Faecal Coliforms (faecal + coliform)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Occurrence and levels of indicators and selected pathogens in different sludges and biosolids

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
C. Guzmán
Abstract Aims:, Determine the occurrence and levels of pathogens and indicators in raw and treated sludges and compare their persistence after two different treatments. Methods and Results:, Helminth ova, Cryptosporidium spp., Salmonella spp., enteroviruses, and bacterial and viral indicators were determined in raw sludges and biosolids produced after mesophilic and thermophilic treatments. Except Salmonella, all of the parameters were quantified. Helminth ova were found at very low concentrations even in raw sludges. Viable Cryptosporidium oocysts were still present in most samples of treated sludges. Faecal coliforms, spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia (SSRC), and somatic coliphages were the only indicators with values above their detection limits in most of the samples. Conclusions:, Pathogens were still detected in some treated sludge samples. SSRC were the most resistant micro-organisms to treatments and hence may be an indicator for the reduction of protozoan oocysts. Somatic coliphages constitute an alternative as viral indicators due to their detection in sludges before and after treatment. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Because of the persistence of some pathogens after sludge treatments, additional indicators are needed. SSRC and somatic coliphages are good candidates. Easy and inexpensive methods for the determination of these indicators are feasible both in industrialized and developing countries. [source]


Faecal coliforms in pond water, sediments and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus in Saudi Arabia

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 7 2003
Ahmed H Al-Harbi
Abstract Total bacterial load, total coliforms faecal coliforms in pond water, sediment, intestine of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus and pigeon Columba livia faeces were investigated monthly over a period of 1 year from July 1999 to June 2000. Fish were collected randomly by a cast net. Samples were analysed for coliforms using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Results showed total viable bacterial counts in the pond water, sediment, intestine of tilapia and pigeon faeces ranging from 1.8±0.9×102 to 6.0±1.2×104 cfu mL,1, 3.2±1.2×105 to 2.8±1.5×107 cfu g,1, 8.2±1.6×105 to 9.9±1.5×107 cfu g,11.0±0.4×107to9.7±0.2×109 cfu g,1respectively. The most probable number (MPN) of coliforms and faecal coliforms ranged from 287±12 to ,1600±0 100 mL,1 in pond water; the MPN ranges for sediment, tilapia intestine and pigeon faeces were 257±29 to ,1100±0 g,1, 237±46 to ,1100±0 g,1 and 403±98 to ,1100±0 g,1 respectively. The abundance of normal bacteria coliforms was greater in the warm months than in the cold months. Ground water was free from any sort of coliform organisms, and there were no sources of human faecal matter in the pond. So, it is clear that faecal coliforms from pigeon faeces significantly contaminated (P<0.05) the ponds and tilapia intestines. Escherichia coli was the only coliform organism found in pond water, sediment, intestine of tilapia and pigeon faeces. [source]


Effects of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on soil properties in arid and semi-arid regions,

IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE, Issue 5 2009
Sayyed Hassan Tabatabaei
eaux usées; méthode d'irrigation; transports de soluté; zone aride Abstract The use of municipal wastewater for irrigation needs special management. This is due to the environmental and health hazards. In this study, secondary treated municipal wastewater was used in five irrigation treatments. These treatments were as follows: furrow irrigation with normal water (FN), drip irrigation with wastewater (DI), subsurface drip irrigation in 15,cm depth with wastewater (SDI15), subsurface drip irrigation in 30,cm depth with wastewater (SDI30), and furrow irrigation with wastewater (FW). The results showed that the application of DI and SDI sand filters causes a decrease in wastewater index pollution, including 50.1% BOD5, 98.9% total count, 97.6% total coliform, 93.2% faecal coliform, 57.1% nematode, 81% total nitrogen, 52% N-NO3, 84% N-NH4 and 44% total suspended solids. In addition, the application of the SDI system causes a decrease in the moisture content of the soil surface, which decreases total coliform and faecal coliform on the soil surface. The average values for these parameters show no significant difference (5% level) between SDI treatments and FN. The results of this research also show that in the case of SDI with its minimal leaching, prevalence contamination (such as N-NO3) was minimized as a result of the usage of wastewater at depth and in groundwater. Moreover, in SDI treatments, the maximum EC and SAR leaching are observed at 60,cm depth, whereas in the FW this leaching is observed deeper than 90,cm. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. L'utilisation des eaux usées municipales pour l'irrigation nécessite une gestion spéciale afin d'éviter les risques pour la santé et l'environnement. Dans cette étude des eaux usées municipales de l'usine d'Ispahan avec traitement secondaire ont été utilisées dans cinq traitements d'irrigation. Ces traitements étaient les suivants: irrigation à la raie avec de l'eau normale (FN), l'irrigation au goutte-à-goutte avec des eaux usées (DI), irrigation en sub-surface à 15,cm de profondeur avec des eaux usées (SDI15), idem à 30,cm (SDI30), et irrigation à la raie avec des eaux usées (FW). Les résultats de cette recherche montrent que l'utilisation de filtres à sable dans DI et SDI a provoqué une diminution des index de pollution des eaux usées: 50,1% de la DBO5, 98,9% de la quantité totale, 97,6% des coliformes totaux, 93,2% des coliformes fécaux, 57,1% des nématodes, 81% de l'azote total, 52% de N-NO3, 84% de N-NH4 et 44% des matières en suspension. En outre l'application de SDI a entraîné une diminution de l'humidité de la surface du sol, ce qui a diminué les coliformes totaux et de coliformes fécaux en surface. Les valeurs moyennes pour ces paramètres n'ont révélé aucune différence significative (seuil 5%) entre les traitements SDI et FN. Les résultats de cette recherche ont également montré que avec SDI du fait d'une infiltration moindre, la contamination de prévalence (tels que le N-NO3) est minimisé du fait de l'utilisation des eaux usées en profondeur et des nappes phréatiques. En outre avec SDI les lessivages maximum de CE et de SAR ont été observées à 60,cm de profondeur alors qu'avec FW ce lessivage a été observé au-dessous de 90,cm. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in a virtually closed water reticulation system

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
S.G. Mulamattathil
The effect of the effluent from a chicken meat-processing plant on the antibiotic-resistant bacterial profile was investigated in an almost closed water reticulation system. Of the 273 faecal coliform isolates 256 (93%) were resistant to one or more of the eight antibiotics tested. The most prevalent isolates were for the ,-lactam antibiotics ampicillin and cephalothin followed by the sulphonamides sulphatriad and cotrimoxazole. Eleven different resistance patterns were identified with a single pattern, comprising of ampicillin-, cephalothin-, streptomycin-, sulphatriad-, cotrimoxazole- and tetracyclin-resistant isolates, dominating the meat-processing effluent. An apparent correlation was observed between the specific use of certain antibiotics and the prevalence of the corresponding resistant bacterial isolates. The drugs used to treat the occasional infections, belonging to the ,-lactam and sulphonamide group of antibiotics, seemed to have a more pronounced effect on the antibiotic-resistant bacterial profile in the primary water source than those drugs used as feed additives, oxytetracyclin and the aminoglycoside flavomycin. [source]


Runoff transport of faecal coliforms and phosphorus released from manure in grass buffer conditions

LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
W.L. Stout
Abstract Aims:, To test the hypothesis that faecal coliform (FC) and phosphorus (P) are transported similarly in surface runoff through the vegetative filter strip after being released from land-applied manure. Methods and Results:, The Hagerstown soil was packed into boxes that were 10 cm deep, 30 cm wide and 100, 200 or 300 cm long. Grass was grown in boxes prior experiments. Same-length boxes were placed under rainfall simulator and tilted to have with either 2% or 4% slopes. Dairy manure was broadcast on the upper 30-cm section. Rainfall was simulated and runoff samples were collected and analysed for Cl, FC and total phosphorus (TP). Mass recovery, the concentration decrease rate k, and the ratio FC : TP showed that there was a consistent relationship between FC and TP in runoff. Conclusion:, The FC and TP transport through simulated vegetated buffer strips were highly correlated. Significance and Impact of the Study:, As a knowledge base on the effect of the environmental parameters on P transport in vegetated buffer strips is substantially larger than for manure-borne bacteria, the observed similarity may enhance ability to assess the efficiency of the vegetated buffer strips in retention of FC currently used as indicator organisms for manure-borne pathogens. [source]


