Failure Strain (failure + strain)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Sensitivity analysis of creep crack growth prediction using the statistical distribution of uniaxial data

FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 9 2010
M. YATOMI
ABSTRACT Due to the variables and unknowns in both material properties and predictive models in creep crack growth (CCG) rates, it is difficult to predict failure of a component precisely. A failure strain constraint based transient and steady state CCG model (called NSW) modified using probabilistic techniques, has been employed to predict CCG using uniaxial data as basic material property. In this paper the influence of scatter in the creep uniaxial properties, the parameter,C* and creep crack initiation and growth rate have been examined using probabilistic methods. Using uniaxial and CCG properties of C-Mn steel at 360 C, a method is developed which takes into account the scatter of the data and its sensitivity to the correlating parameters employed. It is shown that for an improved prediction method in components containing cracks the NSW crack growth model employed would benefit from a probabilistic analysis. This should be performed by considering the experimental scatter in failure strain, the creep stress index and in estimating the,C* parameter. [source]


The Effect of NaF In Vitro on the Mechanical and Material Properties of Trabecular and Cortical Bone

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 4 2009
Philipp J. Thurner
High doses of sodium fluoride in bones lead to severe softening, by weakening interfacial properties between the inorganic minerals and the organic components, while leaving mineralization unchanged. This leads to reduction of microdamage and associated stress-whitening pointing to a change in failure mode. Accordingly, elastic modulus, failure stress, and indentation-distance increase are decreased, whereas failure strain is increased. [source]


Mechanical and fracture properties for predicting cracking in semi-sweet biscuits

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
Qasim Saleem
Summary Mechanical and fracture properties required for predicting crack development in semi-sweet (,rich tea') biscuits have been experimentally determined. Pilot-scale biscuits of different fat concentrations were prepared and studied with commercial biscuits at different moisture contents. Bending modulus, fracture stress and strain were measured using three-point bending tests. All biscuit types showed considerable dependence on moisture content over a range of 4,12%. Young's modulus and failure stress showed a uniform decrease and failure strain showed an increase with increasing moisture content. For pilot-scale biscuits of different fat concentrations, an increase in fat level caused a decrease in modulus and failure stress values; however, the failure strains were very similar for all the fat types. The testing of the samples with top surface up and top surface down revealed that the sample orientation does not affect the measured parameters. The measured parameters also did not show any directional dependence within the plane, thus assuring that the assumption of an isotropic material would be valid for modelling. The mechanical and fracture properties measured in this study will serve as a very useful set of data to predict the stress state and cracking of the checked biscuits. [source]


Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rats Have a Primary Decrease in BMD and Strength,,

JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 8 2009
Marc Grynpas
Abstract Kidney stone patients often have a decrease in BMD. It is unclear if reduced BMD is caused by a primary disorder of bone or dietary factors. To study the independent effects of hypercalciuria on bone, we used genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats. GHS and control (Ctl) rats were fed a low Ca (0.02% Ca, LCD) or a high Ca (1.2% Ca, HCD) diet for 6 wk in metabolic cages. All comparisons are to Ctl rats. Urine Ca was greater in the GHS rats on both diets. GHS fed HCD had reduced cortical (humerus) and trabecular (L1,L5 vertebrae) BMD, whereas GHS rats fed LCD had a reduction in BMD similar to Ctl. GHS rats fed HCD had a decrease in trabecular volume and thickness, whereas LCD led to a ,20-fold increase in both osteoid surface and volume. GHS rats fed HCD had no change in vertebral strength (failure stress), ductibility (failure strain), stiffness (modulus), or toughness, whereas in the humerus, there was reduced ductibility and toughness and an increase in modulus, indicating that the defect in mechanical properties is mainly manifested in cortical, rather than trabecular, bone. GHS rat cortical bone is more mineralized than trabecular bone and LCD led to a decrease in the mineralization profile. Thus, the GHS rats, fed an ample Ca diet, have reduced BMD with reduced trabecular volume, mineralized volume, and thickness, and their bones are more brittle and fracture prone, indicating that GHS rats have an intrinsic disorder of bone that is not secondary to diet. [source]


