Geographical Space (geographical + space)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE AND EFFECTIVE DEMAND UNDER STAGNATION

AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC PAPERS, Issue 4 2006
WATARU JOHDO
This paper investigates the adjustment mechanism between geographical space and effective demand under stagnation by constructing a spatial model with stagnation included. The model takes the idea of stagnation in Ono (2001) and combines it with the spatial model of Perera-Tallo (2003). The spatial model features local monopolists that import intermediate goods from other monopolists at a cost that can be decreased through investment. Using the integrated model, we reach the following conclusion: the wider the geographical space, the lower the effective demand under stagnation. This mechanism is explained as follows. Under stagnation, where demand has reached an upper bound, a decrease in the marginal cost of reaching distant intermediate suppliers reduces employment. The reason is ,love of variety' in production: for given final output, more variety of available intermediate inputs crowds out per-variety demand of intermediates and thus employment. Decreases in employment then lead to a decrease in the rate of time preference through a rise in the deflation rate, and thereby decrease the desire for consumption, consequently cutting effective demand. [source]


THE GEOGRAPHICAL DIMENSIONS OF AL-QA'IDA RHETORIC

GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
JOSEPH J. HOBBS
ABSTRACT. This article examines the geographical ideology of al-Qa'ida. The central questions are to what extent al-Qa'ida terrorism is motivated by a desire to control geographical space, and how the organization defines that space as place in its communiqués. The study also asks whether al-Qa'ida's geographical rhetoric reveals the nature or locations of future attacks. Principal sources are statements and interviews by and with al-Qa'ida leaders. al-Qa'ida classifies distinctive geographical realms of legitimization, preparation, and action. Its geographical concerns and ambitions are hierarchical and based principally on perceptions of sacred space. The holy places of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem are the cornerstones of a greater Islamic holy land that al-Qa'ida seeks to rid of non-Islamic-especially U.S. and "Zionist"-elements and replace with a new caliphate. Terrorism directed principally against American civilians in the United States is one of the main tactics by which al-Qa'ida says it hopes to achieve its goals in geographical space. [source]


Partitioning phylogenetic and adaptive components of the geographical body-size pattern of New World birds

GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Lizabeth Ramirez
ABSTRACT Aim To evaluate seasonal body-size patterns for New World birds in geographical space, to develop environmental models to explain the gradients, and to estimate phylogenetic and adaptive contributions. Location The Western Hemisphere. Methods We used range maps to generate gridded geometric mean body masses. Summer and winter patterns were distinguished based on breeding and non-breeding ranges. We first generated the geographical gradients, followed by phylogenetic eigenvector regression to generate body sizes predicted by the birds' positions in a phylogenetic tree, which were used to generate the expected phylogenetic gradient. Subtracting the expected pattern from the observed pattern isolated the adaptive component. Ordinary least squares multiple-regression models examined factors influencing the phylogenetic, adaptive and combined components of the seasonal body-size patterns, and non-spatial and spatial models were compared. Results Birds are larger in the temperate zones than in the tropics. The gradient is quantitatively stronger in winter than in summer. Regression models explained 66.6% of the variance in summer mass and 45.9% of the variance in winter mass. In summer, phylogenetic and adaptive responses of birds contribute equally to the gradient. In winter, the gradient in North America is much stronger than that expected by taxonomic turnover, and responses of species independent of their family membership drive the overall pattern. Main conclusions We confirm Bergmann's rule in New World birds and conclude that winter temperatures ultimately drive the pattern, exerting selection pressures on birds that overwhelm patterns expected by phylogenetic inertia at the family level. However, in summer, the movement of migratory species into the temperate zone weakens the gradient and generates a pattern more congruent with that expected from the taxonomic composition of the fauna. The analytical method we develop here represents a useful tool for partitioning the phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic components of spatially explicit macroecological data. [source]


