Follicle-stimulating Hormone (follicle-stimulating + hormone)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Follicle-stimulating Hormone

  • serum follicle-stimulating hormone


  • Selected Abstracts


    Follicle-stimulating hormone and oestradiol levels during perimenopause in a cohort of Japanese women

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 10 2008
    M. Yamada
    Summary Context:, There had been a lack of longitudinal studies regarding follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestradiol (E2) during perimenopause for non-Caucasian populations. Objective:, To investigate FSH and E2 levels during perimenopause in a Japanese cohort. Design and setting:, The Adult Health Study is a longitudinal population-based study. Perimenopausal women from this study cohort were followed between 1993 and 2003. Participants and main outcome measures:, Non-menopausal women, aged 47,54 years, were measured in terms of FSH and E2 levels every 6 months. For 89 women whose FSH and E2 levels were measured within 3 months from their final menstrual period (FMP), trends of FSH and E2 within 21 months of FMP were investigated at 6-month intervals. Results:, Follicle-stimulating hormone and E2 levels within 3 months from FMP showed wide ranges. Neither FSH nor E2 levels differed by age, weight or duration of amenorrhoea. Although FSH increased and E2 decreased during perimenopause, FSH and E2 levels at a single time point were found to not be a reliable marker of biological menopause, as hormone levels in and between the subjects showed wide variation and any trend in one individual was not necessarily one directional. Conclusions:, Among Japanese women who had natural menopause around the age of 50, hormone levels in and between individuals showed wide variation throughout perimenopause with a converged biochemical menopausal pattern characterised by high FSH and low E2 at about 2 years after FMP. [source]


    Impaired estrogen-induced negative feedback on gonadotropin secretion in patients with gonadotropin-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 5 2002
    A. Lania
    Abstract Background Several in vitro studies suggest that gonadotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (Gn-omas) and non functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) originate from gonadotroph cells. Patients with Gn-oma and NFPA frequently show abnormal gonadotropin response to TRH. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the estrogen-induced negative feedback is operating in either patients with Gn-oma or NFPA. Materials and methods Serum gonadotropin levels were evaluated at 24 h after ethinylestradiol administration (1 mg per os; EE2 test) in seven patients with a diagnosis of Gn-oma, based on the presence of high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and/or lutenising hormone (LH) levels with normal or high levels of sex steroids, in 22 patients with NFPA with normal or low levels of gonadotropin and sex steroids, and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. A normal response to EE2 test was arbitrarily defined as a serum LH and FSH decrease of at least 40 and 30% below basal levels. Results Among patients with Gn-oma, only one had a normal FSH inhibition and another, a normal LH inhibition. Among the 22 patients with NFPA, the EE2 test caused a normal FSH or LH reduction in 10 and 15, respectively, while a normal reduction of both FSH and LH was observed in nine. Conclusions The study demonstrates that estrogen-induced negative feedback of gonadotropin secretion is disrupted in almost all patients with Gn-oma and in half of those with NFPA. This defective feedback is reminiscent of the resistance to thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids observed in patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone- (TSH-) and adrenocorticotropic hormone- (ACTH-)secreting adenomas, respectively. [source]


    Comparison of the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia in the first cycle: a report of case series and meta-analysis

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    MOHAMED GHANEM
    Summary To investigate the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh and cryopreserved-thawed testicular spermatozoa in the first cycle in patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), a total of 90 cases, 48 OA and 42 NOA were studied. All patients underwent sperm retrieval by testicular sperm extraction (TESE) while their wives received conventional ovarian hyperstimulation. The hormone levels, testicular histology, the rates of sperm retrieval, fertilization, implantation and pregnancy were analysed and evaluated. This study and other four similar studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Sperm retrieval was successful in 100% OA and 61% NOA. Fresh spermatozoa were used in 87.5% and 92.4% of OA and NOA cases respectively; while cryopreserved-thawed spermatozoa were used in 12.5% and 7.6% of OA and NOA, respectively. The fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were 65.5%, 15% and 25% respectively in OA group, and 54.2%, 5% and 23.1% respectively in NOA group. Sperm status (fresh or thawed), male partner's age, female age and male serum follicle-stimulating hormone had no significant effect upon fertilization rate, implantation rate, or pregnancy rate per embryo transfer. The results of meta-analysis indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rates between the two groups. There was a significantly higher fertilization rate among OA patients in all analysed studies (95% CI = 14.29,15.71, d.f. 832, T = 1.96). In conclusion, although the fertilization rate was significantly higher in the OA group in our study and from the given meta-analysis, there were some differences as regards pregnancy rates. Although the overall effect was more or less similar pregnancy rates in both subtypes of azoospermia, this may not be true if non-male infertility variables were controlled for in all studies. [source]


    Follicle-stimulating hormone and oestradiol levels during perimenopause in a cohort of Japanese women

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 10 2008
    M. Yamada
    Summary Context:, There had been a lack of longitudinal studies regarding follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestradiol (E2) during perimenopause for non-Caucasian populations. Objective:, To investigate FSH and E2 levels during perimenopause in a Japanese cohort. Design and setting:, The Adult Health Study is a longitudinal population-based study. Perimenopausal women from this study cohort were followed between 1993 and 2003. Participants and main outcome measures:, Non-menopausal women, aged 47,54 years, were measured in terms of FSH and E2 levels every 6 months. For 89 women whose FSH and E2 levels were measured within 3 months from their final menstrual period (FMP), trends of FSH and E2 within 21 months of FMP were investigated at 6-month intervals. Results:, Follicle-stimulating hormone and E2 levels within 3 months from FMP showed wide ranges. Neither FSH nor E2 levels differed by age, weight or duration of amenorrhoea. Although FSH increased and E2 decreased during perimenopause, FSH and E2 levels at a single time point were found to not be a reliable marker of biological menopause, as hormone levels in and between the subjects showed wide variation and any trend in one individual was not necessarily one directional. Conclusions:, Among Japanese women who had natural menopause around the age of 50, hormone levels in and between individuals showed wide variation throughout perimenopause with a converged biochemical menopausal pattern characterised by high FSH and low E2 at about 2 years after FMP. [source]