Osteon pullout in the equine third metacarpal bone: Effects of ex vivo fatigue

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 3 2003
L. P. Hiller
Abstract An important concept in bone mechanics is that osteons influence mechanical properties in several ways, including contributing to toughness and fatigue strength by debonding from the interstitial matrix so as to ,bridge" developing cracks. Observations of ,pulled out, osteons on fracture surfaces are thought to be indicative of such behavior. We tested the hypothesis that osteon pullout varies with mode of loading (fatigue vs. monotonic), cortical region, elastic modulus, and fatigue life. Mid-diaphseal beams from the dorsal, medial, and lateral regions of the equine third metacarpal bone were fractured in four point bending by monotonic loading to failure under deflection control, with or without 105 cycles of previous fatigue loading producing 5000 microstrain (15,20% of the expected failure strain) on the first cycle; or sinusoidal fatigue loading to failure, under load or deflection control, with the initial cycle producing 10,000 microstrain (30,40% of the expected failure strain). Using scanning electron microscopy, percent fracture surface area exhibiting osteon pullout (%OP.Ar) was measured. Monotonically loaded specimens and the compression side of fatigue fracture surfaces exhibited no osteon pullout. In load-controlled fatigue, pullout was present on the tension side of fracture surfaces, was regionally dependent (occurring to a greater amount dorsally), and was correlated negatively with elastic modulus and positively with fatigue life. Regional variation in %OP.Ar was also significant for the pooled (load and deflection controlled) fatigue specimens. %OP.Ar was nearly significantly greater in deflection controlled fatigue specimens than in load-controlled specimens (p < 0.059). The data suggest that tensile fatigue loading of cortical bone eventually introduces damage that results in osteonal debonding and pullout, which is also associated with increased fatigue life via mechanisms that are not yet clear. 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]


INFLUENCE OF CELL SIZE AND CELL WALL VOLUME FRACTION ON FAILURE PROPERTIES OF POTATO AND CARROT TISSUE

JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 1 2005
ARTUR ZDUNEK
ABSTRACT This article presents the influence of cell size and cell wall volume fraction on the failure parameters of potato tuber and carrot tissue. Confocal scanning laser microscope was used for obtaining images of the cell structure of the tissues. The mean cell face area and the cell wall volume fraction obtained from the images was compared with work to failure, failure stress, failure strain and secant modulus obtained in a compression test of potato and carrot tissue at two strain rates. Bigger cells and less amount of cell wall material weakened the tissue, which was visible as a linear decrease in the parameters: work to failure, failure stress and failure strain. There were differences between potato and carrot in the secant modulus. For carrot, the secant modulus changed with microstructural parameters, whereas for potato, the secant modulus did not depend on these values. The strain rate decreases all the failure properties for potato. For carrot, only the work to failure was affected by the strain rate. [source]


Effects of Thermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of a Porous-Matrix Ceramic Composite

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 3 2002
Eric A. V. Carelli
The present article focuses on changes in the mechanical properties of an all-oxide fiber-reinforced composite following long-term exposure (1000 h) at temperatures of 1000,1200C in air. The composite of interest derives its damage tolerance from a highly porous matrix, precluding the need for an interphase at the fiber,matrix boundary. The key issue involves the stability of the porosity against densification and the associated implications for long-term durability of the composite at elevated temperatures. For this purpose, comparisons are made in the tensile properties and fracture characteristics of a 2D woven fiber composite both along the fiber direction and at 45 to the fiber axes before and after the aging treatments. Additionally, changes in the state of the matrix are probed through measurements of matrix hardness by Vickers indentation and through the determination of the matrix Young's modulus, using the measured composite moduli coupled with classical laminate theory. The study reveals that, despite evidence of some strengthening of the matrix and the fiber,matrix interfaces during aging, the key tensile properties in the 0/90 orientation, including strength and failure strain, are unchanged. This strengthening is manifested to a more significant extent in the composite properties in the 45 orientation, wherein the modulus and the tensile strength each exhibit a twofold increase after the 1200C aging treatment. It also results in a change in the failure mechanism, from one involving predominantly matrix damage and interply delamination to one which is dominated by fiber fracture. Additionally, salient changes in the mechanical response beyond the maximum load suggest the existence of an optimum matrix strength at which the fracture energy in the 45 orientation attains a maximum. The implications for long-term durability of this class of composite are discussed. [source]