Microbial and nutrient pollution in the coastal bathing waters of Dar es Salaam

AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue S1 2009
Thomas J. Lyimo
Abstract 1.The objective of the present study was to assess the microbial and nutrient quality of coastal beach waters used for bathing in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Concentrations of traditional and alternative microbial indicators of faecal pollution and nutrients were assessed over a 1 year period (August 2005 to August 2006) using standard methods and the results were compared with the WHO water quality guidelines. 2.Faecal indicator bacteria values varied in a consistent fashion and correlated significantly with eachother, reflecting the presumed human faecal pollution. 3.The maximum counts (MPN per 100,mL) were observed on the site close to the city centre (Ocean Road) throughout the sampling period where values ranged from 1700 to>240 000 total coliform (TC), 200 to 92000 faecal coliform (FC) and 11 to 4900 enterococci (ENT). Other sites showed less predictable results with a range of values from 0,920, 0,540 and 0,46 for TC, FC and ENT, respectively. Furthermore, the faecal indicator bacteria concentration varied significantly with sampling time (P<0.05) and between sampling points (P<0.05). 4.Similarly, nutrients were significantly higher (P<0.05) at Ocean Road where concentration (µmolL,1) ranges were 0.2,54 (NO3), 0.0,20 (NO2) and 0.3,45 (PO4). 5.The levels of faecal indicator bacteria and nutrients were higher during the rainy seasons than the dry seasons, showing the inclusion of rain run-off as a source of contamination. The faecal indicator bacteria correlated positively with nutrients in both 1 year and daily data sets (P<0.01). Positive relationships were also observed among faecal indicators. This strongly suggests that an important role is played by sewage contamination in the extent of microbial pollution at the studied urbanized coastal beaches. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Comparative study of the efficacy of three coagulants in treating dairy factory waste water

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAIRY TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
A HAMDANI
The treatment of dairy factory waste water by coagulation and decantation has shown that calcium hydroxide at a weak dose of 0.49,0.63 g provides the highly efficient removal of suspended matter (SM) (94%) and total phosphorus (Tp-P) (89%) accompanied by an average elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN-N), faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). This is within the Moroccan limits for the first two parameters (SM and TP-P). The dose necessary to obtain optimal removal is 0.8,1.2 g when using aluminium sulfate and 0.6,0.75 g with iron chloride and the percentage elimination of chemical and bacteriological pollutants is not substantial. However, coagulation by calcium hydroxide induced less sludge (0.93 g/L) than either aluminium sulfate (1.21 g/L) or iron chloride (1.38 g/L). In terms of cost, the price of treating 1 m3 of dairy effluent by using calcium hydroxide is lower (approximately 25 times less expensive) than when using the other two coagulants. [source]


Incidence of faecal streptococci as an indicator of sanitation in ice-cream and frozen vegetables

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Fulya Turanta
Fifty-three ice-cream and fifty-five frozen vegetable samples, collected from two different factories, were analysed for total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci so that the value of faecal streptococci as an indicator of faecal contamination and sanitation in ice-cream and frozen vegetables could be evaluated. Thirty-two per cent of the ice-cream samples and 73% of the frozen vegetable samples were positive for coliform bacteria, whereas only 4% of the ice-cream samples and 24% of the frozen vegetable samples contained faecal coliform bacteria. Occurrence of faecal streptococci in the ice-cream and frozen vegetable samples were 81 and 75%, respectively. These results indicate that there is no direct relationship between the presence of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci, and the high occurrence of faecal streptococci in frozen foods examined suggests that faecal streptococci is a better sanitary indicator in frozen food products. [source]


Application of microbial source tracking methods in a Gulf of Mexico field setting