    An unusual association of pemphigus vulgaris with hyperprolactinemia

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2002
    MNAMS, Sujay Khandpur MD
    A 21-year-old unmarried woman presented with oral ulcerations and generalized, itchy, fluid-filled, skin lesions of 10 days' duration. The lesions ruptured spontaneously, resulting in extensive denuded areas covered by crusts. One month prior to this, she experienced pain and enlargement of both breasts with galactorrhea. Her menstrual cycles were normal initially, but later she developed menstrual irregularities. No past history suggestive of any other systemic or skin disease, including atopy or drug allergies, could be obtained. Her family history was not contributory. Dermatologic examination revealed multiple, flaccid bullae and extensive denuded areas of skin covered with crusts over the scalp, face, trunk, and upper and lower limbs (Fig. 1). Bulla spread sign and Nikolsky's sign were positive. The oral mucosa, including the lips, buccal surface, tongue, and palate, showed multiple erosions covered with necrotic slough. The rest of the mucocutaneous and systemic examination was within normal limits. Figure 1. Extensive erosions and flaccid bullae over the trunk with breast enlargement The patient's diagnostic work-up revealed: hemoglobin, 11.2 g%; total leukocyte count, 7400/mm3; differential leukocyte count, P62L34E2M2; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 34 mm/h. A peripheral blood smear examination, urinalysis, blood sugar, and renal and liver function tests were normal. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were nonreactive. Antinuclear antibody, lupus erythematosus (LE) cell, rheumatoid factor, and anti-dsDNA levels were normal. Serum protein electrophoresis demonstrated increased levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. The serum prolactin level was significantly raised to 139.49 ng/mL (normal, 3.6,18.9 ng/mL). The sex hormone levels, however, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone, were within normal limits. The thyroid hormone profile was also unaltered. Chest X-ray was normal. Ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis revealed no visceral abnormality and computerized tomography (CT) scan of the pituitary sella showed no adenoma. Mammography was negative for breast malignancy. A Tzanck smear prepared from the base of the erosion showed multiple acantholytic cells and lymphocytes. Histologic examination from an intact vesicle was suggestive of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), showing a suprabasal cleft with acantholytic cells and the basal layer demonstrating a "row of tombstones" appearance (Fig. 2). Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) revealed the intercellular deposition of IgG and C3 throughout the epidermis in a "fishnet pattern." Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test performed on rat esophagus for circulating IgG antibody was positive in a titer of 1 : 120. Figure 2. Photomicrograph showing suprabasal cleft with "row of tombstones" appearance, suggestive of pemphigus vulgaris (hematoxylin and eosin, × 40) Based on the clinical and immunohistological features, a diagnosis of PV with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia was made. The patient was treated with bromocriptine mesylate (Tablet Proctinal, Glaxo Wellcome Ltd, India) at a dose of 2.5 mg twice a day. After 2 months of therapy, significant improvement in the skin lesions was observed. The existing lesions re-epithelialized with a drastic reduction in the number and distribution of new vesicles. However, no change in the mucosal erosions was noticed. IIF test demonstrated a lower antibody titer (1 : 40). The breast complaints also improved with a reduction in serum prolactin level to 6.5 ng/mL. The patient refused further treatment as she experienced nausea and dizziness with bromocriptine. After 2 weeks, the disease relapsed with the appearance of new vesicles over the forearms, abdomen, back, and thighs. She again complained of breast tenderness and galactorrhea, and the serum prolactin level was 95 ng/mL. The IgG titer increased to 1 : 120. Hence, treatment with oral prednisolone (2 mg/kg/day) and bromocriptine (2.5 mg twice a day) with an antiemetic was initiated. After 6 weeks, the skin lesions had cleared completely, the breast symptoms had improved, menses had become regular, and the prolactin level had decreased to 4 ng/mL. IIF test was negative for circulating antibody. Steroids were tapered off and maintenance therapy with bromocriptine at a dose of 2.5 mg/day was continued. [source]


    Prostate cancer in patients with Hansen's disease

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Isao Kiriyama
    Abstract Hansen's disease causes testicular failure secondarily, and because of this, it has been considered that prostate cancer would not be found in association. Three of 14 patients with chronic leprosy in Suruga National Sanatorium Hansen's Disease Hospital were found to have prostate cancer. A 72-year-old with lepromatous leprosy was diagnosed with stage T3a prostate cancer and treated with radical prostatectomy after hormonal therapy, plus irradiation. An 80-year-old with lepromatous leprosy was diagnosed with stage T2 prostate cancer and treated with irradiation and follow up only without hormone therapy and surgery because of his low testosterone level and old age. An 82-year-old with borderline leprosy was diagnosed with stage T1c prostate cancer and because of the pathological finding of low Gleason score and his old age, he was treated with hormonal therapy only. Two of the three cases had elevated concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which suggests that their prostatic cancers might have been equivalent to be under the influence of hormone therapy. Therefore, in aged male patients with Hansen's disease, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations should be measured, as well as that of prostate-specific antigen, and a prostate biopsy should be also considered if the prostate-specific antigen concentration is increased, even with hypogonadism. [source]


