Gas Holdup (gas + holdup)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Gas holdup in a three-phase fluidized bed

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2002
M. Safoniuk
First page of article [source]

Minimum fluidization velocity and gas holdup in gas,liquid,solid fluidized bed reactors

K Ramesh
Abstract Experiments were performed to study the hydrodynamics of a cocurrent three-phase fluidized bed with liquid as continuous phase. Based on the 209 experimental data (with four liquid systems and five different particles) along with 115 literature data from six different sources on minimum fluidization velocity, a unique correlation for the estimation of minimum fluidization velocity in two-phase (ug,=,0) as well as in three-phase systems is developed. A data bank consisting of 1420 experimental measurements for the fractional gas phase holdup data with a wide range of variables is used for developing empirical correlations. Separate correlations are developed for two flow regimes observed in this present work. The proposed correlations are more accurate and simpler to use. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effect of a gas,liquid separator on the hydrodynamics and circulation flow regimes in internal-loop airlift reactors

Jaroslav Klein
Abstract The role of the gas,liquid separator on hydrodynamic characteristics in an internal-loop airlift reactor (ALR) was investigated. Both gas holdup and liquid velocity were measured in a 30,dm3 airlift reactor with two different head configurations: with and without an enlarged separator. A magnetic tracer method using a neutrally buoyant magnetic particle as flowfollower was used to measure the liquid velocity in all sections of the internal-loop airlift reactor. Average liquid circulation velocities in the main parts of the ALR were compared for both reactor configurations. At low air flow rates the separator had no influence on gas holdup, circulation velocity and intensity of turbulence in the downcomer and separator. At higher superficial air velocities, however, the separator design had a decisive effect on the hydrodynamic parameters in the downcomer and the separator. On the other hand, the gas holdup in the riser was only slightly influenced by the separator configuration in the whole range of air flow. Circulation flow regimes, characterising the behaviour of bubbles in the downcomer, were identified and the effect of the separator on these regimes was assessed. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Experimental validation of CFD simulations of a lab-scale fluidized-bed reactor with and without side-gas injection

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2010
Jian Min
Abstract Fluidized-bed reactors are widely used in the biofuel industry for combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification processes. In this work, a lab-scale fluidized-bed reactor without and with side-gas injection and filled with 500,600 ,m glass beads is simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 6.3, and the results are compared to experimental data obtained using pressure measurements and 3D X-ray computed tomography. An initial grid-dependence CFD study is carried out using 2D simulations, and it is shown that a 4-mm grid resolution is sufficient to capture the time- and spatial-averaged local gas holdup in the lab-scale reactor. Full 3D simulations are then compared with the experimental data on 2D vertical slices through the fluidized bed. Both the experiments and CFD simulations without side-gas injection show that in the cross section of the fluidized bed there are two large off-center symmetric regions in which the gas holdup is larger than in the center of the fluidized bed. The 3D simulations using the Syamlal-O'Brien and Gidaspow drag models predict well the local gas holdup variation throughout the entire fluidized bed when compared to the experimental data. In comparison, simulations with the Wen-Yu drag model generally over predict the local gas holdup. The agreement between experiments and simulations with side-gas injection is generally good, where the side-gas injection simulates the immediate volatilization of biomass. However, the effect of the side-gas injection extends further into the fluidized bed in the experiments as compared to the simulations. Overall the simulations under predict the gas dispersion rate above the side-gas injector. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2010 [source]

A CFD,PBM coupled model for gas,liquid flows

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2006
Tiefeng Wang
Abstract A computational fluid dynamics,population balance model (CFD-PBM) coupled model was developed that combines the advantages of CFD to calculate the entire flow field and of the PBM to calculate the local bubble size distribution. Bubble coalescence and breakup were taken into account to determine the evolution of the bubble size. Different bubble breakup and coalescence models were compared. An algorithm was proposed for computing the parameters based on the bubble size distribution, including the drag force, transverse lift force, wall lubrication force, turbulent dispersion force, and bubble-induced turbulence. With the bubble breakup and coalescence models and the interphase force formulations in this work, the CFD-PBM coupled model can give a unified description for both the homogeneous and the heterogeneous regimes. Good agreement was obtained with the experimental results for the gas holdup, liquid velocity, and bubble size distribution. © 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2006 [source]

