Carpathian populations have often been neglected in phylogeographical studies. The aim of the present study is to compare the genetic variation of the species in two major European mountain systems , the Alps and the Carpathians. Location, Alps and Carpathians. Methods, The genetic variation of 77 populations, each consisting of three plants, was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Results, Neighbour joining and principal coordinate analyses revealed three well-supported phylogeographical groups of populations corresponding to three disjunct geographical regions , the Alps and the western and south-eastern Carpathians. Moreover, two further clusters could be distinguished within the latter mountain range, one consisting of populations from the eastern Carpathians and the second consisting of populations from the southern Carpathians. Populations from the Apuseni Mountains had an intermediate position between the eastern and southern Carpathians. The genetic clustering of populations into four groups was also supported by an analysis of molecular variance, which showed that most genetic variation (almost 46%) was found among these four groups. By far the highest within-population variation was found in the eastern Carpathians, followed by populations from the southern and western Carpathians. Generally, the populations from the Alps were considerably less variable and displayed substantially fewer region-diagnostic markers than those from the south-eastern Carpathians. Although no clear geographical structure was found within the Alps, based on neighbour joining or principal coordinate analyses, some trends were obvious: populations from the easternmost part were genetically more variable and, together with those from the south-western part, exhibited a higher proportion of rare AFLP fragments than populations in other areas. Moreover, the total number of AFLP fragments per population, the percentage of polymorphic loci and the proportion of rare AFLP fragments significantly decreased from east to west. Main conclusions, Deep infraspecific phylogeographical gaps between the populations from the Alps and the western and south-eastern Carpathians suggest the survival of H. uniflora in three separate refugia during the last glaciation. Our AFLP data provide molecular evidence for a long-term geographical disjunction between the eastern and western Carpathians, previously suggested from the floristic composition at the end of 19th century. It is likely that Alpine populations survived the Last Glacial in the eastern part of the Alps, from where they rapidly colonized the rest of the Alps after the ice sheet retreated. Multiple founder effects may explain a gradual loss of genetic variation during westward colonization of the Alps. [source]


Current and historical factors influencing patterns of species richness and turnover of birds in the Gulf of Guinea highlands

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2005
Catherine H. Graham
Abstract Aim, The aims of this paper are to: examine how current and historical ecological factors affect patterns of species richness, endemism and turnover in the Gulf of Guinea highlands, test theoretical biogeographical predictions and provide information for making informed conservation decisions. Location, The Gulf of Guinea highlands in West Africa. Methods, We used multivariate and matrix regression models, and cluster analyses to assess the influence of current climate and current and historical isolation on patterns of richness and turnover for montane birds across the highlands. We examined three groups of birds: montane species (including widespread species), montane endemics and endemic subspecies. We applied a complementarity-based reserve selection algorithm using species richness with irreplaceability measures to identify areas of high conservation concern. Results, Environmental factors influenced richness for all groups of birds (species, endemic species and subspecies). Areas with high and consistent annual rainfall showed the highest species and endemic richness. Species clusters for all groups of birds generally differentiated three major montane regions, which are topographically isolated. Multiple mantel tests identified these same regions for endemic species and subspecies. The influence of historical isolation varied by species group; distributions of endemic montane species and subspecies were more associated with historical breaks than were all montane species, which included widespread non-endemic species. Main conclusions, Our analyses indicated important geographical structure amongst the bird assemblages in the highlands and, therefore, conservation prioritization should include mountains from within the geographical subregions identified in these analyses because these regions may harbour evolutionarily distinct populations of birds. [source]


Genetic structure of the European polecat (Mustela putorius) and its implication for conservation strategies

JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
C. Pertoldi
Abstract During the last century, the European polecat Mustela putorius populations in most of Europe declined and survived in fragmented patches, because of habitat alterations and direct persecution. To assess the genetic consequences of the demographic decline and to describe the spatial pattern of genetic diversity, 250 polecats sampled at seven localities from five European countries , Poland, Denmark (southern Denmark and northern Denmark), Spain, Belgium (eastern and western) and the Netherlands , were screened by means of nine microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity estimated by mean expected heterozygosity (HE) and allelic richness (AR) were moderately high within populations [range: 0.50 (northern Denmark) ,HE,0.64 (Poland) and 1.33,AR,7.80] as compared with other carnivores and mustelids. Bottleneck tests suggested that polecat populations in southern Denmark and Poland have declined recently and populations from northern Denmark and the Netherlands have expanded recently, whereas the remaining populations did not show any sign of demographic change. Recent demographic changes could suggest that some of the populations are still not in equilibrium, which could partly explain the relatively high genetic variability observed in polecat populations despite the drastic decline in population size observed in several European countries. A significant heterozygote deficiency [FIS=0.19; 0.01,95% confidence interval (CI),0.32] suggests substructuring within the total European sample. Partitioning of the genetic variation among sampling locations (FST=0.14; 0.06,95% CI,0.23) and pairwise FST between localities (range: 0.01,FST,0.37) without any correlation with the geographic distances between localities were found, suggesting a recent divergence and a restriction of gene flow between populations and the action of genetic drift. An assignment test showed that the Polish and the northern Danish populations were the most unique, whereas the other populations were partially admixed. Factorial component analysis tests indicate a subdivision of the total sample into two distinct groups: one including the samples from Poland and the two Danish localities and the second group comprising the remaining localities investigated. The observed pattern of genetic differentiation is suggested to be due to two main routes of recolonization after the last glacial period. To compare the results obtained with microsatellite data, the most variable region of the mitochondrial DNA (d-loop) was sequenced and different phylogenetic reconstructions and genetic diversity analyses based on nucleotide (,) and haplotype diversity (h) measures within populations were performed using a subsample of populations. The lack of well-defined geographical structure, as well as the reduced level of mitochondrial DNA variability (,: 0.00274±0.00038; h: 0.876±0.028) that was found, has been previously reported in several studies on different carnivores and supports the hypothesis of post-glacial recolonization from southern or eastern refugees of Europe as suggested by the microsatellite data. Implications for conservation strategies of the polecat at the European level are discussed. [source]


Recent evolution of host-associated divergence in the seabird tick Ixodes uriae

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 21 2009
FLORENT KEMPF
Abstract Ecological interactions are an important source of rapid evolutionary change and thus may generate a significant portion of novel biodiversity. Such changes may be particularly prevalent in parasites, where hosts can induce strong selection for adaptation. To understand the relative frequency at which host-associated divergences occur, it is essential to examine the evolutionary history of the divergence process, particularly when it is occurring over large geographical scales where both geographical and host-associated isolation may playa part. In this study, we use population genetics and phylogeography to study the evolutionary history of host-associated divergence in the seabird tick Ixodes uriae (Acari, Ixodidae). We compare results from microsatellite markers that reflect more ecological timescales with a conserved mitochondrial gene (COIII) that reflects more ancient divergence events. Population structure based on microsatellites showed clear evidence of host-associated divergence in all colonies examined. However, isolated populations of the same host type did not always group together in overall analyses and the genetic differentiation among sympatric host races was highly variable. In contrast, little host or geographical structure was found for the mitochondrial gene fragment. These results suggest that host race formation in I. uriae is a recent phenomenon, that it may have occurred several times and that local interactions are at different points in the divergence process. Rapid divergence in I. uriae implies a strong interaction with its local host species, an interaction that will alter the ecological dynamics of the system and modify the epidemiological landscape of circulating micropathogens. [source]


