Facies Conditions (facy + condition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Facies Conditions

  • amphibolite facy condition
  • greenschist facy condition

  • Selected Abstracts

    Metamorphic evolution of kyanite,staurolite-bearing epidote,amphibolite from the Early Palaeozoic Oeyama belt, SW Japan

    T. Tsujimori
    Abstract Early Palaeozoic kyanite,staurolite-bearing epidote,amphibolites including foliated epidote,amphibolite (FEA), and nonfoliated leucocratic or melanocratic metagabbros (LMG, MMG), occur in the Fuko Pass metacumulate unit (FPM) of the Oeyama belt, SW Japan. Microtextural relationships and mineral chemistry define three metamorphic stages: relict granulite facies metamorphism (M1), high- P (HP) epidote,amphibolite facies metamorphism (M2), and retrogression (M3). M1 is preserved as relict Al-rich diopside (up to 8.5 wt.% Al2O3) and pseudomorphs after spinel and plagioclase in the MMG, suggesting a medium- P granulite facies condition (0.8,1.3 GPa at >,850 C). An unusually low-variance M2 assemblage, Hbl + Czo + Ky St + Pg + Rt Ab Crn, occurs in the matrix of all rock types. The presence of relict plagioclase inclusions in M2 kyanite associated with clinozoisite indicates a hydration reaction to form the kyanite-bearing M2 assemblage during cooling. The corundum-bearing phase equilibria constrain a qualitative metamorphic P,T condition of 1.1,1.9 GPa at 550,800 C for M2. The M2 minerals were locally replaced by M3 margarite, paragonite, plagioclase and/or chlorite. The breakdown of M2 kyanite to produce the M3 assemblage at <,0.5 GPa and 450,500 C suggests a greenschist facies overprint during decompression. The P,T evolution of the FPM may represent subduction of an oceanic plateau with a granulite facies lower crust and subsequent exhumation in a Pacific-type orogen. [source]

    Palaeoproterozoic high-pressure granulite overprint of the Archean continental crust: evidence for homogeneous crustal thickening (Man Rise, Ivory Coast)

    P. PITRA
    Abstract The character of mountain building processes in Palaeoproterozoic times is subject to much debate. Based on the discovery of high-pressure granulites in the Man Rise (Cte d'Ivoire), several authors have argued that Eburnean (Palaeoproterozoic) reworking of the Archean basement was achieved by modern-style thrust-dominated tectonics. A mafic granulite of the Kouibli area (Archean part of the Man Rise, western Ivory Coast) displays a primary assemblage (M1) containing garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, red-brown pargasitic amphibole, plagioclase (andesine), rutile, ilmenite and quartz. This assemblage is associated with a subvertical regional foliation. Symplectites that developed at the expense of the M1 assemblage contain orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase (bytownite), green pargasitic amphibole, ilmenite and magnetite (M2). Multiequilibrium thermobarometric calculations and P,T pseudosections calculated with thermocalc suggest granulite facies conditions of , 13 kbar, 850 C and <7 kbar, 700,800 C for M1 and M2, respectively. In agreement with the qualitative information obtained from reaction textures and chemical zoning of minerals, this suggests an evolution dominated by decompression accompanied by moderate cooling. A Sm,Nd garnet , whole-rock age of 2.03 Ga determined on this sample indicates that this evolution occurred during the Palaeoproterozoic. It is argued that from the geodynamic point of view the observed features are best explained by homogeneous thickening of the margin of the Archean craton, re-heated and softened due to the accretion of hot, juvenile Palaeoproterozoic crust, as well as coeval intrusion of juvenile magmas. Crustal shortening was mainly accommodated by transpressive shear zones and by lateral crustal spreading rather than large-scale thrust systems. [source]

    Phase-equilibrium constraints on titanite and rutile activities in mafic epidote amphibolites and geobarometry using titanite,rutile equilibria

    P. KAPP
    Abstract Activities of titanite (Ttn, CaTiSiO5) and/or rutile (Rt, TiO2) phase components were calculated for 45 well-characterized natural titanite- or rutile-undersaturated epidote,amphibolites by using the equilibria: (i) 3 anorthite + 2 zoisite/clinozoisite + rutile + quartz = 3 anorthite + titanite + water (referred to as TZARS) and (ii) anorthite + 2 titanite = grossular + 2 rutile + quartz (referred to as GRATiS). In titanite-bearing and rutile-absent samples aRt is 0.75 0.26. In titanite-absent, rutile-bearing samples aTtn is 0.89 0.16. Mean values derived for aRt/aTtn are 0.92 0.12 for rutile + titanite-bearing samples and 0.42 0.27 for samples lacking both titanite and rutile. Use of these values with TZARS yields pressure estimates for epidote,amphibolites that differ on average by <0.5 kbar from those recorded by established mineral barometers, even where both titanite and rutile are lacking. Despite rather large uncertainties in the average values obtained for aRt, aTtn or aRt/aTtn, application of TZARS yields pressure estimates that agree with independent estimates to within 0.5 kbar for titanite- and/or rutile-saturated samples, and to within 0.8 kbar for samples that contain neither Ti-phase. The accuracy and precision of the TZARS barometer are comparable to that of many well-calibrated barometers. TZARS offers a much-needed barometer for mafic rocks metamorphosed at epidote-bearing amphibolite and blueschist facies conditions. In addition, the results provide a basis for application of other thermobarometers, such as Ti-in-zircon, where rutile activity is required as input. [source]

