Financial Pressures (financial + pressure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Financial Pressure, Monetary Policy Effects and Inventories: Firm-level Evidence from a Market-based and a Bank-based Financial System

ECONOMICA, Issue 286 2005
Andrew Benito
This paper examines the adjustment of inventories by firms in the United Kingdom and Spain, which have two quite different financial systems. A widely held view is that a key channel for monetary policy is through the influencing of inventory accumulation. Using a large company-level panel data-set for both countries, significant effects associated with borrowing costs on inventories are estimated. Financial effects associated with liquidity and the borrowing ratio are estimated to be stronger in the UK than in Spain. Since the Spanish financial system is bank-based, while that of the UK is market-based, this is interpreted as contrary to the Bank Dependence Hypothesis. [source]

Impact of cost containment measures on medical liability

S. Callens PhD
Abstract Rationale, Owing to the growing health care expenditure and the need to improve efficiency, public authorities have since the 1980s changed their policy with respect to health care. Financial pressures encouraged them to investigate methods to control health care costs. One recent method is the enactment of cost containment measures based on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that provide financial or administrative sanctions. Aims and objectives, This article describes the legal value of CPGs, the evolution towards cost containment measures based on CPGs, and finally the legal value of these new cost containment measures. It questions whether these measures may have an impact on the medical liability rules and it wants to open the debate on the legal value of these measures based vis--vis the professional autonomy of the physician and patients' rights on quality care. Methods, The research for this article is based on a comparative analysis of the legal literature and jurisprudence of a number of legal systems. Results and Conclusions, The article concludes that, as a result of the rising costs, it becomes increasingly difficult for a physician to balance his duty to take care on the one hand and his duty to control costs on the other. Maintaining a high standard of care towards patients becomes difficult. Consequently, one wonders whether the law should then allow the standard of care to be adjusted according to the available means. Until now, courts in a fault based system have not been willing to accept such an adjustment of the standard of care, but it might well be possible that this attitude will change in case of no-fault compensation systems. [source]

The uncertain future of continuing medical education: commercialism and shifts in funding

Dr. R. Van Harrison PhD Professor Director
Abstract To preserve a professionally responsible system for continuing medical education (CME), medicine must recognize and address two powerful economic forces: commercial interests and societal resource limitations. Commercial support to accredited CME providers is now more than 50% of total CME income. The cumulative influence is increasingly biasing CME development, presentation, and participation toward topics that benefit commercial interests. Options to address this cumulative bias are proposed. Limitations on societal resources for health care have reduced funding from medical schools and hospitals for the infrastructure of CME. Financial pressures are likely to increase, potentially leading to controls on drug costs and significant reductions in commercial support of CME. Financial pressures on physicians' incomes may limit the extent to which registration fees could offset these reductions. Physicians and their professional organizations should recognize these threats to the objectivity, funding, and infrastructure of the CME system and they should work to ensure a viable CME system in the future. [source]


Ornella Wanda Maietta
ABSTRACT,:,In this paper, we test the extent to which producers' cooperatives can experience an increase in technical efficiency following a tightening of financial constraints. This hypothesis is tested on a sample of Italian conventional and cooperative firms for the wine production and processing sector, using frontier analysis. The results support the hypothesis that increasing financial pressure can affect positively the cooperatives efficiency. [source]

The Within-Year Concentration of Medical Care: Implications for Family Out-of-Pocket Expenditure Burdens

Thomas M. Selden
Objective. To examine the within-year concentration of family health care and the resulting exposure of families to short periods of high expenditure burdens. Data Source. Household data from the pooled 2003 and 2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) yielding nationally representative estimates for the nonelderly civilian noninstitutionalized population. Study Design. The paper examines the within-year concentration of family medical care use and the frequency with which family out-of-pocket expenditures exceeded 20 percent of family income, computed at the annual, quarterly, and monthly levels. Principal Findings. On average among families with medical care, 49 percent of all (charge-weighted) care occurred in a single month, and 63 percent occurred in a single quarter). Nationally, 27 percent of the study population experienced at least 1 month in which out-of-pocket expenditures exceeded 20 percent of income. Monthly 20 percent burden rates were highest among the poor, at 43 percent, and were close to or above 30 percent for all but the highest income group (families above four times the federal poverty line). Conclusions. Within-year spikes in health care utilization can create financial pressures missed by conventional annual burden analyses. Within-year health-related financial pressures may be especially acute among lower-income families due to low asset holdings. [source]

Bursaries and Student Success: a Study of Students from Low-Income Groups at Two Institutions in the South West