    Necessity of re-evaluation of estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) as a treatment option for first-line monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Tadaichi Kitamura
    Abstract Estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) was first introduced in the early 1970s for the treatment of prostate cancer, when EMP was supposed to have the dual effect of estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity. For the following decades, it was used mainly in hormone-refractory cases, with a conventional dosage of 4,9 capsules/day, which showed a 30,35% objective response rate. However, a very limited number of cases have been reported that used EMP as a first-line monotherapy in the conventional dosage. One study showed a response rate of 82%, which is at least as effective as conventional estrogen (diethylstilbestrol; DES) monotherapy. Nevertheless, EMP was almost abandoned for the treatment of prostate cancer because of severe adverse side-effects, especially in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Recently, two facts have become evident. First, EMP interferes with cellular microtubule dynamics but does not show alkylating effects. Second, EMP is able to produce a complex with calcium when dairy products are taken concomitantly with EMP, resulting in a decrease in the absorption rate of EMP from the gut. Many clinical trials have been undertaken without warning against concomitant dairy product intake since the introduction of EMP. This fact will jeopardize almost all the clinical trials performed before 1990. It is considered that response rates have been underestimated and better results could have been obtained because side-effects decrease dose-dependently. Low-dose EMP monotherapy (2 capsules/day) has been performed infrequently in previously untreated advanced prostate cancer. The only large trial by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer in 1984 was biased in selecting patients. Nevertheless, the response rate of EMP is comparable to that of DES. In this study, the adverse side-effects of EMP were less than that of DES. Recently, a study was conducted at the University of Tokyo of 11 patients with advanced prostate cancer on low-dose EMP as first-line monotherapy. The study found that the mean serum prostate-specific antigen level decreased to within the normal range by day 50; mean serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone reduced to undetectable levels by day 20; and mean serum estradiol increased to a very high level within 1 week. These data implicate that low-dose EMP can suppress quickly and adequately the pituitary,gonadal axis, although the antitumor effect has not as yet been elucidated. For these reasons, it is necessary to re-evaluate low-dose EMP monotherapy in previously untreated advanced prostate cancer. [source]


    BRIEF COMMUNICATION: Histology of the pouch epithelium and the mammary glands during chemically induced oestrus in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 1 2005
    Julie M. Old
    Abstract Changes in the epithelium of the maternal pouch and the mammary gland of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) were examined after animals were treated to induce ovulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and oestradiol. The mammary glands were similar in appearance to those described in eutherian mammals and in previous studies on other marsupials. Exposure of possums to these compounds, particularly PSMG, appeared to result in changes in the mammary glands that could be associated with milk/secretion production. In contrast, the pouch epithelium had a similar histological appearance to that of epithelium from other parts of the body regardless of whether the animal was exposed to stimulants. These preliminary observations are discussed in the context of the purported role of the pouch epithelium and the mammary gland in production of secretions at oestrus and provision of immunological protection to the neonatal marsupial. [source]


    Long-Term Sensitivity of Uterus and Hypothalamus/Pituitary Axis to 17,-Estradiol Is Higher Than That of Bone in Rats,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 11 2004
    Reinhold G Erben MD
    Abstract We examined the long-term sensitivity of uterus and bone to low-dose 17,-estradiol in a 4-month experiment in OVX rats and found that a dose of estradiol that fully protected against uterine atrophy did not protect against bone loss. Our results suggest higher estrogen sensitivity of the uterus compared with bone. Introduction: Estrogen is essential for the function of reproductive tissues and for the normal acquisition and maintenance of bone mass in females. This study was designed to examine the long-term sensitivity of the uterus and bone to low-dose estrogen. Materials and Methods: In preliminary experiments, we determined the lowest subcutaneous dose of 17,-estradiol able to fully protect against uterine atrophy in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. This dose was found to be 1.5 ,g/kg, given five times per week. Subsequently, groups of sham-operated (SHAM) or OVX 6-month-old rats (n = 8 each) were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or 1.5 ,g/kg 17,-estradiol five times per week. All animals were killed 4 months after surgery. Serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline were measured as biochemical markers of bone turnover. Bones were analyzed by bone histomorphometry and pQCT. Results and Conclusions: Our study clearly showed that a dose of estradiol that restores physiological estradiol serum levels, fully maintains uterine weight in OVX rats at the SHAM control level, and suppresses serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by 67% relative to OVX vehicle controls does not provide significant protection against OVX-induced bone loss at different cancellous and cortical bone sites. We conclude that the long-term sensitivity of the uterus and the hypothalamus/pituitary axis to 17,-estradiol is higher than that of bone in rats. [source]


    Ovarian stromal blood flow following clomiphene citrate challenge test in infertile women

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 7 2008
    Ernest Hung Yu Ng MD
    Abstract Purpose. To compare ovarian stromal blood flow indices in the follicular phase and after clomiphene citrate (CC) in infertile women. Methods. Pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), and peak systolic blood flow velocity (PSV) of ovarian stromal vessels were determined by spectral Doppler analysis in the early follicular phase and on day 10 after CC. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol concentrations were determined. Results. A total of 69 infertile women were included in the analysis. No significant differences in the average PI, RI, and PSV of ovarian stromal blood flow were demonstrated in the follicular phase and after CC despite a significant increase in serum estradiol concentration after CC. Serum FSH concentration was similar in the follicular phase and after CC, while serum LH concentration was significantly higher after CC. In the right ovary, ovarian stromal blood flow was absent in 13 (18.8%) patients in the follicular phase and in 6 (8.7%) patients after CC, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In the left ovary, ovarian stromal blood flow was absent in 13 (18.8%) and 12 (17.4%) patients in the follicular phase and after CC, respectively. Conclusion. Ovarian stromal blood flow indices were similar in the follicular phase and after CC. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2008 [source]