    Geochronological and petrological constraints on Palaeoproterozoic granulite facies metamorphism in southeastern margin of the North China Craton

    Y.-C. LIU
    Abstract In the southeastern margin of the North China Craton, high-pressure (HP) granulite facies meta-basic rocks exposed as bands or lenses in the Precambrian metamorphic basement (e.g. Bengbu) and as xenoliths in Mesozoic intrusions (e.g. Jiagou) are characterized by the assemblage garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz + rutile Ti-rich hornblende. Cathodoluminescence imaging and mineral inclusions reveal that most zircon from the three dated samples displays distinct core-mantle-rim structures. The cores show typical igneous zircon characteristics and give ages of 2.5,2.4 Ga, thus dating the protolith of the metabasites. The mantles formed at granulite facies conditions as evidenced by inclusions of the HP granulite mineral assemblage garnet + clinopyroxene + rutile + plagioclase + quartz hornblende and Ti-rich biotite and yield ages of 1839 31, 1811 19 and 1800 15 Ma. An inclusion-free rim yields an age of 176 2 Ma with the lower Th/U ratio of 0.02. The geochronological and preliminary petrological data of this study suggest that the lower crust beneath the southeastern margin of the North China Craton formed at 2.5,2.4 Ga and underwent HP granulite facies metamorphism at c. 1.8 Ga. This HT-HP metamorphic event may be ascribed to large-scale crustal heating and thickening related to mantle-derived magma underplating at the base of the lower crust, as evidenced by widespread extension, rifting and related mafic magma emplacement in the North China Craton during this period. The age of 176 2 Ma most likely records the late amphibolite facies retrogression occurring during exhumation. [source]

    Formation of clinopyroxene + spinel and amphibole + spinel symplectites in coronitic gabbros from the Sierra de San Luis (Argentina): a key to post-magmatic evolution

    Abstract The El Arenal metagabbros preserve coronitic shells of orthopyroxene Fe-oxide around olivine, as well as three different types of symplectite consisting of amphibole + spinel, clinopyroxene + spinel and, more rarely, orthopyroxene + spinel. The textural features of the metagabbros can be explained by the breakdown of the olivine + plagioclase pair, producing orthopyroxene coronas and clinopyroxene + spinel symplectites, followed by the formation of amphibole + spinel symplectites, reflecting a decrease in temperature and, possibly, an increase in water activity with respect to the previous stage. The metagabbros underwent a complex P,T history consisting of an igneous stage followed by cooling in granulite, amphibolite and greenschist facies conditions. Although the P,T conditions of emplacement of the igneous protolith are still doubtful, the magmatic assemblage suggests that igneous crystallization occurred at a pressure lower than 6 kbar and at 900,1100 C. Granulitic P,T conditions have been estimated at about 900 C and 7,8 kbar combining conventional thermobarometry and pseudosection analysis. Pseudosection calculation has also shown that the formation of the amphibole + spinel symplectite could have been favoured by an increase in water activity during the amphibolite stage, as the temperature of formation of this symplectite strongly depends on aH2O (<740 C for aH2O = 0.5; <790 C for aH2O = 1). Furthermore, but not pervasive, re-equilibration under greenschist facies P,T conditions is documented by retrograde epidote and chlorite. The resulting counterclockwise P,T path consists of progressive, nearly isobaric cooling from the igneous stage down to the granulite, amphibolite and greenschist stage. [source]

    Formation of eclogite, and reaction during exhumation to mid-crustal levels, Snowbird tectonic zone, western Canadian Shield

    Abstract A re-evaluation of the P,T history of eclogite within the East Athabasca granulite terrane of the Snowbird tectonic zone, northern Saskatchewan, Canada was undertaken. Using calculated pseudosections in combination with new garnet,clinopyroxene and zircon and rutile trace element thermometry, peak metamorphic conditions are constrained to ,16 kbar and 750 C, followed by near-isothermal decompression to ,10 kbar. Associated with the eclogite are two types of occurrences of sapphirine-bearing rocks preserving a rich variety of reaction textures that allow examination of the retrograde history below 10 kbar. The first occurs as a 1,2 m zone adjacent to the eclogite body with a peak assemblage of garnet,kyanite,quartz interpreted to have formed during the eclogite facies metamorphism. Rims of orthopyroxene and plagioclase developed around garnet, and sapphirine,plagioclase and spinel,plagioclase symplectites developed around kyanite. The second variety of sapphirine-bearing rocks occurs in kyanite veins within the eclogite. The veins involve orthopyroxene, garnet and plagioclase layers spatially organized around a central kyanite layer that are interpreted to have formed following the eclogite facies metamorphism. The layering has itself been modified, with, in particular, kyanite being replaced by sapphirine,plagioclase, spinel,plagioclase and corundum,plagioclase symplectites, as well as the kyanite being replaced by sillimanite. Petrological modelling in the CFMAS system examining chemical potential gradients between kyanite and surrounding quartz indicates that these vein textures probably formed during further essentially isothermal decompression, ultimately reaching ,7 kbar and 750 C. These results indicate that the final reaction in these rocks occurred at mid-crustal levels at upper amphibolite facies conditions. Previous geochronological and thermochronological constraints bracket the time interval of decompression to <5,10 Myr, indicating that ,25 km of exhumation took place during this interval. This corresponds to minimum unroofing rates of ,2,5 mm year,1 following eclogite facies metamorphism, after which the rocks resided at mid-crustal levels for 80,100 Myr. [source]