Medication communication: a concept analysis

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 4 2010
Elizabeth Manias
manias e. (2010) Medication communication: a concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(4), 933,943. Abstract Title.,Medication communication: a concept analysis. Aim., This paper is a report of a concept analysis of medication communication with a particular focus on how it applies to nursing. Background., Medication communication is a vital component of patient safety, quality of care, and patient and family engagement. Nevertheless, this concept has been consistently taken-for-granted without adequate analysis, definition or clarification in the quality and patient safety literature. Data sources., A literature search was undertaken using bibliographic databases, internet search engines, and hand searches. Literature published in English between January 1988 and June 2009 was reviewed. Walker and Avant's approach was used to guide the concept analysis. Discussion., Medication communication is a dynamic and complex process. Defining attributes consider who speaks, who is silent, what is said, what aspects of medication care are prioritized, the use of body language in conversations, and actual words used. Open communication occurs if there is cooperation among individuals in implementing plans of care. Antecedents involve environmental influences such as ward culture and geographical space, and sociocultural influences such as beliefs about the nature of interactions. Consequences involve patient and family engagement in communication, evidence of appropriate medication use, the frequency and type of medication-related adverse events, and the presence of medication adherence. Empirical referents typically do not reflect specific aspects of medication communication. Conclusion., This concept analysis can be used by nurses to guide them in understanding the complexities surrounding medication communication, with the ultimate goal of improving patient safety, quality of care, and facilitating patient and family engagement. [source]


Mapping the evolutionary twilight zone: molecular markers, populations and geography

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2008
José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho
Abstract Since evolutionary processes, such as dispersal, adaptation and drift, occur in a geographical context, at multiple hierarchical levels, biogeography provides a central and important unifying framework for understanding the patterns of distribution of life on Earth. However, the advent of molecular markers has allowed a clearer evaluation of the relationships between microevolutionary processes and patterns of genetic divergence among populations in geographical space, triggering the rapid development of many research programmes. Here we provide an overview of the interpretation of patterns of genetic diversity in geographical and ecological space, using both implicit and explicit spatial approaches. We discuss the actual or potential interaction of phylogeography, molecular ecology, ecological genetics, geographical genetics, landscape genetics and conservation genetics with biogeography, identifying their respective roles and their ability to deal with ecological and evolutionary processes at different levels of the biological hierarchy. We also discuss how each of these research programmes can improve strategies for biodiversity conservation. A unification of these research programmes is needed to better achieve their goals, and to do this it is important to develop cross-disciplinary communication and collaborations among geneticists, ecologists, biogeographers and spatial statisticians. [source]


Front and Back Covers, Volume 26, Number 5.

ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 5 2010
October 2010
Front and back cover caption, volume 26 issue 5 Front cover RETHINKING SUICIDE BOMBING The body is a key focus for anthropological research and analysis. The cover photographs highlight the way multiple aspects of life, including political life, are mapped onto the body, and the emergence of a collective, as well as individual, identity through these experiences. The front cover shows a young Palestinian boy staring at an Israeli guard's gun, inches from his face, while waiting at the Abu Dis checkpoint in East Jerusalem. Although the scene is calm, the photograph captures an implicit violence (any step out of line can and will be punished) and reveals the daily reality of political and structural violence in the lives of Palestinians. In this image, the child can be seen as an individual who may experience personal trauma as a result of these daily encounters with violence. But he can also be seen as representing a collective Palestinian body which, under the occupation, is humiliated and forced into a childlike position, with daily decisions, including over movement, entirely in the control of Israeli forces. In her article in this issue, Natalia Linos calls on anthropology to offer a critical analysis of suicide bombing and examine the central role of the body in this act. She posits that in a context of political and structural violence that encroaches on both individual and group identity, suicide attacks may be considered an extreme form of reclaiming the violated body through self-directed violence. Through suicide attacks in public spaces, the body may be used to contest physical barriers imposed by an oppressor, resist power imbalances, and reclaim authority over one's body as well as geographical space. Back cover ASSEMBLING BODIES The back cover shows a South African ,body map', on display at the University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (MAA) until 6 November 2010 as part of the exhibition ,Assembling bodies: Art, science and imagination', reviewed in this issue. This self-portrait by Babalwa depicts her life as an activist and epitomizes the ethical and political negotiations that surround definition and treatment of particular bodies in contemporary South Africa. Babalwa was a member of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), which successfully campaigned for the widespread availability of antiretroviral treatment therapies. Her self-portrait is one of a series of life-sized body maps made by members of the Bambanani Womens Group in 2003, as part of a project documenting the lives of women with HIV/AIDS. The body maps and associated narratives trace the co-existence of multiple ways of understanding and experiencing bodies and disease in these women's lives. The imagery , referring to family and friends, political life, biomedical science, anatomical details, moral pollution and religious beliefs , suggests many bodies existing within a single corporeal form. In addition to revealing individual subjectivities, the body maps also highlight the shifting dynamics of sociality. Behind each self-portrait is the outline of another shadowy form, a reminder of the help received and the potential for future support. [source]


GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE AND EFFECTIVE DEMAND UNDER STAGNATION

AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC PAPERS, Issue 4 2006
WATARU JOHDO
This paper investigates the adjustment mechanism between geographical space and effective demand under stagnation by constructing a spatial model with stagnation included. The model takes the idea of stagnation in Ono (2001) and combines it with the spatial model of Perera-Tallo (2003). The spatial model features local monopolists that import intermediate goods from other monopolists at a cost that can be decreased through investment. Using the integrated model, we reach the following conclusion: the wider the geographical space, the lower the effective demand under stagnation. This mechanism is explained as follows. Under stagnation, where demand has reached an upper bound, a decrease in the marginal cost of reaching distant intermediate suppliers reduces employment. The reason is ,love of variety' in production: for given final output, more variety of available intermediate inputs crowds out per-variety demand of intermediates and thus employment. Decreases in employment then lead to a decrease in the rate of time preference through a rise in the deflation rate, and thereby decrease the desire for consumption, consequently cutting effective demand. [source]


Religious Migration and Political Upheaval: German Moravians at Bethel in South Australia, 1851,1907

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF POLITICS AND HISTORY, Issue 3 2010
Felicity Jensz
During the evangelical awakening of eighteenth-century Europe, numerous religious communities were founded in order to create a geographical space in which religious and social identities could be constructed, including several communities of the Moravian Church. This Protestant Episcopal Church was based in Germany, but expanded from the mid-eighteenth century throughout the colonial world in response to political turmoil. This paper traces the establishment of the Moravian town of Bethel in South Australia and the role of religion and ethnic backgrounds in the identification processes of Europeans in the British colonial world. It further analyses the role of politics both locally and internationally in the formation of such a settlement, and the dynamic exchange between the European headquarters of the Brethren and the "colony" of Moravians in South Australia in order to demonstrate how interactions between migration and religion affected the European world. [source]


Space, Boundaries, and the Problem of Order: A View from Systems Theory

INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
Jan Helmig
The idea our global polity is chiefly divided by territorially organized nation-states captures contemporary constellations of power and authority only insufficiently. Through a decoupling of power and the state, political spaces no longer match geographical spaces. Instead of simply acknowledging a challenge to the state, there is the need to rethink the changing meaning of space for political processes. The paper identifies three aspects, a reconceptualization of the spatial assumptions that IR needs to address: the production of space, the constitutive role of boundaries, and the problem of order. With this contribution, we argue that one avenue in understanding the production of space and the following questions of order is by converging systems theory and critical geopolitics. While the latter has already developed a conceptual apparatus to analyze the production of space, the former comes with an encompassing theoretical background, which takes "world society" as the starting point of analysis. In this respect, nation states are understood as a form of internal differentiation of a wider system, namely world society. [source]


Invisible colour: Landscapes of whiteness and racial identity in international development

ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 5 2009
Kristín Loftsdóttir
Racialized identity in relation to international development is a surprisingly unanalyzed theme within anthropology, even though extensively explored in connection with contemporary western multi-cultural societies and historical relations between different parts of the world. In the paper I explore race and whiteness in relation to international development, emphasizing the importance of analyzing how the historical construction of racial identity continues to inform actual lived relationships of people belonging to different geographical spaces. In order to capture the importance of development in visual and everyday lives of people in different parts of the world, I use the term "developscape", adapting Arjun Appadurai's (1996) idea of globalization consisting of different "scapes", furhtermore, as asking how this "developscape" is racialized. [source]