    Kisspeptin and the Preovulatory Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone/Luteinising Hormone Surge in the Ewe: Basic Aspects and Potential Applications in the Control of Ovulation

    JOURNAL OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    A. Caraty
    The identification of the neural mechanisms controlling ovulation in mammals has long been a ,holy grail' over recent decades, although the recent discovery of the kisspeptin systems has totally changed our views on this subject. Kisspeptin cells are the major link between gonadal steroids and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. In the female rodent, kisspeptin cells of the preoptic area are involved in the positive-feedback action of oestrogen on GnRH secretion, although the picture appears more complicated in the ewe. As in rodents, activation of preoptic kisspeptin neurones accompanies the GnRH surge in the ewe but an active role for arcuate kisspeptin neurones has also been proposed. Experimentally, kisspeptin is able to restore reproductive function when the hypothalamic-hypophyseal ovarian axis is quiescent. For example, i.v. infusion of a low dose of peptide in anoestrous ewes induces an immediate and sustained release of gonadotrophin, which subsides and then provokes a luteinising hormone (LH) surge a few hours later. This pharmacological intervention induces the same hormonal changes normally observed during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, including the secretion of oestrogen and its negative- and positive-feedback actions on the secretion of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone. Accordingly, a high percentage of kisspeptin-infused animals ovulated. Although the multiple facets of how the kisspeptin systems modulate GnRH secretion are not totally understood, the demonstration that exogenous kisspeptin administration can induce ovulation in anovulatory animals paves the way for future therapeutic applications aiming to control reproduction. [source]


    Evidence That Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone II Is Not a Physiological Regulator of Gonadotropin Secretion in Mammals

    JOURNAL OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 9 2003
    P. M. Gault
    Abstract Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-II stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion when administered at high doses in mammals, and this effect has been assumed to be mediated through the GnRH-II receptor expressed on gonadotropes. This study used two selective GnRH-I receptor antagonists to test the alternative hypothesis that GnRH-II acts through the GnRH-I receptor to elicit gonadotropin secretion. The antagonist, antide, was used to characterize the receptor-relay because it was a pure antagonist in vitro based on inositol phosphate responses in COS-7 cells transfected with either mammalian GnRH-I and GnRH-II receptors and, in vivo, potently antagonized the gonadotropin-releasing effect of a single injection of 250 ng GnRH-I in our sexually inactive sheep model. In a series of studies in sheep, antide (i) blocked the acute LH response to a single injection of GnRH-II (20 µg antide: 10 µg GnRH-II); (ii) blocked both the acute, pulsatile LH response and the FSH priming response to 2-hourly injections of GnRH-II over 36 h (100 µg antide/8 h: 4 µg GnRH-II/2 h); and (iii) chronically blocked both the pulsatile LH response and the marked FSH priming response to 4-hourly injections of GnRH-II over 10 days (75 µg antide/8 h: 4 µg GnRH-II/4 h). In two final experiments, the GnRH-I antagonist 135-18, shown previously to agonize the mammalian GnRH-II receptor, blocked the gonadotropin-releasing effects of GnRH-I (250 ng) but failed to elicit an LH response when given alone, and simultaneous administration of GnRH-II (250 ng) failed to alter the LH-releasing effect of GnRH-I (50,500 ng). These data thus support our hypothesis. Based on additional literature, it is unlikely that the GnRH-II decapeptide is a native regulator of the gonadotrope in mammals. [source]


    Inhibition of myostatin with emphasis on follistatin as a therapy for muscle disease

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 3 2009
    Louise R. Rodino-Klapac PhD
    Abstract In most cases, pharmacologic strategies to treat genetic muscle disorders and certain acquired disorders, such as sporadic inclusion body myositis, have produced modest clinical benefits. In these conditions, inhibition of the myostatin pathway represents an alternative strategy to improve functional outcomes. Preclinical data that support this approach clearly demonstrate the potential for blocking the myostatin pathway. Follistatin has emerged as a powerful antagonist of myostatin that can increase muscle mass and strength. Follistatin was first isolated from the ovary and is known to suppress follicle-stimulating hormone. This raises concerns for potential adverse effects on the hypothalamic,pituitary,gonadal axis and possible reproductive capabilities. In this review we demonstrate a strategy to bypass off-target effects using an alternatively spliced cDNA of follistatin (FS344) delivered by adeno-associated virus (AAV) to muscle. The transgene product is a peptide of 315 amino acids that is secreted from the muscle and circulates in the serum, thus avoiding cell-surface binding sites. Using this approach our translational studies show increased muscle size and strength in species ranging from mice to monkeys. Adverse effects are avoided, and no organ system pathology or change in reproductive capabilities has been seen. These findings provide the impetus to move toward gene therapy clinical trials with delivery of AAV-FS344 to increase size and function of muscle in patients with neuromuscular disease. Muscle Nerve 39: 283,296, 2009 [source]


    Predictive factors for organic central precocious puberty and utility of simplified gonadotropin-releasing hormone tests

    PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2007
    JIN-HO CHOI
    Abstract Background: The aim of the present study was to determine whether the clinical presentation of patients with central precocious puberty (CPP) permits differentiation between idiopathic and organic forms, and to examine whether luteinizing hormone (LH) determination in single blood sample after gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration is sufficient to diagnose CPP. Methods: Potential clinical and laboratory predictors for the presence of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities were assessed. Sensitivities and specificities of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min were compared after GnRH stimulation. Results: In 45 girls with signs of breast development, 26 were diagnosed as having CPP. The age of onset in patients with organic CPP was 4.75 ± 2.01 years (range 1.2,7.1 years, median 5.0 years), whereas the age in patients with idiopathic CPP was 7.09 ± 0.87 years (range 5.0,7.9 years, median 7.0 years). This parameter is the only one showing statistical significance. In addition, the specimen at 30 min after GnRH stimulation yielded highest sensitivity for the diagnosis of CPP. Conclusions: The earlier the onset of disease, the higher the possibility of presence of CNS lesion. According to the mean GnRH-stimulated LH levels and sensitivity at each time, a single blood sample obtained for LH determined after GnRH administration at 30 min can be used to diagnose CPP. [source]


    Improving in vitro Maturation of Oocytes in the Human Taking Lessons from Experiences in Animal Species

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 1 2001
    J Smitz
    One to three per cent of infertile women develop severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome after superovulation for assisted reproduction treatment (ART). This severe complication can be avoided when oocytes are obtained at an immature stage (germinal vesicle stage) out of small or medium-sized follicles. This hypothesis has been tested in several infertile women, but clinical pregnancies are disappointlingly low. This new approach in ART is still at an experimental phase and this treatment has still to be improved before routine clinical application. Experimental work in animals and humans suggest a beneficial effect in providing a short preliminary pretreatment with follicle-stimulating hormone to select for a developing cohort of follicles. The aspiration of oocyte cumulus complexes is carried out with a short needle applying reduced aspiration pressure. A crucial point is to provide the appropriate culture environment for the immature oocytes. An optimal cumulus-enclosed human oocyte culture system needs to be defined. The composition of the culture medium could be suggested by in vitro work carried out in animal models. As developmental competence is established during the latest phases of oocyte growth and is dependent on the storage of RNA, a prolonged in vitro maturation period (before inducing nuclear maturation) could provide the necessary transcriptional and translational changes. The conditions to achieve this improved cytoplasmic maturation by prolonging the in vitro culture remain to be defined. More objective noninvasive parameters for oocyte maturity are also needed to pursue research in this field. [source]


    Ovarian reserve tests and their utility in predicting response to controlled ovarian stimulation in rhesus monkeys

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 8 2010
    Julie M. Wu
    Abstract Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is an alternative to natural breeding in nonhuman primates; however, these protocols are costly with no guarantee of success. Toward the objective of predicting COS outcome in rhesus monkeys, this study evaluated three clinically used ovarian reserve tests (ORTs): day 3 (d3) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) with d3 inhibin B (INHB), the clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT), and the exogenous FSH Ovarian Reserve Test. A COS was also performed and response was classified as either successful (COS+) or unsuccessful (COS,) and retrospectively compared with ORT predictions. FSH and INHB were assessed for best hormonal index in conjunction with the aforementioned tests. INHB was consistently more accurate than FSH in all the ORTs used. Overall, a modified version of the CCCT using INHB values yielded the best percentage of correct predictions. This is the first report of ORT evaluation in rhesus monkeys and may provide a useful diagnostic test before costly follicle stimulations, as well as predicting the onset of menopause. Am. J. Primatol. 72:672,680, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Dynamics of circulating concentrations of gonadotropins and ovarian hormones throughout the menstrual cycle in the bonnet monkey: role of inhibin A in the regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    P.S. Suresh
    Abstract In higher primates, increased circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels seen during late menstrual cycle and during menstruation has been suggested to be necessary for initiation of follicular growth, recruitment of follicles and eventually culminating in ovulation of a single follicle. With a view to establish the dynamics of circulating FSH secretion with that of inhibin A (INH A) and progesterone (P4) secretions during the menstrual cycle, blood was collected daily from bonnet monkeys beginning day 1 of the menstrual cycle up to 35 days. Serum INH A levels were low during early follicular phase, increased significantly coinciding with the mid cycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge to reach maximal levels during the mid luteal phase before declining at the late luteal phase, essentially paralleling the pattern of P4 secretion seen throughout the luteal phase. Circulating FSH levels were low during early and mid luteal phases, but progressively increased during the late luteal phase and remained high for few days after the onset of menses. In another experiment, lutectomy performed during the mid luteal phase resulted in significant decrease in INH A concentration within 2,hr (58.3±2 vs. 27.3±3,pg/mL), and a 2- to 3-fold rise in circulating FSH levels by 24,hr (0.20±0.02 vs. 0.53±0.14,ng/mL) that remained high until 48,hr postlutectomy. Systemic administration of Cetrorelix (150,µg/kg body weight), a gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist, at mid luteal phase in monkeys led to suppression of serum INH A and P4 concentrations 24,hr post treatment, but circulating FSH levels did not change. Administration of exogenous LH, but not FSH, significantly increased INH A concentration. The results taken together suggest a tight coupling between LH and INH A secretion and that INH A is largely responsible for maintenance of low FSH concentration seen during the luteal phase. Am. J. Primatol. 71:817,824, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ENDOCRINOLOGY: Evaluation of the Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Testosterone Levels in Adult Men