    A comparative U,Th,Pb (zircon,monazite) and 40Ar,39Ar (muscovite,biotite) study of shear zones in northern Victoria Land (Antarctica): implications for geochronology and localized reworking of the Ross Orogen

    Abstract Mylonitic granites from two shear zones in northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) were investigated in order to examine the behaviour of the U,Th,Pb system in zircon and monazite and of the 40Ar,39Ar system in micas during ductile deformation. Meso- and micro-structural data indicate that shear zones gently dip to the NE and SW, have an opposite sense of shear (top-to-the-SW and -NE, respectively) and developed under upper greenschist facies conditions. In situ U,Pb dating by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry of zircon areas with well-preserved igneous zoning patterns (c. 490 Ma) confirm that granites were emplaced during the Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician Ross,Delamerian Orogeny. Monazite from the Bier Point Shear Zone (BPSZ) mainly yielded U,Th,Pb ages of c. 440 Ma, in agreement with in-situ Ar laserprobe ages of syn-shear muscovite and with most Ar ages of coexisting biotite. The agreement of ages derived from different decay schemes and from minerals with different crystal-chemical features suggests that isotope transport in the studied sample was mainly controlled by (re)crystallization processes and that the main episode of ductile deformation in the BPSZ occurred at c. 440 Ma. Cathodoluminscence imaging showed that zircon from the BPSZ contains decomposed areas with faint relics of oscillatory zoning. These areas yielded a U,Pb age pattern which mimics that of monazite but is slightly shifted towards older ages, supporting previous studies which suggest that ,ghost' structures may be affected by inheritance. In contrast, secondary structures in zircon from the Mt. Emison Shear Zone (MESZ) predominantly consist of overgrowths or totally recrystallized areas and gave U,Pb ages of c. 450 and 410 Ma. The c. 450-Ma date matches within errors most monazite U,Th,Pb ages and in-situ Ar ages on biotite aligned along the mylonitic foliation. This again suggests that isotope ages from the different minerals are (re)crystallization ages and constrains the time of shearing in the MESZ to the Late Ordovician. Regionally, results indicate that shear zones were active in the Late Ordovician,Early Silurian and that their development was partially synchronous at c. 440 Ma, suggesting that they belong to a shear-zone system formed in response to ,NE,SW-directed shortening. Taking into account the former juxtaposition of northern Victoria Land and SE Australia, we propose that shear zones represent reactivated zones formed in response to stress applied along the new plate margin as a consequence of contractional tectonics associated with the early stages (Benambran Orogeny) of the development of the Late Ordovician,Late Devonian Lachlan Fold Belt. [source]

    Late Miocene,Pliocene eclogite facies metamorphism, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, SE Papua New Guinea

    Abstract The D'Entrecasteaux Islands of south-eastern Papua New Guinea are active metamorphic core complexes that formed within a region where the plate tectonic regime has transitioned from subduction to rifting. While rapid, post 4 Myr exhumation and cooling of amphibolite and greenschist facies rocks that constitute the footwall of the crustal scale detachment fault system have been previously documented on Fergusson and Goodenough Islands of the D'Entrecasteaux chain, the timing of eclogite facies metamorphism in rocks of the footwall was unknown. Recent work revealed that at least one of the eclogite bodies formed during the Pliocene. We present combined in situ ion microprobe U,Pb age analyses of zircon from five variably retrogressed eclogite samples from Fergusson and Goodenough Islands that document Late Miocene,Pliocene (8,2 Ma) eclogite formation on these islands. Textural relationships and zircon,garnet rare earth element partition coefficients indicate that U,Pb ages constrain zircon crystallization under eclogite facies conditions in all samples. Results suggest westward younging of eclogite facies metamorphism from Fergusson to Goodenough Island. Present-day exposure of Late Miocene,Pliocene eclogites requires exhumation rates > 2.5 cm yr,1. [source]

    SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating from Sulu-Dabie dolomitic marble, eastern China: constraints on prograde, ultrahigh-pressure and retrograde metamorphic ages

