Flavonoid Biosynthesis (flavonoid + biosynthesis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Growth-Promoting Nitrogen Nutrition Affects Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Young Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) Leaves

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
T. Strissel
Abstract: Enhanced shoot growth and a decrease in flavonoid concentration in apple trees grown under high nitrogen (N) supply was observed in previous studies, along with increasing scab susceptibility of cultivar "Golden Delicious" after high N nutrition. Several hypotheses have suggested that there is a trade-off between primary and secondary metabolism because of competition for common substrates, but nothing is known about regulation at the enzyme level. In this study, a set of experiments was performed to elucidate the effect of N nutrition on the activities of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [PAL], chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase [CHS/CHI}, flavanone 3-hydroxylase [FHT], flavonol synthase [FLS], dihydroflavonol 4-reductase [DFR]) and the accumulation of different groups of phenylpropanoids. The inhibition of flavonoid accumulation by high N nutrition could be confirmed, but the influence of N supply on the flavonoid enzymes CHS/CHI, FHT, DFR, and FLS was not evident. However, PAL activity seems to be downregulated, thus forming a bottleneck resulting in a generally decreased flavonoid accumulation. Furthermore, the response of the scab-resistant cultivar "Rewena" to high N nutrition was not as strong as that of the susceptible cultivar "Golden Delicious". [source]


Evaluation of a Non-Targeted "Omic" Approach in the Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
S. B. Metzdorff
Abstract: Genetically modified plants must be approved before release in the European Union, and the approval is generally based upon a comparison of various characteristics between the transgenic plant and a conventional counterpart. As a case study, focusing on safety assessment of genetically modified plants, we here report the development and characterisation of six independently transformed Arabidopsis thaliana lines modified in the flavonoid biosynthesis. Analyses of integration events and comparative analysis for characterisation of the intended effects were performed by PCR, quantitative Real-time PCR, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Analysis by cDNA microarray was used as a non-targeted approach for the identification of potential unintended effects caused by the transformation. The results revealed that, although the transgenic lines possessed different types of integration events, no unintended effects were identified. However, we found that the majority of genes showing differential expression were identified as stress-related genes and that environmental conditions had a large impact on the expression of several genes, proteins, and metabolites. We suggest that the microarray approach has the potential to become a useful tool for screening of unintended effects, but state that it is crucial to have substantial information on the natural variation in traditional crops in order to be able to interpret "omics" data correctly within the framework of food safety assessment strategies of novel plant varieties, including genetically modified plant varieties. [source]


Significance of Flavonoids in Plant Resistance and Enhancement of Their Biosynthesis

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
D. Treutter
Abstract: The roles of flavonoids in plant defence against pathogens, herbivores, and environmental stress are reviewed and their significant contribution to plant resistance is discussed. The induction of flavonoids is of particular interest for gathering evidence of their roles. Tools are mentioned which may enhance flavonoid biosynthesis and accumulation. These include metabolic engineering and UV light. The induction of defence-related flavonoids is modified by other determining factors and competition between growth and secondary metabolism may exist. In an evolutionary context, stress-related oxidative pressure may have been a major trigger for the distribution and abundance of flavonoids. UV protection is one of their most significant, or even the most significant, functional role for flavonoids. The multi-functionality of these compounds, however, often complicates the interpretation of experimental results but, overall, it supports the importance of flavonoids. [source]


Growth-Promoting Nitrogen Nutrition Affects Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Young Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) Leaves

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
T. Strissel
Abstract: Enhanced shoot growth and a decrease in flavonoid concentration in apple trees grown under high nitrogen (N) supply was observed in previous studies, along with increasing scab susceptibility of cultivar "Golden Delicious" after high N nutrition. Several hypotheses have suggested that there is a trade-off between primary and secondary metabolism because of competition for common substrates, but nothing is known about regulation at the enzyme level. In this study, a set of experiments was performed to elucidate the effect of N nutrition on the activities of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [PAL], chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase [CHS/CHI}, flavanone 3-hydroxylase [FHT], flavonol synthase [FLS], dihydroflavonol 4-reductase [DFR]) and the accumulation of different groups of phenylpropanoids. The inhibition of flavonoid accumulation by high N nutrition could be confirmed, but the influence of N supply on the flavonoid enzymes CHS/CHI, FHT, DFR, and FLS was not evident. However, PAL activity seems to be downregulated, thus forming a bottleneck resulting in a generally decreased flavonoid accumulation. Furthermore, the response of the scab-resistant cultivar "Rewena" to high N nutrition was not as strong as that of the susceptible cultivar "Golden Delicious". [source]