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 6 2009
    Graziele Halmenschlager MS
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among men. Many studies have evaluated the effect of cigarette smoking on levels of male reproductive hormones; however, the findings still remain controversial. Aim., To evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Methods., A total of 255 men (90 smokers and 165 nonsmokers), aged 30 to 70 years, were investigated. Weight and height were obtained and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Also, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured and waist-to-hip ratio was obtained. Fasting blood samples were drawn for determination of plasmatic glucose levels and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, albumin, prolactin, TT, SHBG, LH, and FSH. The values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were determined by Friedwald equation and the values of FT and BT were calculated from TT, SHBG, and albumin. Statistical significance was set at P , 0.05. Main Outcome Measures., The influence of smoking on levels of TT, FT, and BT. Results., No significant difference was observed in the mean values of TT (P = 0.580), FT (P = 0.869), BT (P = 0.933), SHBG (P = 0.279), LH (P = 0.573), and FSH (P = 0.693) in the different levels of pack-years when compared to nonsmokers. Moreover, after multivariate logistic regression, no association between increased pack-years of smoking and increased odds ratio for occurrence of low hormones and SHBG levels was observed. Conclusion., In this study, smokers and nonsmokers had similar mean values of androgens, gonadotropins and SHBG. However, it is necessary to standardize pack-years of smoking in order to elucidate the influence of cigarette smoking on sex hormone levels, as well as to minimize differences among studies and to confirm our results. Halmenschlager G, Rossetto S, Lara GM, and Rhoden EL. Evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking on testosterone levels in adult men. J Sex Med 2009;6:1763,1772. [source]


    Prolactin, Subjective Well-Being and Sexual Dysfunction: An Open Label Observational Study Comparing Quetiapine with Risperidone

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 12 2008
    Jens Westheide PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Sexual dysfunction is a frequent side effect of antipsychotic treatment. Increased prolactin levels are believed to be responsible for this sexual impairment despite contradictory results. Aim., The primary objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, subjective well-being and prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia treated either with risperidone or quetiapine. The secondary objective was to explore the relationship between testosterone and the severity of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in male patients. Methods., In a 4-week nonrandomized open label observational study, 102 inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited. Sexual functioning, subjective well-being and endocrinological parameters were assessed as well as psychopathological characteristics. Main Outcome Measures., Two self-rating questionnaires concerned with sexual functioning ("Essener Fragebogen zur Sexualität") and Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN) were completed by the patients. Plasma levels of prolactin in male and female patients were measured. Furthermore, in male patients testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) was applied. Results., After 4 weeks, patients treated with quetiapine reported less severe sexual impairment, as well as lower PANSS negative and general score compared with patients treated with risperidone. Additionally, emotional regulation as measured with the SWN was higher in patients treated with quetiapine. Risperidone was significantly associated with elevated prolactin levels. Prolactin levels were not correlated either with sexual dysfunction or PANSS. However, in the group of patients treated risperidone, sexual impairment was significantly associated with the SWN subscale emotional regulation. Conclusions., Increased prolactin levels do not seem to be decisive for antipsychotic induced sexual dysfunction. Improvement of severity of illness and regaining the ability to regulate one's own emotion have positive influence on sexual functioning. Westheide J, Cvetanovska G, Albrecht C, Bliesener N, Cooper-Mahkorn D, Creutz C, Hornung W-P, Klingmüller D, Lemke MR, Maier W, Schubert M, Sträter B, and Kühn K-U. Prolactin, subjective well-being and sexual dysfunction: An open label observational study comparing Quetiapine with Risperidone. J Sex Med **;**:**,**. [source]


    Clinical evaluation of spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit in oligospermia

    ANDROLOGIA, Issue 1 2010
    T. K. Biswas
    Summary The safety and spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit (PS) were evaluated in oligospermic patients. Initially, 60 infertile male patients were assessed and those having total sperm counts below 20 million ml,1 semen were considered oligospermic and enrolled in the study (n = 35). PS capsule (100 mg) was administered twice daily after major meals for 90 days. Total semenogram and serum testosterone, luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were estimated before and at the end of the treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for oxidative stress, content of semen and biochemical parameters for safety were also evaluated. Twenty-eight patients who completed the treatment showed significant (P < 0.001) improvement in spermia (+37.6%), total sperm count (+61.4%), motility (12.4,17.4% after different time intervals), normal sperm count (+18.9%) with concomitant decrease in pus and epithelial cell count compared with baseline value. Significant decrease of semen MDA content (,18.7%) was observed. Moreover, serum testosterone (+23.5%; P < 0.001) and FSH (+9.4%; P < 0.05) levels significantly increased. HPLC chromatogram revealed inclusion of PS constituents in semen. Unaltered hepatic and renal profiles of patients indicated that PS was safe at the given dose. The present findings provide further evidence of the spermatogenic nature of Shilajit, as attributed in Ayurvedic medicine, particularly when administered as PS. [source]


    Age as only predictive factor for successful sperm recovery in patients with Klinefelter's syndrome

    ANDROLOGIA, Issue 2 2009
    K. Ferhi
    Summary The study was performed to determine factors affecting successful sperm retrieval by testicular sperm extraction in patients with nonmosaic Klinefelter's syndrome (KS). From May 2001 to February 2007, 27 azoospermic patients were diagnosed as having nonmosaic KS. All patients underwent sperm testicular extraction. Patient's age, testicular volume, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin B were assessed as predictive factors for successful sperm recovery. Of the 27 Klinefelter's patients examined, eight (29.6%) had successful sperm recovery. The comparisons of serum FSH, inhibin B and testicular volume between patients with and without successful sperm retrieval did not show any statistical significance. The patients with successful sperm recovery were significantly younger (28.6 ± 3.11 years) than those with failed attempts (33.9 ± 4.5 years, P = 0.002). The rate of positive sperm retrieval was significantly higher in patients younger than 32 years compared with patients older than 32 years (P = 0.01, chi-squared test). The study showed that clinical parameters such as FSH, inhibin B and testicular volume do not have predictive value for sperm recovery in patients with KS. The mean age of our patients with successful sperm recovery was significantly lower than that of men with unsuccessful results. Testicular sperm extraction or testicular sperm aspiration should be performed before the critical age of 32 years. [source]