    F. L. LIU
    Abstract Laser Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) images show that zircon from Sulu-Dabie dolomitic marbles is characterized by distinctive domains of inherited (detrital), prograde, ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and retrograde metamorphic growths. The inherited zircon domains are dark-luminescent in CL images and contain mineral inclusions of Qtz + Cal + Ap. The prograde metamorphic domains are white-luminescent in CL images and preserve a quartz eclogite facies assemblage of Qtz + Dol + Grt + Omp + Phe + Ap, formed at 542,693 C and 1.8,2.1 GPa. In contrast, the UHP metamorphic domains are grey-luminescent in CL images, retain the UHP assemblage of Coe + Grt + Omp + Arg + Mgs + Ap, and record UHP conditions of 739,866 C and >5.5 GPa. The outermost retrograde rims have dark-luminescent CL images, and contain low- P minerals such as calcite, related to the regional amphibolite facies retrogression. Laser ablation ICP-MS trace-element data show striking difference between the inherited cores of mostly magmatic origin and zircon domains grown in response to prograde, UHP and retrograde metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb dating on these zoned zircon identified four discrete 206Pb/238U age groups: 1823,503 Ma is recorded in the inherited (detrital) zircon derived from various Proterozoic protoliths, the prograde domains record the quartz eclogite facies metamorphism at 254,239 Ma, the UHP growth domains occurred at 238,230 Ma, and the late amphibolite facies retrogressive overprint in the outermost rims was restricted to 218,206 Ma. Thus, Proterozoic continental materials of the Yangtze craton were subducted to 55,60 km depth during the Early Triassic and recrystallized at quartz eclogite facies conditions. Then these metamorphic rocks were further subducted to depths of 165,175 km in the Middle Triassic and experienced UHP metamorphism, and finally these UHP metamorphic rocks were exhumed to mid-crustal levels (about 30 km) in the Late Triassic and overprinted by regional amphibolite facies metamorphism. The subduction and exhumation rates deduced from the SHRIMP data and metamorphic P,T conditions are 9,10 km Myr,1 and 6.4 km Myr,1, respectively, and these rapid subduction,exhumation rates may explain the obtained P,T,t path. Such a fast exhumation suggests that Sulu-Dabie UHP rocks that returned towards crustal depths were driven by buoyant forces, caused as a consequence of slab breakoff at mantle depth. [source]

    Up-temperature flow of surface-derived fluids in the mid-crust: the role of pre-orogenic burial of hydrated fault rocks

    C. CLARK
    Abstract The Walter-Outalpa shear zone in the southern Curnamona Province of NE South Australia is an example of a shear zone that has undergone intensely focused fluid flow and alteration at mid-crustal depths. Results from this study have demonstrated that the intense deformation and ductile shear zone reactivation, at amphibolite facies conditions of 534 20 C and 500 82 MPa, that overprint the Proterozoic Willyama Supergroup occurred during the Delamerian Orogeny (c. 500 Ma) (EPMA monazite ages of 501 16 and 491 19 Ma). This is in contrast to the general belief that the majority of basement deformation and alteration in the southern Curnamona Province occurred during the waning stages of the Olarian Orogeny (c. 1610,1580 Ma). These shear zones contain hydrous mineral assemblages that cut wall rocks that have experienced amphibolite facies metamorphism during the Olarian Orogeny. The shear zone rock volumes have much lower ,18O values (as low as 1,) than their unsheared counterparts (7,9,), and calculated fluid ,18O values (5,8,) consistent with a surface-derived fluid source. Hydrous minerals show a decrease in ,D(H2O) from ,14 to ,22,, for minerals outside the shear zones, to ,28 to ,40,, for minerals within the shear zones consistent with a contribution from a meteoric source. It is unclear how near-surface fluids initially under hydrostatic pressure penetrate into the middle crust where fluid pressures approach lithostatic, and where fluid flow is expected to be dominantly upward because of pressure gradients. We propose a mechanism whereby faulting during basin formation associated with the Adelaidean Rift Complex (c. 700 Ma) created broad hydrous zones containing mineral assemblages in equilibrium with surface waters. These panels of fault rock were subsequently buried to depths where the onset of metamorphism begins to dehydrate the fault rock volumes evolving a low ,18O fluid that is channelled through shear zones related to Delamerian Orogenic activity. [source]

    Separate or shared metamorphic histories of eclogites and surrounding rocks?

    An example from the Bohemian Massif
    Abstract Eclogite boudins occur within an orthogneiss sheet enclosed in a Barrovian metapelite-dominated volcano-sedimentary sequence within the Velk Vrbno unit, NE Bohemian Massif. A metamorphic and lithological break defines the base of the eclogite-bearing orthogneiss nappe, with a structurally lower sequence without eclogite exposed in a tectonic window. The typical assemblage of the structurally upper metapelites is garnet,staurolite,kyanite,biotite,plagioclase,muscovite,quartz,ilmenite rutile silli-manite and prograde-zoned garnet includes chloritoid,chlorite,paragonite,margarite, staurolite,chlorite,paragonite,margarite and kyanite,chlorite,rutile. In pseudosection modelling in the system Na2O,CaO,K2O,FeO,MgO,Al2O3,SiO2,H2O (NCKFMASH) using THERMOCALC, the prograde path crosses the discontinuous reaction chloritoid + margarite = chlorite + garnet + staurolite,+,paragonite (with muscovite + quartz + H2O) at 9.5 kbar and 570 C and the metamorphic peak is reached at 11 kbar and 640 C. Decompression through about 7 kbar is indicated by sillimanite and biotite growing at the expense of garnet. In the tectonic window, the structurally lower metapelites (garnet,staurolite,biotite,muscovite,quartz plagioclase sillimanite kyanite) and amphibolites (garnet,amphibole,plagioclase epidote) indicate a metamorphic peak of 10 kbar at 620 C and 11 kbar and 610,660 C, respectively, that is consistent with the other metapelites. The eclogites are composed of garnet, omphacite relicts (jadeite = 33%) within plagioclase,clinopyroxene symplectites, epidote and late amphibole,plagioclase domains. Garnet commonly includes rutile,quartz,epidote clinopyroxene (jadeite = 43%) magnetite amphibole and its growth zoning is compatible in the pseudosection with burial under H2O-undersaturated conditions to 18 kbar and 680 C. Plagioclase + amphibole replaces garnet within foliated boudin margins and results in the assemblage epidote,amphibole,plagioclase indicating that decompression occurred under decreasing temperature into garnet-free epidote,amphibolite facies conditions. The prograde path of eclogites and metapelites up to the metamorphic peak cannot be shared, being along different geothermal gradients, of about 11 and 17 C km,1, respectively, to metamorphic pressure peaks that are 6,7 kbar apart. The eclogite,orthogneiss sheet docked with metapelites at about 11 kbar and 650 C, and from this depth the exhumation of the pile is shared. [source]