Differential regulation of closely related R2R3-MYB transcription factors controls flavonol accumulation in different parts of the Arabidopsis thaliana seedling

THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
Ralf Stracke
Summary The genes MYB11, MYB12 and MYB111 share significant structural similarity and form subgroup 7 of the Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB gene family. To determine the regulatory potential of these three transcription factors, we used a combination of genetic, functional genomics and metabolite analysis approaches. MYB11, MYB12 and MYB111 show a high degree of functional similarity and display very similar target gene specificity for several genes of flavonoid biosynthesis, including CHALCONE SYNTHASE, CHALCONE ISOMERASE, FLAVANONE 3-HYDROXYLASE and FLAVONOL SYNTHASE1. Seedlings of the triple mutant myb11 myb12 myb111, which genetically lack a complete subgroup of R2R3-MYB genes, do not form flavonols while the accumulation of anthocyanins is not affected. In developing seedlings, MYB11, MYB12 and MYB111 act in an additive manner due to their differential spatial activity; MYB12 controls flavonol biosynthesis mainly in the root, while MYB111 controls flavonol biosynthesis primarily in cotyledons. We identified and confirmed additional target genes of the R2R3-MYB subgroup 7 factors, including the UDP-glycosyltransferases UGT91A1 and UGT84A1, and we demonstrate that the accumulation of distinct and structurally identified flavonol glycosides in seedlings correlates with the expression domains of the different R2R3-MYB factors. Therefore, we refer to these genes as PFG1,3 for ,PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES'. [source]


Localization of a flavonoid biosynthetic polyphenol oxidase in vacuoles

THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2006
Eiichiro Ono
Summary Aureusidin synthase, a polyphenol oxidase (PPO), specifically catalyzes the oxidative formation of aurones from chalcones, which are plant flavonoids, and is responsible for the yellow coloration of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) flowers. All known PPOs have been found to be localized in plastids, whereas flavonoid biosynthesis is thought to take place in the cytoplasm [or on the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)]. However, the primary structural characteristics of aureusidin synthase and some of its molecular properties argue against localization of the enzyme in plastids and the cytoplasm. In this study, the subcellular localization of the enzyme in petal cells of the yellow snapdragon was investigated. Sucrose-density gradient and differential centrifugation analyses suggested that the enzyme (the 39-kDa mature form) is not located in plastids or on the ER. Transient assays using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimera fused with the putative propeptide of the PPO precursor suggested that the enzyme was localized within the vacuole lumen. We also found that the necessary information for vacuolar targeting of the PPO was encoded within the 53-residue N-terminal sequence (NTPP), but not in the C-terminal sequence of the precursor. NTPP-mediated ER-to-Golgi trafficking to vacuoles was confirmed by means of the co-expression of an NTPP-GFP chimera with a dominant negative mutant of the Arabidopsis GTPase Sar1 or with a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP)-fused Golgi marker (an H+ -translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase of Arabidopsis). We identified a sequence-specific vacuolar sorting determinant in the NTPP of the precursor. We have demonstrated the biosynthesis of a flavonoid skeleton in vacuoles. The findings of this metabolic compartmentation may provide a strategy for overcoming the biochemical instability of the precursor chalcones in the cytoplasm, thus leading to the efficient accumulation of aurones in the flower. [source]


The Effect of Ultraviolet-Depleted Light on the Flavonol Contents of the Cactus Species Opuntia wilcoxii and Opuntia violacea

CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY, Issue 7 2007

Abstract An early investigation at the Biosphere-2 Laboratory, an artificial ecosystem in the Arizona desert, had shown that the flavonoid content of cacti grown in glass-filtered solar light was lower than of cacti grown in normal solar light. This was attributed to the absence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is required for flavonoid biosynthesis. In this study, two species of Opuntia cacti were grown in solar and UV-depleted light, and their flavonol contents of different tissues were determined by HPLC. O. wilcoxii, previously raised in the absence of UV light, was exposed to normal solar light. The flavonol content of young O. wilcoxii pads was 28-fold higher when grown in solar light as compared to UV-depleted light. The flavonol contents of mature outer tissues were only slightly higher. O. violacea, previously raised in solar light, was also maintained in the same UV-depleted artificial ecosystem. The flavonol content after hydrolysis of outer tissues was similar, whether grown in solar light or UV-depleted light. We attribute these responses to different biosynthetic and metabolic rates of young vs. mature plant tissues; slow-growing mature tissues neither produce nor metabolize compounds as quickly as immature tissues. These findings indicate that artificial ecosystems can influence the production of natural products in cultivated plants. [source]