Phase distributions in a gas,liquid,solid circulating fluidized bed riser

S. A. Razzak
Abstract The distributions of the three phases in gas,liquid,solid circulating fluidized beds (GLSCFB) were studied using a novel measurement technique that combines electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and optical fibre probe. The introduction of gas into a liquid,solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB), thus forming a GLSCFB, caused the increase of solids holdup due to the significantly decreased available buoyancy with the lower density of the gas, even with a somewhat increased liquid velocity due to the decreased liquid holdup giving space for the gas holdup. The gas passed through the riser in the form of bubbles, which tended to flow more through the central region of the riser, leading to more radial non-uniformity in radial holdup of the phases. The gas velocity has the most significant effect on the gas phase holdup. While the gas velocity also has an obvious effect to the solids holdups, the liquid flow rate had a much more considerable effect on the phase holdups. The solids circulation rate also had a significant effect on the phase holdups, with increasing solids circulation rate causing much more increased solids holdup in the central region than close to the wall. A correlation was developed for the relative radial distributions of solids holdup in GLSCFB, as such radial profiles were found similar over a wide range of operating conditions, like those in a typical gas,solid circulating fluidized beds (GSCFB). Finally, the axial solids profiles in a GLSCFB was found to be much closer to those in an LSCFB which are very uniform, than those found in a GSCFB which are less uniform and sometime having a S shape. Water was used as the continuous and conductive phase, air was the gas phase and glass bead and lava rock particles were used as the solid and non-conductive phase. Les distributions des trois phases des lits fluidisés circulants gaz-liquide-solide (LFCGLS) ont été étudiées à l'aide d'une technique de mesure originale qui combine la tomographie à résistance électrique (ERT) et la sonde à fibre optique. L'introduction de gaz dans un lit fluidisé circulant liquide-solide, formant par conséquent un lit fluidisé circulant gaz-liquide-solide, a provoqué une retenue de solides en raison de la diminution importante de la flottabilité disponible avec la densité moindre du gaz, même avec une vitesse de liquide quelque peu accrue causée par la retenue de liquide diminuée qui donne de l'espace pour la retenue de gaz. Le gaz passé dans la colonne de montée sous forme de bulles, qui avaient tendance à circuler davantage dans la région centrale de la colonne, donne une non-uniformité plus radiale dans la retenue radiale des phases. La vitesse du gaz a aussi un effet évident sur les retenues des solides; le débit du liquide a un effet beaucoup plus considérable sur les retenues des phases. Le taux de circulation des solides avait également un effet important sur les retenues des phases, le taux de circulation des solides croissant causant beaucoup plus de retenues de solides accrues dans la région centrale que près du mur. Une corrélation a été créée pour les distributions radiales relatives de la retenue des solides dans le LFCGLS, puisque de tels profils radiaux ont été trouvés semblables sur une vaste gamme de conditions d'utilisation, comme celles dans un LFCGS typique. Enfin, on a découvert que les profils des solides axiaux dans un LFCGLS sont beaucoup plus près que ceux d'un LFCLS qui sont très uniformes, que ceux découverts dans un LFCGS, qui sont moins uniformes et qui ont à peu près la forme d'un « S ». [source]