    Reaction localization and softening of texturally hardened mylonites in a reactivated fault zone, central Argentina

    Abstract The Tres Arboles ductile fault zone in the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, central Argentina, experienced multiple ductile deformation and faulting events that involved a variety of textural and reaction hardening and softening processes. Much of the fault zone is characterized by a (D2) ultramylonite, composed of fine-grained biotite + plagioclase, that lacks a well-defined preferred orientation. The D2 fabric consists of a strong network of intergrown and interlocking grains that show little textural evidence for dislocation or dissolution creep. These ultramylonites contain gneissic rock fragments and porphyroclasts of plagioclase, sillimanite and garnet inherited from the gneissic and migmatitic protolith (D1) of the hangingwall. The assemblage of garnet + sillimanite + biotite suggests that D1-related fabrics developed under upper amphibolite facies conditions, and the persistence of biotite + garnet + sillimanite + plagioclase suggests that the ultramylonite of D2 developed under middle amphibolite facies conditions. Greenschist facies, mylonitic shear bands (D3) locally overprint D2 ultramylonites. Fine-grained folia of muscovite + chlorite biotite truncate earlier biotite + plagioclase textures, and coarser-grained muscovite partially replaces relic sillimanite grains. Anorthite content of shear band (D3) plagioclase is c. An30, distinct from D1 and D2 plagioclase (c. An35). The anorthite content of D3 plagioclase is consistent with a pervasive grain boundary fluid that facilitated partial replacement of plagioclase by muscovite. Biotite is partially replaced by muscovite and/or chlorite, particularly in areas of inferred high strain. Quartz precipitated in porphyroclast pressure shadows and ribbons that help define the mylonitic fabric. All D3 reactions require the introduction of H+ and/or H2O, indicating an open system, and typically result in a volume decrease. Syntectonic D3 muscovite + quartz + chlorite preferentially grew in an orientation favourable for strain localization, which produced a strong textural softening. Strain localization occurred only where reactions progressed with the infiltration of aqueous fluids, on a scale of hundreds of micrometre. Local fracturing and microseismicity may have induced reactivation of the fault zone and the initial introduction of fluids. However, the predominant greenschist facies deformation (D3) along discrete shear bands was primarily a consequence of the localization of replacement reactions in a partially open system. [source]

    Deformation, mass transfer and mineral reactions in an eclogite facies shear zone in a polymetamorphic metapelite (Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps)

    L. M. Keller
    Abstract This study analyses the mineralogical and chemical transformations associated with an Alpine shear zone in polymetamorphic metapelites from the Monte Rosa nappe in the upper Val Loranco (N-Italy). In the shear zone, the pre-Alpine assemblage plagioclase + biotite + kyanite is replaced by the assemblage garnet + phengite + paragonite at eclogite facies conditions of about 650 C at 12.5 kbar. Outside the shear zone, only minute progress of the same metamorphic reaction was attained during the Alpine metamorphic overprint and the pre-Alpine mineral assemblage is largely preserved. Textures of incomplete reaction, such as garnet rims at former grain contacts between pre-existing plagioclase and biotite, are preserved in the country rocks of the shear zone. Reaction textures and phase relations indicate that the Alpine metamorphic overprint occurred under largely anhydrous conditions in low strain domains. In contrast, the mineralogical changes and phase equilibrium diagrams indicate water saturation within the Alpine shear zones. Shear zone formation occurred at approximately constant volume but was associated with substantial gains in silica and losses in aluminium and potassium. Changes in mineral modes associated with chemical alteration and progressive deformation indicate that plagioclase, biotite and kyanite were not only consumed in the course of the garnet-and phengite-producing reactions, but were also dissolved ,congruently' during shear zone formation. A large fraction of the silica liberated by plagioclase, biotite and kyanite dissolution was immediately re-precipitated to form quartz, but the dissolved aluminium- and potassium-bearing species appear to have been stable in solution and were removed via the pore fluid. The reaction causes the localization of deformation by producing fine-grained white mica, which forms a mechanically weak aggregate. [source]

    Chemical and physical responses to deformation in micaceous quartzites from the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps

    J. Selverstone
    Abstract Micaceous quartzites from a subvertical shear zone in the Tauern Window contain abundant quartz clasts derived from dismembered quartz-tourmaline veins. Bulk plane strain deformation affected these rocks at amphibolite facies conditions. Shape changes suggest net shortening of the clasts by 11,64%, with a mean value of 35%. Quartz within the clasts accommodated this strain largely via dislocation creep processes. On the high-stress flanks of the clasts, however, quartz was removed via solution mass transfer (pressure solution) processes; the resulting change in bulk composition allowed growth of porphyroblastic staurolite + chlorite kyanite on the clast flanks. Matrix SiO2 contents decrease from c. 83 wt% away from the clasts to 49,58% in the selvages on the clast flanks. The chemical changes are consistent with c. 70% volume loss in the high-stress zones. Calculated shortening values within the clast flanks are similar to the volume-loss estimates, and are greatly in excess of the shortening values calculated from the clasts themselves. Flow laws for dislocation creep versus pressure solution imply large strain-rate gradients and/or differential stress gradients between the matrix and the clast selvages. In a rock containing a large proportion of semirigid clasts, weakening within the clast flanks could dominate rock rheology. In our samples, however, weakening within the selvages was self limiting: (1) growth of strong staurolite porphyroblasts in the selvages protected remaining quartz from dissolution; and (2) overall flattening of the quartz clasts probably decreased the resolved shear stress on the flanks to values near those of the matrix, which would have reduced the driving force for solution-transfer creep. Extreme chemical changes nonetheless occurred over short distances. The necessity of maintaining strain compatibility may lead to significant localized dissolution in rocks containing rheologic heterogeneities, and overall weakening of the rocks may result. Solution-transfer creep may be a major process whereby weakening and strain localization occur during deep-crustal metamorphism of polymineralic rocks. [source]

    Geochemical and stable isotope resetting in shear zones from Tschalp: constraints on fluid flow during exhumation in the Western Alps

    I. Cartwright
    Abstract Fluid flow at greenschist facies conditions during exhumation of the western Alps occurred in several penecontemporaneous systems, including shear zones at lithological contacts, deformed contacts between serpentinite bodies and metabasalts, albite veins within metabasalts, and calcite + quartz veins within calcareous schists. Fluid flow in shear zones that juxtapose metasediments and ophiolitic rocks within the Piemonte Unit reset O and H isotope ratios. ,18O values are buffered by the wall rocks; however, calculated fluid ,2H values are similar within all the shear zones suggesting that they formed an interconnected network. The similarity of ,2H values of the sheared rocks and those of unsheared calcareous schists suggests that the fluids were derived from, or had equilibrated with, the schists that envelop the ophiolite rocks. Time-integrated fluid fluxes at the sheared contacts estimated from changes in Si in metabasalts were up to 105 m3 m,2, with the fluid flowing up temperature driven either by topography or seismic pumping. Individual shear zones were active for c. 2,3 Myr, implying average fluid fluxes of up to 10,9 m3 m,2 s,1. Rocks in shear zones within the ophiolite away from contacts with the metasediments show much less marked isotopic and geochemical changes, implying that fluid volumes decreased into the ophiolite unit, consistent with the source of fluids being the metasediments. Fluids were generated by dehydration reactions that were intersected during exhumation and, while many rocks show the affects of fluid,rock interaction, large-scale fluid flow between major units was not common. [source]

    Isograds and P,T evolution in the eastern Lepontine Alps (Graubnden, Switzerland)

    T. Nagel
    Abstract Reactions producing Al-rich index minerals in the south-eastern part of the Lepontine Dome (Central Alps, Switzerland) are investigated using mineral distribution maps, microstructural observations and equilibrium phase diagrams. The apparent staurolite mineral zone boundary corresponds to the paragonite breakdown reaction Pg + Grt + Qtz = Pl + Al2O3 + W. Equilibrium phase diagrams show that most natural metapelites do not contain staurolite or alumosilicates as long as univalent cations are predominantly accommodated in white mica. For a wide range of metapelitic compositions the paragonite breakdown releases sufficient Al for the formation of these minerals. Rare occurrences of staurolite and kyanite, north of the formerly mapped mineral zone boundaries, coexist with paragonite and are restricted to extremely Al-rich bulk compositions. The stable branch of the kyanite-forming paragonite breakdown reaction above 660 C yields an additional mapable isograd. The second set of Al-releasing reactions is biotite-producing phengite breakdown. However, these reactions are less suitable to produce well defined reaction isograds in the field as they are more continuous and their progress is strongly dependent on bulk composition. Well developed fibrolite in metapelites does not appear until staurolite starts to breakdown. We conclude that amphibolite facies conditions in the study area were attained by decompression, without substantial heating at low pressures. [source]

    P,T evolution of glaucophane,omphacite bearing HP,LT rocks in the western Tianshan Orogen, NW China:new evidence for ,Alpine-type' tectonics