Lineage diversification in a widespread species: roles for niche divergence and conservatism in the common kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 16 2009
R. ALEXANDER PYRON
Abstract Niche conservatism and niche divergence are both important ecological mechanisms associated with promoting allopatric speciation across geographical barriers. However, the potential for variable responses in widely distributed organisms has not been fully investigated. For allopatric sister lineages, three patterns for the interaction of ecological niche preference and geographical barriers are possible: (i) niche conservatism at a physical barrier; (ii) niche divergence at a physical barrier; and (iii) niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier. We test for the presence of these patterns in a transcontinentally distributed snake species, the common kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula), to determine the relative frequency of niche conservatism or divergence in a single species complex inhabiting multiple distinct ecoregions. We infer the phylogeographic structure of the kingsnake using a range-wide data set sampled for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. We use coalescent simulation methods to test for the presence of structured lineage formation vs. fragmentation of a widespread ancestor. Finally, we use statistical techniques for creating and evaluating ecological niche models to test for conservatism of ecological niche preferences. Significant geographical structure is present in the kingsnake, for which coalescent tests indicate structured population division. Surprisingly, we find evidence for all three patterns of conservatism and divergence. This suggests that ecological niche preferences may be labile on recent phylogenetic timescales, and that lineage formation in widespread species can result from an interaction between inertial tendencies of niche conservatism and natural selection on populations in ecologically divergent habitats. [source]


Spatial pattern of MHC class II variation in the great snipe (Gallinago media)

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
ROBERT EKBLOM
Abstract The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) code for proteins involved in antigen recognition and triggering of the adaptive immune response, and are therefore likely to be under selection from parasites. These selection regimes may vary in space and time. Here we report a strong geographical structure in MHC class II B genes of a migrating bird, the great snipe (Gallinago media). Genetic differentiation in the MHC between two ecologically distinct distributional regions (Scandinavian mountain populations vs. East European lowland populations) was still present after statistically controlling for the effect of selectively neutral variation (microsatellites) using partial Mantel tests. This suggests a role for selection in generating this spatial structure and that it represents local adaptation to different environments. Differentiation between populations within the two regions was negligible. Overall, we found a high number of MHC alleles (50, from 175 individuals). This, together with a tendency for a higher rate of nonsynonymous than synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding sites, and high Tajima's D in certain regions of the gene, suggests a history of balancing selection. MHC variation is often thought to be maintained by some form of balancing selection, but the nature of this selection remains unclear. Our results support the hypothesis that spatial variation in selection regimes contributes to the high polymorphism. [source]


Phylogeography and the geographic cline in the armament of a seed-predatory weevil: effects of historical events vs. natural selection from the host plant

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 13 2006
HIROKAZU TOJU
Abstract Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica) and its seed predator, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), provide a notable example of a geographic mosaic of coevolution. In the species interaction, the offensive trait of the weevil (rostrum length) and the defensive trait of the plant (pericarp thickness) are involved in a geographically-structured arms race, and these traits and selective pressures acting on the plant defence vary greatly across a geographical landscape. To further explore the geographical structure of this interspecific interaction, we tested whether the geographical variation in the weevil rostrum over an 800-km range along latitude is attributed to local natural selection or constrained by historical (phylogeographical) events of local populations. Phylogeographical analyses of the mitochondrial DNA sequences of the camellia weevil revealed that this species has experienced differentiation into two regions, with a population bottleneck and subsequent range and/or population expansion within each region. Although these phylogeographical factors have affected the variation in rostrum length, analyses of competing factors for the geographical variation revealed that this pattern is primarily determined by the defensive trait of the host plant rather than by the effects of historical events of populations and a climatic factor (annual mean temperature). Thus, our study suggests the overwhelming strength of coevolutionary selection against the effect of historical events, which may have limited local adaptation. [source]


Patterns of genetic variation do not correlate with geographical distance in the reef-building coral Pocillopora meandrina in the South Pacific