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
A. Korajkic
Abstract Aims:, Microbial water quality and possible human sources of faecal pollution were assessed in a Florida estuary that serves shellfishing and recreational activities. Methods and Results:, Indicator organisms (IO), including faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci, were quantified from marine and river waters, sediments and oysters. Florida recreational water standards were infrequently exceeded (6,10% of samples); however, shellfishing standards were more frequently exceeded (28%). IO concentrations in oysters and overlaying waters were significantly correlated, but oyster and sediment IO concentrations were uncorrelated. The human-associated esp gene of Enterococcus faecium was detected in marine and fresh waters at sites with suspected human sewage contamination. Lagrangian drifters, used to determine the pathways of bacterial transport and deposition, suggested that sediment deposition from the Ochlockonee River contributes to frequent detection of esp at a Gulf of Mexico beach. Conclusions:, These data indicate that human faecal pollution affects water quality in Wakulla County and that local topography and hydrology play a role in bacterial transport and deposition. Significance and Impact of the Study:, A combination of IO enumeration, microbial source tracking methods and regional hydrological study can reliably inform regulatory agencies of IO sources, improving risk assessment and pollution mitigation in impaired waters. [source]


The persistence of bifidobacteria populations in a river measured by molecular and culture techniques

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
X. Bonjoch
Abstract Aims:, To determine relative to faecal coliforms (FC) and sulfite-reducing clostridia (SRC), the environmental persistence of natural populations of Bifidobacterium spp. enumerated by culturing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Methods and Results:, Dialysis tubing containing river supplemented with overnight cultures of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BA) and Bifidobacterium dentium (BD) or urban wastewater were suspended in a river for up to 10 days. At intervals, the contents of each dialysis tube were assayed using q-PCR assays for BA and BD, and selective culture media for FC, SRC, total bifidobacteria (TB), sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria (SFB) and cultivable BA. Mean summer T90 values were 251 h for SRC, 92 h for FC, 48 h for BA and BD by q-PCR, and 9 h for TB. Conclusions:,Bifidobacterium spp. was the population with the lowest persistence, showing seasonal differences in T90 when measured by culture techniques or by q-PCR. This difference in relative persistence is because of a longer persistence of molecular targets than cultivable cells. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The persistence of a viable bifidobacteria cells is shorter, but the longest persistence of molecular targets. This factor could be used for origin the faecal pollution in water for the development of microbial source tracking (MST). [source]


Occurrence of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages infecting enteric bacteria in groundwater in different geographical areas

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
F. Lucena
Abstract Aims:, The aim of this research was to determine the suitability of coliphages (bacteriophages) for assessing the microbial quality of groundwater. Methods and Results:, The number of several bacterial indicators (faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia) and bacteriophages (somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis) were determined in groundwater of aquifers in various geographical areas. Results show that the relative abundance, determined as percentages of positive detections, of the bacterial indicators and bacteriophages varies depending on the aquifer. Conclusions:, A single bacterial indicator may not be enough to assess microbiological quality in certain aquifers. One bacterial indicator and a bacteriophage parameter provide more information than two bacterial indicators. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Coliphages (CPH) provide different information from that provided by bacterial indicators on the microbial quality of groundwater in different geographical areas. Easy, fast and inexpensive methods for the detection of CPH are feasible in both industrialized and developing countries. [source]


Peracetic acid as an alternative wastewater disinfectant to chlorine dioxide

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
S. Stampi
Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of peracetic acid with that of chlorine dioxide in the disinfection of wastewater from a sewage treatment plant (serving about 650 000 inhabitants) that has been using peracetic acid as a disinfectant since 1998. Methods and Results: A total of 23 samplings were made, each consisting of three samples: from secondary effluent, effluent disinfected with 2 mg l,1 of peracetic acid and effluent disinfected with 2·2 mg l,1 of chlorine dioxide (contact time 20 min). For each sample, measurements were made of the heterotrophic plate count at 36°C, total and faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, pH, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). During the first phase of the experiment the peracetic acid was seen to be less efficient than chlorine dioxide. To improve the disinfectant action a system of mechanical agitation was added which led to a greater efficiency in the inactivation of bacteria of faecal origin. Conclusions: Both products were found to be influenced by the level of microbial contamination, the amount of suspended solids and COD but not by the pH of the effluent before disinfection. The immediate mixing of the wastewater and disinfectant caused a greater reduction in enterococci. Significance and Impact of the Study: Since peracetic acid was seen to produce a high abatement of micro-organisms, it can be considered as a valid alternative to chlorine dioxide in the disinfection of wastewaters. [source]