Bubble shape, gas flow and gas,liquid mass transfer in pulp fibre suspensions

L. K. Ishkintana
Abstract Gas,liquid mass transfer in pulp fibre suspensions in a batch-operated bubble column is explained by observations of bubble size and shape made in a 2D column. Two pulp fibre suspensions (hardwood and softwood kraft) were studied over a range of suspension mass concentrations and gas flow rates. For a given gas flow rate, bubble size was found to increase as suspension concentration increased, moving from smaller spherical/elliptical bubbles to larger spherical-capped/dimpled-elliptical bubbles. At relatively low mass concentrations (Cm,=,2,3% for the softwood and Cm,,,7% for the hardwood pulp) distinct bubbles were no longer observed in the suspension. Instead, a network of channels formed through which gas flowed. In the bubble column, the volumetric gas,liquid mass transfer rate, kLa, decreased with increasing suspension concentration. From the 2D studies, this occurred as bubble size and rise velocity increased, which would decrease overall bubble surface area and gas holdup in the column. A minimum in kLa occurred between Cm,=,2% and 4% which depended on pulp type and was reached near the mass concentration where the flow channels first formed. le transfert de masse gaz-liquide dans des suspensions de fibres de pulpe, dans une colonne à bulles de traitement en lot, est expliqué par des observations faites dans une colonne 2D de la taille et de la forme des bulles. Deux suspensions de fibres de pulpe (pulpes kraft de bois dur et de bois tendre) ont été étudiées sur un intervalle de concentrations en masse des suspensions et sur un intervalle de débits de gaz. Pour un débit de gaz donné, on a observé que la taille des bulles augmentait avec l'augmentation de la concentration de la suspension, passant de petites bulles sphériques/elliptiques à des bulles plus grosses de forme quasi-sphérique avec capuchon à elliptique avec dépression. À des concentrations en masse relativement basses (Cm,=,2,3% pour le bois tendre et Cm,=,,7% pour la pulpe de bois dur), des bulles distinctes n'étaient plus observées dans la suspension. Au lieu de cela, un réseau de canaux se formait, au travers duquel le gaz s'écoulait. Dans la colonne à bulles, le taux de transfert de masse volumétrique gaz-liquide, kLa, diminuait avec l'augmentation de la concentration de la suspension. À partir des études 2D, cela se produisait lorsque la taille des bulles et la vélocité ascendante augmentaient, ce qui devrait faire diminuer la surface d'ensemble des bulles et la retenue de gaz dans la colonne. Un minimum de kLa a été observé avec Cm,=,2% et 4% (selon le type de pulpe) et était atteint à proximité de la concentration en masse pour laquelle les canaux d'écoulement commençaient à se former. [source]

Local Bubble Dynamics and Macroscopic Flow Structure in Bubble Columns with Different Scales

Wei Chen
Abstract Local bubble behaviours were investigated in three bubble columns with different diameters of 200, 400 and 800 mm. By means of a novel single-tip optical fibre probe employing laser Doppler technique, the local gas holdup, bubble frequency, bubble size and velocity were measured simultaneously at different locations of the columns. Measurements were performed in air-water system at superficial gas velocities up to 90 mm/s. The averaged profiles and instantaneous measurements were analyzed and compared for different columns. The presence of a coherent gross circulation structure spanning the entire column diameter in the larger column rather than a pair of symmetrical circulation cells observed in the smaller columns has been confirmed. Les comportements locaux des bulles ont été étudiés dans trois colonnes à bulles de diamètres différents, soient 200, 400 et 800 mm. Au moyen d'une nouvelle sonde à fibre optique à embout unique employant la technique laser Doppler, des mesures locales de la rétention de gaz, de la fréquence des bulles, de la taille des bulles et de la vitesse ont été effectuées simultanément à différents endroits dans les colonnes. Ces mesures ont été effectuées pour un système air-eau à des vitesses de gaz superficielles atteignant 90 mm/s. Les profils moyennés et les mesures instantanées ont été analysés puis comparés pour différentes colonnes. La présence d'une structure de circulation unique cohérente occupant tout le diamètre de la colonne dans la colonne la plus large plutôt qu'une paire de cellules de circulation symétriques observées dans les colonnes plus petites est confirmée. [source]

Intensification of Slurry Bubble Columns by Vibration Excitement

Jürg Ellenberger
Abstract We show that application of low-frequency vibrations, in the 30 to 60 Hz range, to the liquid phase of an air , water , silica catalyst slurry bubble column causes significant enhancement of both gas holdup and volumetric mass transfer coefficient over a wide range of superficial gas velocities. The increase in the gas holdup is attributed mainly to a significant reduction in the rise velocity of the bubble swarm due to the generation of standing waves in the column. Furthermore, application of vibrations to the liquid phase serves to stabilize the homogenous bubbly flow regime and delay the onset of the churn-turbulent flow regime. On montre que l'application de vibrations de faibles fréquences (entre 30 et 60 Hz) à la phase liquide d'une colonne à bulles à suspensions de catalyseur air-eau-silice, permet une amélioration significative à la fois du coefficient de rétention de gaz et du coefficient du transfert de matière volumétrique pour une vaste gamme de vitesses de gaz superficielles. L'augmentation de la rétention de gaz est imputée principalement à une réduction importante de la vitesse de montée de l'essaim de bulles qui est due à la création de vagues stationnaires dans la colonne. En outre, l'application des vibrations à la phase liquide sert à stabiliser le régime d'écoulement à bulles homogène et retarde l'apparition du régime d'écoulement agité-pistonnant. [source]