    Predictors of improved seminal characteristics by varicocele repair

    ANDROLOGIA, Issue 1 2009
    Y. Kondo
    Summary The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of the improvement of semen characteristics after low ligation for patients with varicoceles. The records of 97 oligozoospermic patients who underwent microsurgical left or bilateral inguinal varicocele repair were retrospectively evaluated. We assessed factors that could be predictors of the improvement of semen characteristics using logistic regression analysis. We evaluated age, testicular volume, varicocele grade, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone, testosterone, sperm concentration and motility before low ligation. Among the 97 patients, sperm concentration improved from 6.4 ± 5.8 to 24.2 ± 35.1 million ml,1 and sperm motility increased from 32.8 ± 24.9% to 41.0 ± 14.6% in 55 patients (57%). In logistic regression analysis, pre-operative serum FSH and testosterone concentration were predictors of sperm concentration improvement. Varicocele repair improved sperm concentration and motility. Low serum FSH and high testosterone are significant factors predicting the improvement of semen characteristics before low ligation. [source]


    Seminal plasma albumin: origin and relation to the male reproductive parameters

    ANDROLOGIA, Issue 2 2007
    S. Elzanaty
    Summary We wanted to investigate the origin of seminal plasma albumin and its relation to the male reproductive parameters. Semen samples from 916 men, under infertility assessment, were analysed according to guidelines of the World Health Organization. Seminal plasma constituents, i.e. albumin, markers of the epididymal (neutral , -glucosidase, NAG), prostatic (prostate-specific antigen, PSA, and zinc) and seminal vesicle function (fructose), as well as levels of reproductive hormones in plasma were measured. The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was applied on 267 of the 916 samples. A negative correlation was seen for seminal albumin and plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (r = ,0.1, P = 0.02) and a positive correlation for seminal albumin and serum inhibin B (r = 0.2, P = 0.004). Albumin exhibited positive correlations with the epididymal marker, NAG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001) and with the prostatic markers, PSA and zinc (r = 0.1, P = 0.001; r = 0.2, P < 0.001 respectively) as well as with age (r = 0.2, P < 0.001). A negative significant association was seen for seminal albumin and semen volume (, = ,0.60; 95% CI ,0.80 to ,0.30). The opposite trend was found regarding sperm concentration (, = 0.34; 95% CI 0.30,0.40), total sperm count (, = 0.30; 95% CI 0.20,0.40), and percentage morphologically normal spermatozoa (, = 0.70; 95% CI 0.10,1.0). No association was found between albumin and sperm motility, SCSA parameters, or fructose, the marker of seminal vesicles. Our results suggest testicular, epididymal and prostatic origin of seminal plasma albumin, in addition to the contribution from blood. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between seminal plasma albumin and sperm morphology. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of seminal albumin in sperm morphology. [source]


    Serum inhibin B and follicle-stimulating hormone levels as markers in the evaluation of azoospermic men: a comparison

    ANDROLOGIA, Issue 5 2005
    A. Halder
    Summary Inhibin B is a glycoprotein hormone produced mainly by Sertoli cells of the testes in the adult male. It selectively suppresses the secretion of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and has local paracrine actions in the testes. Its measurement is useful for investigating the role of inhibin B in male gonadal dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of serum inhibin B in men with nonobstructive azoospermia in comparison with FSH. Serum concentration of FSH was measured using microparticle enzyme immunoassay, inhibin B by specific solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in men with nonobstructive azoospermia (n = 46) and control fertile men (n = 5). Mean inhibin B and FSH level was 104.6 pg ml,1 and 4.0 mIU ml,1 in control men whereas the value for nonobstructive azoospermic men was 17.06 pg ml,1 and 31.1 mIU ml,1 respectively. Inhibin B and FSH levels were significantly different in azoospermia than controls (P < 0.0001). There were six cases of nonobstructive azoospermia with normal inhibin B. Testicular histology did not find any evidence of spermatogenesis in three cases with normal inhibin B. This demonstrated that inhibin B was not a superior predictor for testicular function in our study. [source]


    Possible predictive factors for ICSI?

    ANDROLOGIA, Issue 4 2003
    Molecular biology techniques in combination with therapeutic testicular biopsies
    Summary. Applying intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the selection of an unsuccessful spermatozoon results in great emotional consequences for the couple. Therefore, there is a need for a prognostic parameter to estimate their chances for successful fertility treatment. This review summarizes both the main reasons for spermatogenic impairment, and possible predictive factors for successful sperm retrieval applying testicular sperm extraction and outcome of ICSI. While basic sperm parameters, aetiology and type of spermatozoa, and serum follicle-stimulating hormone and inhibin levels have been shown to be unrelated to the outcome of ICSI, Y-chromosome microdeletions are known to have a negative influence on the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa. Recently, a significant correlation has been reported between the protamine-1 to protamine-2 mRNA ratio in haploid spermatids of testicular biopsies and the ability of spermatozoa for successful fertilization of an oocyte. In future, both the outstanding role of the haploid spermatids and the involvement of molecular biological techniques will improve the role of therapeutic testicular biopsies. [source]


    Chronic immobilization-induced stress increases plasma testosterone and delays testicular maturation in pubertal rats