Occurrence of Staphylococcus and enteropathogens in soft cheese commercialized in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
V.S. Araújo
Aims: To investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Aeromonas spp. and Yersinia spp. in soft cheese commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods and Results: A total of 45 samples of cheese from three different brands marketed in Rio de Janeiro city were analysed for faecal coliform levels using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. The samples were also analysed using conventional methodology for the investigation of food-borne pathogens. High levels of faecal contamination were detected in 95·5% of cheese samples. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 20% of samples, of which 17·7% were above the limits allowed by Brazilian legislation. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aer. caviae were detected in 17·7% of the samples. Yersinia spp. were not found in this study. EPEC was isolated from 21·1% of the samples and the most frequently found serogroups were O127, followed by O55 and O26. Conclusions: Our results showed that 95·5% of cheese samples had high levels of faecal coliforms. The isolation of Staph. aureus, serogroups of EPEC and Aeromonas spp. suggested that the soft cheese commercialized in the city of Rio de Janeiro may represent a health risk for the consumers. Significance and Impact of the Study: These results suggest that soft cheese may act as an important vehicle of transmission for well-established pathogens. [source]


Effect of packaging conditions on the growth of micro-organisms and the quality characteristics of fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) stored at inadequate temperatures

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
E. González-Fandos
Mushrooms were packed in two polymeric films (perforated and non-perforated PVC) and stored at 17 °C and 25 °C. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, aerobic mesophiles, Pseudomonas spp., faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, anaerobic spores and major sensory factors (colour, texture, development stage and presence of moulds) were determined. The non-perforated packages had the highest contents of CO2 (6,7%), the lowest contents of O2 (0·013,0·17%) and the most desirable quality parameters (texture, development stage and absence of moulds). Pseudomonas spp. counts were around 1 logarithmic unit lower in mushrooms packaged in non-perforated film as the O2 concentrations were lower than in perforated film. The mushrooms themselves were inoculated with an enterotoxin A-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus, packaged in overwrapped trays and stored at 17 and 25 °C. Staphylococcus aureus did not grow in the samples stored at 17 °C. Only slight growth was observed in mushrooms packaged with non-perforated film after 1 day at 25 °C. No enterotoxin was detected in any package. Faecal coliform counts were <2 log cfu g,1. Escherichia coli was not isolated in any of the samples. At 25 °C, counts of anaerobic spores of around 2 log cfu g,1 were detected in those mushrooms packaged in non-perforated film. [source]


Occurrence of faecal contamination in households along the US,Mexico border

LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
L. Carrasco
Abstract Aims:, The study aim was to determine the presence of total and faecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces, in tap water and on the hands of caregivers in households on both sides of the US,Mexico border. Methods and Results:, Samples were collected in 135 randomly selected households in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas. Different surfaces throughout the kitchen and head of households' hands were sampled using sterile cotton swabs moistened in D/E neutralizing solution. Sponge/dishcloth and drinking water samples were also obtained. Total and faecal coliforms were enumerated on m-Endo LES and mFC respectively. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were enumerated in accordance with the Quanti-TrayTM method. Sponge/dishcloth samples were the most commonly contaminated kitchen sites, followed by countertops and cutting boards. We recovered faecal coliforms from 14% of the hands of child caregivers, and this indicator was moderately associated with self-reported failure to wash hands after using the toilet (OR = 3·2; 95% CI: 0·9, 11·1). Conclusions:, Hand washing should continue to be emphasized, and additional interventions should be directed to specific kitchen areas, such as sponges/dishcloths, tables/countertops and cutting boards. Significance and Impact of the Study:, There is a need for additional interventions regarding kitchen sanitation. [source]


Runoff transport of faecal coliforms and phosphorus released from manure in grass buffer conditions

LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
W.L. Stout
Abstract Aims:, To test the hypothesis that faecal coliform (FC) and phosphorus (P) are transported similarly in surface runoff through the vegetative filter strip after being released from land-applied manure. Methods and Results:, The Hagerstown soil was packed into boxes that were 10 cm deep, 30 cm wide and 100, 200 or 300 cm long. Grass was grown in boxes prior experiments. Same-length boxes were placed under rainfall simulator and tilted to have with either 2% or 4% slopes. Dairy manure was broadcast on the upper 30-cm section. Rainfall was simulated and runoff samples were collected and analysed for Cl, FC and total phosphorus (TP). Mass recovery, the concentration decrease rate k, and the ratio FC : TP showed that there was a consistent relationship between FC and TP in runoff. Conclusion:, The FC and TP transport through simulated vegetated buffer strips were highly correlated. Significance and Impact of the Study:, As a knowledge base on the effect of the environmental parameters on P transport in vegetated buffer strips is substantially larger than for manure-borne bacteria, the observed similarity may enhance ability to assess the efficiency of the vegetated buffer strips in retention of FC currently used as indicator organisms for manure-borne pathogens. [source]


The microbiological quality of drinking water sold on the streets in Kumasi, Ghana

LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
K. Obiri-Danso
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of Ghanaian bottled and plastic-bagged drinking water sold on the streets of Metropolitan Kumasi, Ghana. Methods and Results: Eight bottled, 88 factory-filled plastic sachet and 40 hand-filled hand-tied polythene-bagged drinking waters were examined for the presence of heterotrophic bacteria total viable counts (TVCs), indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci) and for lead, manganese and iron. Heterotrophic bacteria were found in all three types of water with TVCs per millilitre ranging from 1 to 460 for bottled water, 2,6·33 × 105 for factory-bagged sachet water and 2·33 × 103,7·33 × 1012 for hand-filled hand-tied bagged water. None of the microbial indicators of faecal contamination were detected in bottled water, whereas 4·5% of the factory-bagged sachets contained total coliforms and 2·3% faecal coliforms, and 42·5% of the hand-filled hand-tied bags contained total coliforms, 22·5% faecal coliforms and 5% enterococci. Iron was found in all three types of drinking water but at concentrations well within the WHO recommendations. Lead and manganese were not detected. Conclusion: Ghanaian bottled water is of good microbiological quality but some factory-bagged sachet and hand-filled hand-tied polythene-bagged drinking water are of doubtful quality. Significance and Impact of the Study: Factory-bagged sachets and hand-filled hand-tied bags of drinking water sold in Ghana should be monitored for microbiological contamination, with the aim of raising standards in the industry and re-assuring the public. [source]


Faecal coliforms in pond water, sediments and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus in Saudi Arabia

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 7 2003
Ahmed H Al-Harbi
Abstract Total bacterial load, total coliforms faecal coliforms in pond water, sediment, intestine of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus and pigeon Columba livia faeces were investigated monthly over a period of 1 year from July 1999 to June 2000. Fish were collected randomly by a cast net. Samples were analysed for coliforms using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Results showed total viable bacterial counts in the pond water, sediment, intestine of tilapia and pigeon faeces ranging from 1.8±0.9×102 to 6.0±1.2×104 cfu mL,1, 3.2±1.2×105 to 2.8±1.5×107 cfu g,1, 8.2±1.6×105 to 9.9±1.5×107 cfu g,11.0±0.4×107to9.7±0.2×109 cfu g,1respectively. The most probable number (MPN) of coliforms and faecal coliforms ranged from 287±12 to ,1600±0 100 mL,1 in pond water; the MPN ranges for sediment, tilapia intestine and pigeon faeces were 257±29 to ,1100±0 g,1, 237±46 to ,1100±0 g,1 and 403±98 to ,1100±0 g,1 respectively. The abundance of normal bacteria coliforms was greater in the warm months than in the cold months. Ground water was free from any sort of coliform organisms, and there were no sources of human faecal matter in the pond. So, it is clear that faecal coliforms from pigeon faeces significantly contaminated (P<0.05) the ponds and tilapia intestines. Escherichia coli was the only coliform organism found in pond water, sediment, intestine of tilapia and pigeon faeces. [source]