Enhanced strength of portland cement products via reinforcing polypropylene/fiberglass structures obtained from a novel processing technique

POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 5 2003
Yuanheng Zhang
An uninterrupted filament winding process was used to fabricate structures made of polypropylene and glass fiber that provide superior reinforcement to Portland cement structures. Fabricated polypropylene/fiberglass composite tubes were filled with a cement mixture and some were reinforced with internal tapes. Three-point bending experiments, microscopic observation, and image analysis were used as tools to study various processing variables and their effect on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The temperature of the mandrel and wetting strongly affected the composite's mechanical properties. Increased temperatures diminished the void content within the composite and produced a unique "fuzzy" inner surface for the cylindrical tube. The development of this "fuzzy" inner surface improved the strength and fatigue properties of the cement filled composite tube by providing efficient load transfer to the glass fibres. Also the surface to volume ratio of the steel rebar geometry when compared to that of the polypropylene/fibreglass structure explains the superior load transfer to the glass. It was found that a tube reinforced with 15 internal tapes filled with a cement mixture recorded a maximum tensile stress of 71 MPa (10,000 psi) with excellent damage tolerance, more than a 10-fold increase over the upper bound value for steel reinforced cement obtained from the rule of mixtures. The tube continued to be load bearing to strains of 0.4, which is more than 40 times the failure strain of glass. These large failure strains are the result of the shear yielding of polypropylene that coats the glass fibres and allows them to move within the cement. [source]


Study on the creep behavior of polypropylene

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 7 2009
Xiaolin Liu
The creep behavior and creep failure law of polypropylene (PP) were investigated by using a multifunctional stress-aging testing machine under different aging environmental conditions (temperature, UV, and stress). Photoinduced changes in samples were studied using gel permeation chromatography and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. Surface morphologies were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that there is a critical failure strain (,crit) for PP during the creep course. Once the creep deformation exceeds the ,crit, creep failure of PP takes place very rapidly. The value of ,crit is independent of the tensile stress and UV irradiation, whereas it is only affected by the temperature and the nature of the PP, such as molecular weight and molecular structure. With increasing temperature, the value of ,crit increases gradually. In addition, the creep rate of PP increases rapidly with increasing tensile stress and temperature as well as under irradiation with UV light. This study may provide a new way to predict the service lifetime of PP. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


A biomimetic tubular scaffold with spatially designed nanofibers of protein/PDS bio-blends,

BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 5 2009
Vinoy Thomas
Abstract Electrospun tubular conduit (4,mm inner diameter) based on blends of polydioxanone (PDS II) and proteins such as gelatin and elastin having a spatially designed trilayer structure was prepared for arterial scaffolds. SEM analysis of scaffolds showed random nanofibrous morphology and well-interconnected pore network. Due to protein blending, the fiber diameter was reduced from 800,950,nm range to 300,500,nm range. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results confirmed the blended composition and crystallinity of fibers. Pure PDS scaffold under hydrated state exhibited a tensile strength of 5.61,,0.42,MPa and a modulus of 17.11,,1.13,MPa with a failure strain of 216.7,,13%. The blending of PDS with elastin and gelatin has decreased the tensile properties. A trilayer tubular scaffold was fabricated by sequential electrospinning of blends of elastin/gelatin, PDS/elastin/gelatin, and PDS/gelatin (EG/PEG/PG) to mimic the complex matrix structure of native arteries. Under hydrated state, the trilayer conduit exhibited tensile properties (tensile strength of 1.77,,0.2,MPa and elastic modulus of 5.74,,3,MPa with a failure strain of 75.08,,10%) comparable to those of native arteries. In vitro degradation studies for up to 30 days showed about 40% mass loss and increase in crystallinity due to the removal of proteins and "cleavage-induced crystallization" of PDS. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009; 104: 1025,1033. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