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2005
H. MAGALON
Abstract Dispersal may be a critical factor in the ability of reef-building corals to recover after major disturbances. We studied patterns of geographical structure using four microsatellite markers in seven South Pacific populations of Pocillopora meandrina, a major coral species from Polynesia. Variation within populations showed evidence of heterozygote deficiency. Genetic differentiation between populations was detected at a large scale (2000 km) between the Tonga and the Society Islands. Within the Society Islands, four of the five studied populations from Bora Bora, Moorea and Tahiti were not significantly different from each other. Unexpectedly, one of the three populations surveyed in Moorea was genetically different from the other two populations of this island (that were 5 and 10 km apart), and from the populations of the other two surveyed islands in this archipelago. We cannot rule out the possibility that this pattern is an equilibrium state, whereby short-range dispersal is locally more differentiating than long-range dispersal, as has been suggested by similar patterns reported in other studies. An alternative explanation that is globally consistent with all observations is that this is the signature of a large-scale destruction event, as for instance a bleaching event, followed by the recent restoration of populations by new colonists. [source]


Geological barriers and restricted gene flow in the holarctic skipper Hesperia comma (Hesperiidae)

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 11 2004
M. L. FORISTER
Abstract Patterns of genetic variation within a species may be a consequence of historical factors, such as past fragmentation, as well as current barriers to gene flow. Using sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II region (COII) and the nuclear gene wingless, we conducted a phylogeographical study of the holarctic skipper Hesperia comma to elucidate patterns of genetic diversity and to infer historical and contemporary processes maintaining genetic variation. One hundred and fifty-one individuals were sampled from throughout North America and Eurasia, focusing on California and adjacent regions in the western United States where morphological diversity is highest compared to the rest of the range. Analyses of sequence data obtained from both genes revealed a well-supported division between the Old and New World. Within western North America, wingless shows little geographical structure, while a hierarchical analysis of genetic diversity of COII sequences indicates three major clades: a western clade in Oregon and Northern California, an eastern clade including the Great Basin, Rocky Mountains and British Columbia, and a third clade in southern California. The Sierra Nevada and the Transverse Ranges appear to be the major barriers to gene flow for H. comma in the western United States. Relatively reduced haplotype diversity in Eurasia compared to North America suggests that populations on the two continents have been affected by different historical processes. [source]


Contrasting patterns of mitochondrial and microsatellite population structure in fragmented populations of greater prairie-chickens

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
Jeff A. Johnson
Abstract Greater prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) were once found throughout the tallgrass prairie of midwestern North America but over the last century these prairies have been lost or fragmented by human land use. As a consequence, many current populations of prairie-chickens have become isolated and small. This fragmentation of populations is expected to lead to reductions in genetic variation as a result of random genetic drift and a decrease in gene flow. As expected, we found that genetic variation at both microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers was reduced in smaller populations, particularly in Wisconsin. There was relatively little range-wide geographical structure (FST) when we examined mtDNA haplotypes but there was a significant positive relationship between genetic (FST) and geographical distance (isolation by distance). In contrast, microsatellite DNA loci revealed significant geographical structure (FST) and a weak effect of isolation by distance throughout the range. These patterns were much stronger when populations with reduced levels of genetic variability (Wisconsin) were removed from the analyses. This suggests that the effects of genetic drift were stronger than gene flow at microsatellite loci, whereas these forces were in range-wide equilibrium at mtDNA markers. These differences between the two molecular markers may be explained by a larger effective population size (Ne) for mtDNA, which is expected in species such as prairie-chickens that have female-biased dispersal and high levels of polygyny. Our results suggest that historic populations of prairie-chickens were once interconnected by gene flow but current populations are now isolated. Thus, maintaining gene flow may be important for the long-term persistence of prairie-chicken populations. [source]


Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in the Western Palearctic region