Modified volume expansion method for measuring gas holdup

Annie X. Meng
Abstract A simple, modified volume expansion method, or inclined tube method, is compared to the pressure difference method for determining gas holdup in an airlift bioreactor. The modified volume expansion method could be used for all pneumatic bioreactors where fluid fluctuation is vigorous and visual observation of the continuous phase rise is difficult. The overall gas holdup data measured using the inclined tube method are shown to be very close to overall gas holdup determined using a gamma ray density monitor system. However, the overall gas holdup measured by the pressure difference method is found to be significantly different. This difference is due to energy dissipation in the External Loop Airlift Bioreactor (ELAB) used in this study, which causes the pressure difference method to be incorrect. On compare une méthode d'expansion de volume modifiée simple, ou méthode à tubes inclinés, à une méthode de différence de pression pour déterminer la rétention des gaz dans un bioréacteur à air ascendant. La méthode d'expansion de volume modifiée pourrait être utilisée pour tous les bioréacteurs pneumatiques oú la fluctuation du fluide est vigoureuse et l'observation visuelle de l'ascension de la phase continue difficile. Les données globales de rétention de gaz mesurées à l'aide de la méthode à tubes inclinés s'avèrent très proches de la rétention de gaz globale déterminéd à l'aide d'un moniteur de densité à rayons gamma. Toutefois, on a trouvé que la rétention de gaz globale mesurée par la méthode de différence de pression était significativement différente. Cette différence est due à la dissipation d'énergie dans le bioréacteur à air ascendant à boucle externe (ELAB) utilisé dans I'étude, qui rend la méthode de différence de pression incorrecte. [source]

Hydrodynamic investigation of bubble-column reactors: effect of column configuration

Abid Akhtar
Abstract Bubble-column reactors are quite popular in the chemical, biochemical and petrochemical industries due to their relatively simple construction, favourable heat and mass transfer properties and low operating cost. Among the various design parameters, column geometry (configuration) has a significant impact on the overall throughput. In this study, an experimental investigation of the bubble-column configuration on its hydrodynamics has been conducted with three different sizes of the column (ID = 10,45 cm). A comparison in terms of the overall gas holdup as well as localised bubble properties is performed using the four-point optical technique and hydrodynamic similarities/dissimilarities are discussed. The study showed that the overall gas holdup was a function of the gas flow rate. For the range of gas velocity investigated (9.5,22.3 cm3/ min), the smaller column had 50,60% more holdup than the bigger column. Localised bubble properties exhibited similar behaviour (i.e. higher values for the smaller column). A comparative study of L/D illustrated an invariant behaviour at a high value of L/D (>5.5). A low L/D (,1.5), however, showed a prominent influence on hydrodynamics. Copyright © 2010 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sensitivity Study on Modeling an Internal Airlift Loop Reactor Using a Steady 2D Two-Fluid Model

Q. Huang
Abstract The sensitivity study of bubbly flow in an internal airlift loop reactor is presented using a steady Reynolds averaging two-fluid model. Comparative evaluation of different drag formulations, drag coefficient correlations, turbulence effect on the drag coefficient, outlet slip velocity, and bubble size is performed and the respective influence to the simulation results is highlighted. It is found that a complicated drag formulation may not result in reliable predictions. All the drag coefficient correlations underpredict the gas holdup if the influence of turbulence on the drag coefficient is not well incorporated. Fortunately, the global hydrodynamics is not sensitive to the outflow slip velocity for a wide range, so a steady two-fluid model can be used to simulate the bubbly flow when the flow field is fully developed. The correct estimation of bubble size with properly selected correlations play an important role in successful simulation of gas-liquid bubbly flow in airlift loop reactors. [source]

Overview of Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Moving Time-Averaged Space

K. Ueyama
Abstract An overview of multiphase flow phenomena is described on the basis of three relations; a relation between an interaction force and time-averaged physical quantities, a relation between an interaction force and the surrounding flow field, and a relation between time-averaged physical quantities and multiphase flow. The three relations used to theoretically derive the parabolic radial distribution of gas holdup for recirculating turbulent flow in a bubble column are in good agreement with experimental data. General applicability of the three relations for a variety of multiphase flows is also discussed. [source]

Effect of Suspended Liposomes on Hydrodynamic and Oxygen Transfer Properties in a Mini-Scale External Loop Airlift Bubble Column