    R. Klemd
    Abstract The late Palaeozoic western Tianshan high-pressure /low-temperature belt extends for about 200 km along the south-central Tianshan suture zone and is composed mainly of blueschist, eclogite and epidote amphibolite/greenschist facies rocks. P,T conditions of mafic garnet omphacite and garnet,omphacite blueschist, which are interlayered with eclogite, were investigated in order to establish an exhumation path for these high-pressure rocks. Maximum pressure conditions are represented by the assemblage garnet,omphacite,paragonite,phengite,glaucophane,quartz,rutile. Estimated maximum pressures range between 18 and 21 kbar at temperatures between 490 and 570 C. Decompression caused the destabilization of omphacite, garnet and glaucophane to albite, Ca-amphibole and chlorite. The post-eclogite facies metamorphic conditions between 9 and 14 kbar at 480,570 C suggest an almost isothermal decompression from eclogite to epidote,amphibolite facies conditions. Prograde growth zoning and mineral inclusions in garnet as well as post-eclogite facies conditions are evidence for a clockwise P,T path. Analysis of phase diagrams constrains the P,T path to more or less isothermal cooling which is well corroborated by the results of geothermobarometry and mineral textures. This implies that the high-pressure rocks from the western Tianshan Orogen formed in a tectonic regime similar to ,Alpine-type' tectonics. This contradicts previous models which favour ,Franciscan-type' tectonics for the southern Tianshan high-pressure rocks. [source]

    Plagioclase replacement textures in partially eclogitised gabbros from the Sanddal mafic-ultramafic complex, Greenland Caledonides

    H. M. Lang
    Abstract The Sanddal mafic-ultramafic complex (SMUK) is a cluster of variably eclogitised mafic and ultramafic bodies that comprise the westernmost known eclogite facies locality in the North-East Greenland eclogite province (NEGEP). Although there are no true eclogites in the SMUK, we interpret three distinct textural types of plagioclase replacement to record sequential stages in adjustment of SMUK olivine gabbro-norites to eclogite facies conditions. The earliest stage, in which plagioclase was replaced by omphacite/spinel symplectite before nucleation of garnet (Type 1A & 1B) has not previously been described. Documentation of this texture provides clear evidence that, at least in some cases, garnet nucleation is delayed relative to nucleation of omphacite and is a rate-limiting step for eclogitisation. Type 1C domains were produced by scattered nucleation of garnet in the same sample. In Type 2 domains, plagioclase was replaced by a layered corona with an outer layer of garnet, an inner layer of omphacite and an interior of inclusion-rich plagioclase. In Type 3 domains, the omphacite layer was overgrown by the garnet rim, and omphacite is preserved only as inclusions in garnet. In more coarse grained leucogabbros, recrystallization was more complete, plagioclase replacement textures were less localised, and could not be divided into distinct stages. Plagioclase replacement in SMUK samples was not isochemical, and required diffusion of at least Mg and Fe from replacement of mafic phases in the surroundings. Strong compositional gradients in garnet reflect disequilibrium and were controlled by the different diffusion rates of Mg/Fe and Ca, different local chemical environments, and progress of the plagioclase breakdown reaction. The presence of small amounts of hydrous minerals (amphibole, phlogopite and clinozoisite) in local equilibrium in plagioclase domains of most SMUK samples indicates that a small amount of H2O was present during high pressure metamorphism. [source]

    P,T conditions of decompression of the Limpopo high-grade terrane: record from shear zones

    C. A. Smit
    Abstract The Southern Marginal Zone of the late Archean Limpopo Belt of southern Africa is an example of a high-grade gneiss terrane in which both upper and lower crustal deformational processes can be studied. This marginal zone consists of large thrust sheets of complexly folded low-strain gneisses, bound by an imbricate system of kilometre-wide deep crustal shear zones characterized by the presence of high-strain gneisses (,primary straight gneisses'). These shear zones developed during the decompression stage of this high-grade terrane. Low- and high-strain gneisses both contain similar reaction textures that formed under different kinematic conditions during decompression. Evidence for the early M1/D1 metamorphic phase (> 2690 Ma) is rarely preserved in low-strain gneisses as a uniform orientation of relict Al-rich orthopyroxene in the matrix and quartz and plagioclase inclusions in the cores of early (M1) Mg-rich garnet porphyroblasts. This rare fabric formed at >,820 C and >,7.5 kbar. The retrograde M2/D2 metamorphic fabric (2630,2670 Ma) is well developed in high-strain gneisses from deep crustal shear zones and is microscopically recognized by the presence of reaction textures that formed synkinematically during shear deformation: M2 sigmoid-shaped reaction textures with oriented cordierite,orthopyroxene symplectites formed after the early M1 Mg-rich garnet porphyroblasts, and syn-decompression M2 pencil-shaped garnet with oriented inclusions of sillimanite and quartz formed after cordierite under conditions of near-isobaric cooling at 750,630 C and 6,5 kbar. The symplectites and pencil-shaped garnet are oriented parallel to the shear fabric and in the stretching direction. Low-strain gneisses from thrust sheets show similar M2 decompression cooling and near-isobaric cooling reaction textures that formed within the same P,T range, but under low-strain conditions, as shown by their pseudo-idioblastic shapes that reflect the contours of completely replaced M1 garnet and randomly oriented cordierite,orthopyroxene symplectites. The presence of similar reaction textures reflecting low-strain conditions in gneisses from thrust sheets and high-strain conditions in primary straight gneisses suggests that most of the strain during decompression was partitioned into the bounding shear zones. A younger M3/D3 mylonitic fabric (< 2637 Ma) in unhydrated mylonites is characterized by brittle deformation of garnet porphyroclasts and ductile deformation of the quartz,plagioclase,biotite matrix developed at <,600 C, as the result of post-decompression shearing under epidote,amphibolite facies conditions. [source]