    ANDROLOGIA, Issue 1 2000
    S. A. Almeida
    Summary. We investigated whether chronic stress, applied from prepuberty to early puberty, interferes with the spermatogenic and androgenic testicular functions. Male pubertal rats (40 days old) were immobilized 6 h per day for 15 days. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone, prolactin and testosterone were significantly augmented following immobilization, whereas plasma luteinizing hormone decreased and follicle-stimulating hormone was not altered. Acute immobilization (5 min) increased prolactin and testosterone levels in control rats but caused a significantly higher increase in these hormones when superimposed on chronic stress. A lower extent of testicular maturation was observed in pubertal rats immobilized from prepuberty. [source]


    Application of time-resolved fluorometry to immunoassays for bovine reproductive hormones

    ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
    Hiroyuki KANEKO
    ABSTRACT The principle of time-resolved fluorometry with lanthanide chelates was established in the 1980s, but in the field of animal sciences it has not been widely applied to immunoassays. However, immunoassays that utilize time-resolved fluorometry are possible alternatives to radioimmunoassays, since they can attain high sensitivity without safety risks. In this short review, we introduce the development of time-resolved immunoassays for inhibin A, inhibin B and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and describe their application to the investigation of FSH regulation in male and female cattle. The results obtained using these newly developed immunoassays indicate that inhibin A acts as a feedback regulator for FSH secretion in female cattle, whereas inhibin A, and probably inhibin B, do so in male cattle. [source]


    Inhibin: Regulation of reproductive function and practical use in females

    ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
    Mohamed S. MEDAN
    ABSTRACT Inhibins are gonadal glycoprotein hormones selectively and potently inhibiting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from the pituitary gland. Inhibins are produced mainly by the ovary and are purified from follicular fluid. Inhibins were shown to be produced in two forms through dimeric assembly of an ,-subunit and one of two closely related ,-subunits to form inhibin A (,-,A) and inhibin B (,-,B). Although inhibin subunits are expressed in various tissues, the gonads are the major source of circulating inhibins. While inhibins may act as a paracrine or autocrine factor in some tissues, their best understood roles are as endocrine regulators of pituitary FSH. In this review we focus our attention on more recent developments in inhibin research. We describe patterns of inhibin A and B secretion during the estrous cycle. We also review the immunization against inhibin , subunit as a practical method for superovulation. Superovulation has been induced successfully by passive or active immunization against the inhibin ,-subunit in several species such as mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, cows, mares, ewes and goats. Furthermore, several studies have shown that oocytes superovulated with immunization against inhibin ,-subunit have the ability to develop normally, suggesting that inhibin immunization could be used as a practical method for superovulation in a wide range of animal species. [source]


    The influence of body weight on response to ovulation induction with gonadotrophins in 335 women with World Health Organization group II anovulatory infertility

    BJOG : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 10 2006
    AH Balen
    Objective, To assess the influence of body weight on the outcome of ovulation induction in women with World Health Organization (WHO) group II anovulatory infertility. Design, The combined results of two studies in which either a highly purified urinary follicle-stimulating hormone or highly purified urinary menotrophin were compared with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone. Setting, Thirty-six fertility clinics. Population, A total of 335 women with WHO group II anovulatory infertility failing to ovulate or conceive on clomifene citrate. Methods, Ovarian stimulation using a low-dose step-up protocol. Main outcome measures, The effects of body weight on ovarian response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after one treatment cycle. Results, With increasing body mass index (BMI), a higher threshold dose of gonadotrophins was required and there were more days of stimulation; yet, despite a greater concentration of antral follicles, there were fewer intermediate and large follicles. There was no difference in the rates of ovulation and clinical pregnancy in relation to body weight. Conclusions, Body weight affects gonadotrophin requirements but not overall outcome of ovulation induction in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome and a BMI of less than 35 kg/m2. [source]


    Increased testicular 8-hydroxy-2,-deoxyguanosine in patients with varicocele

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2007
    Tomomoto Ishikawa
    OBJECTIVES To assess immunohistochemically 8-hydroxy-2,-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a sensitive biological marker of oxidative damage and stress) in testicular tissue from patients with varicocele, to determine whether 8-OHdG is related to spermatogenesis, as oxidative stress in testicular DNA is associated with poor semen quality and reduced fertility. PATIENTS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS Testicular tissue samples were collected from the testes of 36 patients with varicocele and five normal volunteers. The mean (sd) age of the patients was 35.3 (5.4) years. The prevalence of immunostained germ cells among all the germ cells in >20 seminiferous tubules was calculated. RESULTS The mean (sd) sperm concentration and Johnsen's score in the varicocele group was lower than in the normal group, at 27.6 (11.8) vs 80.4 (21.7) million/mL (P < 0.001) and 7.6 (1.1) vs 9.0 (0.7), respectively (P < 0.05). In all patients, 8-OHdG was mainly expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubule. Immunostained germ cells correlated negatively with sperm concentration (r = ,0.48, P = 0.01) and Johnsen's score (r = ,0.46, P = 0.02), but not with follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone or testosterone level. Immunostained germ cells were significantly more prevalent in the varicocele group, at 53.6 (5.7)%, than that in the normal group, at 14.3 (2.3)% (P < 0.001). The prevalence of immunostained germ cells and clinical grades were positively related; the ratio recorded for varicocele grades I, II and III was 38.0 (10.0)%, 41.0 (9.1)%, and 57.0 (9.3)%, respectively (grade I vs grade III, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Increased 8-OHdG expression in the testis was associated with deficient spermatogenesis in infertile men with varicocele. [source]