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
J. R. Michaux
Abstract We sequenced 965 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b from 102 woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected from 40 European localities. The aims of the study were to answer the following questions. (i) Did the Mediterranean peninsulas play a role as refuge for woodmice? (ii) Is genetic variability of A. sylvaticus higher in the Mediterranean region compared with northern Europe? (iii) Are the patterns of the postglacial colonization of Europe by woodmice similar to those presently recognized for other European species? The results provide a clear picture of the impact of the Quaternary glaciations on the genetic and geographical structure of the woodmouse. Our analyses indicate a higher genetic variability of woodmice in the Mediterranean peninsulas compared to northern Europe, suggesting a role of the former as refuge regions for this small mammal. An original pattern of postglacial colonization is proposed where the Iberian and southern France refuge populations colonized almost all European regions. The Sicilian population appears to be very differentiated and highly variable. This emphasizes the importance of this island as a ,hot spot' for the intraspecific genetic diversity of the woodmouse. Finally, woodmice in North Africa originated from southwestern Europe, most probably as a result of a recent anthropogenic introduction. [source]


Genetic variation and structure in six Rhododendron species (Ericaceae) with contrasting local distribution patterns in Hong Kong, China

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2000
Sai-Chit Ng
Abstract Genetic variability of six rhododendrons with contrasting local distribution patterns in Hong Kong was assessed by starch gel electrophoresis. Rhododendron championiae, R. hongkongense and R. simiarum are locally rare with disjunct distributions, R. moulmainense is restricted and R. farrerae and R. simsii are common. For each species, 13,18 allozyme loci representing 12,16 enzyme systems were scored. The six species showed similar levels of genetic variations (HT ranged from 0.209 to 0.386 and AT ranged from 2.4 to 4.1) which are high compared to plants with similar life history traits. Genetic structure, in contrast, varied greatly between species, with FST ranging from 0.056 to 0.393. The three rarest species had high genetic differentiation (FST and FPT) and distinct geographical patterns, while the other three had low differentiation and little or no geographical structure. These differences are attributed to both present distributions and historical changes following deforestation within the last 1000 years. The conservation implications of these results are discussed. [source]


Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Bemisia tabaci

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES, Issue 1 2003
P. J. De Barro
Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a haplo-diploid species with a global distribution demonstrating strong geographical structure with eight recognizable genetic groups. Fifteen microsatellite loci (335 alleles, 6,44 alleles per locus) were derived from four of the eight groups and were then screened across 33 populations. These loci clearly differentiate the populations. The microsatellites amplified best in individuals from genetic groups rep-resenting the Mediterranean, Middle East, Asia (three groups) and Australasia/Oceania and amplified less well with populations from sub-Saharan Africa and the New World. This differential amplification pattern is a direct result of the relatedness to the microsatellite source material. [source]


Cirsium species show disparity in patterns of genetic variation at their range-edge, despite similar patterns of reproduction and isolation

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 2 2003
Alistair S. Jump
Summary ,,Genetic variation was assessed across the UK geographical range of Cirsium acaule and Cirsium heterophyllum. A decline in genetic diversity and increase in population divergence approaching the range edge of these species was predicted based on parallel declines in population density and seed production reported seperately. Patterns were compared with UK populations of the widespread Cirsium arvense. ,,Populations were sampled along a latitudinal transect in the UK and genetic variation assessed using microsatellite markers. ,,Cirsium acaule shows strong isolation by distance, a significant decline in diversity and an increase in divergence among range-edge populations. Geographical structure is also evident in C. arvense, whereas no such patterns are seen in C. heterophyllum. ,,There is a major disparity between patterns of genetic variation in C. acaule and C. heterophyllum despite very similar patterns in seed production and population isolation in these species. This suggests it may be misleading to make assumptions about the geographical structure of genetic variation within species based solely on the present-day reproduction and distribution of populations. [source]