    The effect of TiO2 and Fe2O3 on metapelitic assemblages at greenschist and amphibolite facies conditions: mineral equilibria calculations in the system K2O,FeO,MgO,Al2O3,SiO2,H2O,TiO2,Fe2O3

    Mineral equilibria calculations in the system K2O,FeO,MgO,Al2O3,SiO2,H2O,TiO2,Fe2O3 (KFMASHTO) using thermocalc and its internally consistent thermodynamic dataset constrain the effect of TiO2 and Fe2O3 on greenschist and amphibolite facies mineral equilibria in metapelites. The end-member data and activity,composition relationships for biotite and chloritoid, calibrated with natural rock data, and activity,composition data for garnet, calibrated using experimental data, provide new constraints on the effects of TiO2 and Fe2O3 on the stability of these minerals. Thermodynamic models for ilmenite,hematite and magnetite,ulvospinel solid solutions accounting for order,disorder in these phases allow the distribution of TiO2 and Fe2O3 between oxide minerals and silicate minerals to be calculated. The calculations indicate that small to moderate amounts of TiO2 and Fe2O3 in typical metapelitic bulk compositions have little effect on silicate mineral equilibria in metapelites at greenschist to amphibolite facies, compared with those calculated in KFMASH. The addition of large amounts of TiO2 to typical pelitic bulk compositions has little effect on the stability of silicate assemblages; in contrast, rocks rich in Fe2O3 develop a markedly different metamorphic succession from that of common Barrovian sequences. In particular, Fe2O3 -rich metapelites show a marked reduction in the stability fields of staurolite and garnet to higher pressures, in comparison to those predicted by KFMASH grids. [source]

    Primary carbonate/CO2 inclusions in sapphirine-bearing granulites from central Sri Lanka

    High-density CO2 -rich fluid inclusions from a sapphirine-bearing granulite (Hakurutale, Sri Lanka) have been studied by microthermometry, Raman spectrometry and SEM analysis. Based on textural evidence, two groups of inclusions can be identified: primary, negative crystal shaped inclusions (group I) and pseudo-secondary inclusions, which experienced a local, limited post-trapping modification (group II). Both groups contain magnesite as a daughter mineral, occurring in a relatively constant fluid/solid inclusion volume ratio (volsolid =0.15 total volume). CO2 densities for group I and II differ only slightly. Both groups contain a fluid, which was initially trapped at peak metamorphic conditions as a homogeneous (CO2+MgCO3) mixture. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that such a fluid (CO2+15 vol% MgCO3) is stable under granulite facies conditions. After trapping, magnesite separated upon cooling, while the remaining CO2 density suffered minor re-adjustments. A model isochore based on the integration of the magnesite molar volume in the CO2 fluid passes about 1.5,2 kbar below peak metamorphic conditions. This remaining discrepancy can be explained by the possible role of a small quantity of additional water. [source]

    Types of Pyrophyllite Deposits in Foldbelts

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Irina Sinyakovskaya
    Abstract. Pyrophyllite deposits can be divided into five types on the basis of geology and genesis. The first two types are associated with hydrothermally altered rocks in felsic and intermediate volcanogenic suites. They are characterized by their metasomatites and their subsequent mineralogic transformations under varying volcanic conditions. The third type includes deposits and occurrences of metamorphic-metasomatic genesis, which is caused by transformations of terrigenous-sedimentary interbeds in felsic volcanics under greenschist facies conditions. The fourth type is associated with low and mid-temperature stages of hydrothermal vein formation at the limits of volcanogenic and metamorphic strata. The fifth type comprises pyrophyllite occurrences in weathering crusts on metamorphic strata and metasomatite. The formation conditions and distribution of raw pyrophyllite deposits were influenced by the geodynamic situations and geochemical conditions, such as character of tectonic dislocations, volcanism and chemical composition of hydrothermal solutions. [source]

    Mineralogical and Petrological Characteristics of the Neoproterozoic Orthoamphibolite and Orthogneisses in the Mutki Area, the Bitlis Massif, Southeast Turkey

    Kerim KOCAK
    Abstract: The rocks form as amphibolite garnet epidote and orthogneisses in the Pan-African basement of the Bitlis Massif. The petrochemical data of the studied metamorphic rocks suggest different igneous protoliths ranging from calcalkaline basalt to andesite in composition. Petrochemically, the rocks can be classified as group 1 (low Zr and La) and group 2 (high Zr and La), all showing various enrichments in large ion lithophiles and light rare earth elements, and a depletion in high-field strength elements, suggestive of a destructive plate margin setting. The protoliths of the all samples might have formed mostly by the partial melting of an enriched source, possibly coupled with the fractional crystallization of plagioclase, apatite, and titaniferous magnetite olivine clinopyroxene amphibole in relation with subduction-related magmatism neighboring the Andean-type active margins of Gondwana. The group 2 samples could, however, be generated by a relatively lower degree of the partial melting of an inhomogeneous source with a preponderance of a high-level, fractional crystallization process in comparison to group 1. The protoliths of the samples were metamorphosed up to amphibolite facies conditions, which destroys original igneous texture and mineral assemblages. Geothermobarometric calculations show that the metamorphic rocks are finally equilibrated between 540 and 610C and ,5 kbars, following a clockwise P-T-t path. [source]