High-Strain Shape-Memory Polymers

ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 1 2010
Walter Voit
Abstract Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are self-adjusting, smart materials in which shape changes can be accurately controlled at specific, tailored temperatures. In this study, the glass transition temperature (Tg) is adjusted between 28 and 55,C through synthesis of copolymers of methyl acrylate (MA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and isobornyl acrylate (IBoA). Acrylate compositions with both crosslinker densities and photoinitiator concentrations optimized at fractions of a mole percent demonstrate fully recoverable strains at 807% for a Tg of 28,C, at 663% for a Tg of 37,C, and at 553% for a Tg of 55,C. A new compound, 4,4,-di(acryloyloxy)benzil (referred to hereafter as Xini) in which both polymerizable and initiating functionalities are incorporated in the same molecule, was synthesized and polymerized into acrylate shape-memory polymers, which were thermomechanically characterized yielding fully recoverable strains above 500%. The materials synthesized in this work were compared to an industry standard thermoplastic SMP, Mitsubishi's MM5510, which showed failure strains of similar magnitude, but without full shape recovery: residual strain after a single shape-memory cycle caused large-scale disfiguration. The materials in this study are intended to enable future applications where both recoverable high-strain capacity and the ability to accurately and independently position Tg are required. [source]


Mechanical and fracture properties for predicting cracking in semi-sweet biscuits

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
Qasim Saleem
Summary Mechanical and fracture properties required for predicting crack development in semi-sweet (,rich tea') biscuits have been experimentally determined. Pilot-scale biscuits of different fat concentrations were prepared and studied with commercial biscuits at different moisture contents. Bending modulus, fracture stress and strain were measured using three-point bending tests. All biscuit types showed considerable dependence on moisture content over a range of 4,12%. Young's modulus and failure stress showed a uniform decrease and failure strain showed an increase with increasing moisture content. For pilot-scale biscuits of different fat concentrations, an increase in fat level caused a decrease in modulus and failure stress values; however, the failure strains were very similar for all the fat types. The testing of the samples with top surface up and top surface down revealed that the sample orientation does not affect the measured parameters. The measured parameters also did not show any directional dependence within the plane, thus assuring that the assumption of an isotropic material would be valid for modelling. The mechanical and fracture properties measured in this study will serve as a very useful set of data to predict the stress state and cracking of the checked biscuits. [source]


Enhanced strength of portland cement products via reinforcing polypropylene/fiberglass structures obtained from a novel processing technique

POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 5 2003
Yuanheng Zhang
An uninterrupted filament winding process was used to fabricate structures made of polypropylene and glass fiber that provide superior reinforcement to Portland cement structures. Fabricated polypropylene/fiberglass composite tubes were filled with a cement mixture and some were reinforced with internal tapes. Three-point bending experiments, microscopic observation, and image analysis were used as tools to study various processing variables and their effect on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The temperature of the mandrel and wetting strongly affected the composite's mechanical properties. Increased temperatures diminished the void content within the composite and produced a unique "fuzzy" inner surface for the cylindrical tube. The development of this "fuzzy" inner surface improved the strength and fatigue properties of the cement filled composite tube by providing efficient load transfer to the glass fibres. Also the surface to volume ratio of the steel rebar geometry when compared to that of the polypropylene/fibreglass structure explains the superior load transfer to the glass. It was found that a tube reinforced with 15 internal tapes filled with a cement mixture recorded a maximum tensile stress of 71 MPa (10,000 psi) with excellent damage tolerance, more than a 10-fold increase over the upper bound value for steel reinforced cement obtained from the rule of mixtures. The tube continued to be load bearing to strains of 0.4, which is more than 40 times the failure strain of glass. These large failure strains are the result of the shear yielding of polypropylene that coats the glass fibres and allows them to move within the cement. [source]