Assessment of cattle genetic introgression into domestic yak populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2010
X. B. Qi
Summary Hybridization between yak Poephagus grunniens and taurine Bos taurus or indicine B. indicus cattle has been widely practiced throughout the yak geographical range, and gene flow is expected to have occurred between these species. To assess the impact of cattle admixture on domestic yak, we examined 1076 domestic yak from 29 populations collected in China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Russia using mitochondrial DNA and 17 autosomal microsatellite loci. A cattle diagnostic marker-based analysis reveals cattle-specific mtDNA and/or autosomal microsatellite allele introgression in 127 yak individuals from 22 populations. The mean level of cattle admixture across the populations, calculated using allelic information at 17 autosomal microsatellite loci, remains relatively low (mYcattle = 2.66 ± 0.53% and Qcattle = 0.69 ± 2.58%), although it varies a lot across populations as well as among individuals within population. Although the level of cattle admixture shows a clear geographical structure, with higher levels of admixture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Mongolian and Russian regions, and lower levels in the Himalayan and Pamir Plateau region, our results indicate that the level of cattle admixture is not significantly correlated with the altitude across geographical regions as well as within geographical region. Although yak-cattle hybridization is primarily driven to produce F1 hybrids, our results show that the subsequent gene flow between yak and cattle took place and has affected contemporary genetic make-up of domestic yak. To protect yak genetic integrity, hybridization between yak and cattle should be tightly controlled. [source]


Hierarchical comparative analysis of genetic and genitalic geographical structure: testing patterns of male and female genital evolution in the scarab beetle Phyllophaga hirticula (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 1 2009
MAXI POLIHRONAKIS
It is generally accepted that genitalia are among the fastest evolving characters in insects and that selection on these structures may increase speciation rates in groups with polygamous mating systems. If selection is causing genitalic divergence between or among populations of a species, one prediction is that geographical structure of genitalic morphology would be in place before genetic structure of a rapidly evolving neutral marker. The current study tests this hypothesis in the geographically widespread scarab beetle Phyllophaga hirticula by evaluating whether standing variation in male and female genitalia is more or less geographically structured than a mitochondrial genetic marker. Geographical structure of mitochondrial (mt)DNA and male and female genitalic shape were analysed using analysis of variance, multivariate analysis of variance, Mantel tests, and tests of spatial autocorrelation. The results show that, although female genitalia are more geographically structured than mtDNA, male genitalia are not. This pattern suggests that selection on female genitalic variation may be causing divergence of these structures among populations. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 96, 135,149. [source]


Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 3 2003
CHRISTOPHER P. MEYER
This study produces a nearly comprehensive phylogeny for the marine gastropod group Cypraeidae (cowries) and uses this topology to examine diversification patterns in the tropics. The dataset is based on molecular sequence data from two mitochondrial genes and includes 210 evolutionary significant units (ESUs) from 170 recognized species (>80%). Systematics for the group is revised based on well-supported clades, and tree topology is generally consistent with previously proposed classification schemes. Three new genera are introduced (Cryptocypraea gen. nov, Palmulacypraea gen. nov, and Contradusta gen. nov) and two previous genera are resurrected (Perisserosa and Eclogavena). One new tribe is proposed (Bistolidini). Topologies produced by a range of transition:transversion (Ti:Tv) weighting schemes in parsimony are pooled and evaluated using maximum likelihood criteria. Extensive geographical coverage shows persistent, large-scale geographical structure in sister-groups. Genetic divergence between subspecies is often equivalent or even greater than that between recognized species. Using ESUs as a metric, diversity throughout the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) increases by 38%. Intra- and inter-regional diversification patterns show that the IWP is the centre for speciation in cowries. The other major tropical regions of the world are inhabited by a predominantly relictual fauna; from a cowrie's eye-view. Good dispersal ability begets larger ranges, increased extinction resistance and morphological stasis; whereas shorter larval duration results in smaller ranges, higher speciation rates, but also higher turnover. Larval duration and dispersal ability appear correlated with ocean productivity as taxa with longer-lived larvae are associated with oligotrophic conditions; whereas taxa with shorter larval durations are associated with eutrophic, continental conditions. This tendency is carried to the extreme in temperate or upwelling regions where a planktonic phase is completely lost and crawl-away larvae evolve multiple times. A strong phylogenetic trend supports these observations as lineages leading up to and including the derived Indo-West Pacific Erroneinae clade contain taxa predominantly restricted to continental habitats and have undergone the greatest evolutionary radiations in their respective regions. © 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 79, 401, 459. [source]