M. Yoshimoto
Abstract The circulating liquid velocity, gas holdup, bubble size distribution, and liquid phase oxygen transfer coefficient were measured in a mini-scale external loop airlift bubble column (MELBC) with the liquid volume suspending enzyme-free liposomes of varying diameters. These values were compared to those for liposome-free MELBC, normal bubble column (NBC), and a larger scale airlift column. The liposomes suspended in the MELBC are incorporated into the liquid film around the bubbles, leading to the development of a foam layer, where the incorporated liposomes exert negligible effect on the oxygen transfer in the film. [source]

CFD Modeling of a Bubble Column Reactor Carrying out a Consecutive A , B , C Reaction

J.M. van Baten
Abstract In this paper, we develop a CFD model for describing a bubble column reactor for carrying out a consecutive first-order reaction sequence A , B , C. Three reactor configurations, all operating in the homogeneous bubbly regime, were investigated: (I) column diameter DT = 0.1 m, column height HT = 1.1 m, (II) DT = 0.1 m, HT = 2 m, and (III) DT = 1 m, HT = 5 m. Eulerian simulations were carried out for superficial gas velocities UG in the range of 0.005,0.04 m/s, assuming cylindrical axisymmetry. Additionally, for configurations I and III fully three-dimensional transient simulations were carried out for checking the assumption of cylindrical axisymmetry. For the 0.1 m diameter column (configuration I), 2-D axisymmetric and 3-D transient simulations yield nearly the same results for gas holdup ,G, centerline liquid velocity VL(0), conversion of A, ,A, and selectivity to B, SB. In sharp contrast, for the 1 m diameter column (configuration III), there are significant differences in the CFD predictions of ,G, VL(0), ,A, and SB using 2-D and 3-D simulations; the 2-D strategies tend to exaggerate VL(0), and underpredict ,G, ,A, and SB. The transient 3-D simulation results appear to be more realistic. The CFD simulation results for ,A and SB are also compared with a simple analytic model, often employed in practice, in which the gas phase is assumed to be in plug flow and the liquid phase is well mixed. For the smaller diameter columns (configurations I and II) the CFD simulation results for ,A are in excellent agreement with the analytic model, but for the larger diameter column the analytic model is somewhat optimistic. There are two reasons for this deviation. Firstly, the gas phase is not in perfect plug flow and secondly, the liquid phase is not perfectly mixed. The computational results obtained in this paper demonstrate the power of CFD for predicting the performance of bubble column reactors. Of particular use is the ability of CFD to describe scale effects. [source]

Effect of Gas Density on the Hydrodynamics of Bubble Columns and Three-Phase Fluidized Beds

Arturo Macchi
Abstract Experiments were performed at ambient temperature and pressure in a 127 mm inner diameter column with a 55% wt. aqueous glycerol solution, 6-mm spherical borosilicate beads and four gases , helium, air, carbon dioxide and sulphur hexafluoride , giving a 35-fold gas density range. The dispersed bubble flow regime was sustained to higher gas velocities and gas holdups for denser gases. This finding appears to be due to the reduction of the maximum stable bubble size (i.e. enhanced bubble break-up), rather than to formation of smaller bubbles at the distributor with increasing gas density. The effect of gas density was significant both with and without the particles present, with gas holdup increasing, bed voidage increasing and liquid holdup decreasing with increasing gas density. The holdup correlations of Han et al. (1990) have been modified to incorporate the effect of gas density. On a mené des expériences à la température et à la pression ambiante dans une colonne de 127 mm de diamètre intérieur avec une solution de glycérol aqueux de 55 % en poids, des billes de verre de borosilicate sphériques de 6 mm et quatre gaz , hélium, air, gaz carbonique et hexafluorure de soufre , donnant une gamme de densité gazeuse multipliée par 35. Le régime d'écoulement bouillonnant dispersé est maintenu jusqu'à des vitesses et des rétentions de gaz supérieures pour les gaz plus denses. Ce résultat semble être dû à la réduction de la taille de bulle stable maximum (c.-à-d. une rupture de bulles améliorée), plutôt qu'à la formation de bulles plus petites au distributeur avec l'augmentation de la densité gazeuse. L'effet de la densité gazeuse est significatif avec ou sans la présence des particules, avec l'augmentation de la rétention de gaz, l'augmentation du vide du lit et la diminution de la rétention de liquide avec l'augmentation de la densité gazeuse. Les corrélations de rétention de Han et al. (1990) sont modifiées de sorte à introduire l'effet de la densité gazeuse. [source]