Sue Hatt
This article draws on quantitative and qualitative data from two institutions to compare the student experience of those with and without bursary awards. Using the student life cycle model, the article examines the ways in which bursaries impact on the student experience before they enter the institution, in the early weeks of their studies and as they progress through their programmes. At these two institutions, students with bursaries were more likely to be retained and to perform well during the first year than those without bursaries. The study found that bursaries can ease financial pressures during their transition to higher education (HE) and that institution-specific bursaries can affect students' perceptions of an institution and their commitment to succeed. After 2006, those institutions wishing to charge variable fees will be required to provide bursary support for low-income students. The findings from this article suggest that HE providers should consider the timing of the bursary payments and the implicit message the bursary sends to applicants if they want to ensure that their bursaries have a positive impact on the student experience. [source]

Balancing the funds in the New Cooperative Medical Scheme in rural China: determinants and influencing factors in two provinces

Luying Zhang
Abstract In recent years, the central government in China has been leading the re-establishment of its rural health insurance system, but local government institutions have considerable flexibility in the specific design and management of schemes. Maintaining a reasonable balance of funds is critical to ensure that the schemes are sustainable and effective in offering financial protection to members. This paper explores the financial management of the NCMS in China through a case study of the balance of funds and the factors influencing this, in six counties in two Chinese provinces. The main data source is NCMS management data from each county from 2003 to 2005, supplemented by: a household questionnaire survey, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with all local stakeholders and policy document analysis. The study found that five out of six counties held a large fund surplus, whilst enrolees obtained only partial financial protection. However, in one county greater risk pooling for enrolees was accompanied by relatively high utilisation levels, resulting in a fund deficit. The opportunities to sustainably increase the financial protection offered to NCMS enrolees are limited by the financial pressures on local government, specific political incentives and low technical capacities at the county level and below. Our analysis suggests that in the short term, efforts should be made to improve the management of the current NCMS design, which should be supported through capacity building for NCMS offices. However, further medium-term initiatives may be required including changes to the design of the schemes. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Nursing home care: whodunit?

Aggie TG Paulus PhD
Aims and objectives., (1) To analyse and compare (changes and differences in) activity profiles of various types of nursing home care. (2) To assess the impact of integrated care on these activity profiles. Background., Because of an ongoing introduction of integrated nursing home care, caregivers increasingly have to co-ordinate their activities, engage into interprofessional relationships and take over each other's tasks. Consequently, activity profiles [i.e. combinations of (contributions to) care activities and the roles that perform them] are expected to change. Design/methods., At three measurement points in the period 1999,2003, caregivers (in 18 different roles) recorded and listed direct and indirect care activities. A total of 41 335 lists were analysed to derive activity profiles of traditional, transitional and integrated nursing home care in the Netherlands. Results., Traditional, transitional and integrated care shared some comparable activity profiles. Integrated care differed from the other types with respect to the contribution of the geriatric nurse, recreational activities supervisor, nutrition assistant, household assistant and nursing assistant to activities such as extra care, handling food and club activities. Contrary to the other roles, the licensed practical nurse contributed to (almost) all activities in all types of care. Conclusions., Nursing home care has several recurring activity profiles. These profiles are the same in all types of nursing home care. The introduction of integrated care implies that particular profiles have to be added to these profiles. As a generalist, the licensed practical nurse seems to play a key role in all activity profiles. Relevance to clinical practice., Because of demographic and financial pressures, integrated care for older people becomes increasingly important. By addressing the impact of integrated care on activity profiles, this paper provides information on how new types of care can be delivered in the most effective manner. [source]

Food Safety Regulation and the Conflict of Interest: The Case of MeatSafety and E. Coli 0157

Richard Schofield
The Food Standards Agency (FSA) aims to remove the longstanding conflict of interest between producers and consumers which is thought to lie at the heart of the rising number of food safety problems of recent years, to restore consumer confidence, and to protect public health. This paper sets out firstly to understand what the conflicts are, how they arise and their implications for food safety, and secondly to provide some means of evaluating the proposals for the Food Standards Agency. It does this by examining the current food safety regulatory regime as it relates to e. coli 0157, one of the problems that gave rise to the FSA and an exemplar of the problems of meat safety, and places it in its wider economic context. The results show that the financial pressures on the food industry were such that food hygiene was largely dependent upon external regulation and enforcement. But the deficiencies in the conception, design and implementation of the Food Safety Act, which was fundamentally deregulatory and privileged producer interests, permitted the food safety problems to grow. The case also, by illustrating how the interests of big business predominate in the formulation of public policy at the expense of the public, reveals how the class nature of the state affects public policy and social relations. Without addressing these issues, the problems they give rise to will remain. While the case is based on experiences in Britain, the problem of food safety and the issues raised have an international significance. [source]