Electron Transport Capacity (electron + transport_capacity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effect of external pH on the growth, photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport of Chlamydomonas acidophila Negoro, isolated from an extremely acidic lake (pH 2.6)

ABSTRACT In extremely acidic lakes, low primary production rates have been measured. We assumed that proton stress might explain these observations and therefore investigated the photosynthetic behaviour of a Chlamydomonas species, a main primary producer in acidic lakes, over a range of pH values. Identified as C. acidophila using small subunit rDNA analysis, this species is identical to other isolates from acidic environments in Europe and South America, suggesting a worldwide distribution. Laboratory experiments with C. acidophila, revealed a broad pH-tolerance for growth and photosynthesis, the lower pH limit lying at pH 1.5 and the upper limit at pH 7. Growth rates at optimum pH conditions (pH 3 and 5) were equal to those of the mesophilic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In contrast, photosynthetic rates were significantly higher, suggesting that higher photosynthetic rates compensated for higher dark respiration rates, as confirmed experimentally. Electron transport capacities of PSI and PSII, P700+ re-reduction times and measurements of PSII fluorescence revealed the induction of alternative electron transport mechanisms, such as chlororespiration, state transitions and cyclic electron transport, only at suboptimal pH values (pH 1.5; 4 and 6,7). The results indicate, that C. acidophila is well adapted to low pH and that the relatively low primary production rates are not a result of pH stress. [source]

Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and soil fertility on isoprene emissions from Quercus robur

Malcolm Possell
Abstract The effects of global change on the emission rates of isoprene from plants are not clear. A factor that can influence the response of isoprene emission to elevated CO2 concentrations is the availability of nutrients. Isoprene emission rate under standard conditions (leaf temperature: 30°C, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR): 1000 ,mol photons m,2 s,1), photosynthesis, photosynthetic capacity, and leaf nitrogen (N) content were measured in Quercus robur grown in well-ventilated greenhouses at ambient and elevated CO2 (ambient plus 300 ppm) and two different soil fertilities. The results show that elevated CO2 enhanced photosynthesis but leaf respiration rates were not affected by either the CO2 or nutrient treatments. Isoprene emission rates and photosynthetic capacity were found to decrease with elevated CO2, but an increase in nutrient availability had the converse effect. Leaf N content was significantly greater with increased nutrient availability, but unaffected by CO2. Isoprene emission rates measured under these conditions were strongly correlated with photosynthetic capacity across the range of different treatments. This suggests that the effects of CO2 and nutrient levels on allocation of carbon to isoprene production and emission under near-saturating light largely depend on the effects on photosynthetic electron transport capacity. [source]

Comparison by PAM Fluorometry of Photosynthetic Activity of Nine Marine Phytoplankton Grown Under Identical Conditions,

P. Juneau
ABSTRACT The photosynthetic activity of marine phytoplankton from five algal classes (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira oceanica, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Mantoniella squamata, Emiliania huxleyi, Pavlova lutheri and Heterosigma akashiwo) was investigated under identical growth conditions to determine interspecies differences. Primary photochemistry and electron transport capacity of individual species were examined by pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence. Although few differences were found in maximal photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency between various species, large differences were noticed in their PSII-photosystem I (PSI) electron transport activity. We found that species such as T. oceanica and M. squamata have much lower photochemical activity than H. akashiwo. It appeared that processes involved in electron transport activity were more susceptible to change during algal evolution compared with the primary photochemical act close to PSII. Large variations in the nonphotochemical energy dissipation event among species were also observed. Light energy required to saturate photosynthesis was very different between species. We have shown that M. squamata and H. akashiwo required higher light energy (>1300 ,mol m,2 s,1) to saturate photosynthesis compared with S. costatum and E. huxleyi (ca 280 ,mol m,2 s,1). These differences were interpreted to be the result of variations in the size of lightharvesting complexes associated with PSII. These disparities in photosynthetic activity might modulate algal community structure in the natural environment where light energy is highly variable. Our results suggest that for an accurate evaluation of primary productivity from fluorescence measurements, it is essential to know the species composition of the algal community and the individual photosynthetic capacity related to the major phytoplankton species present in the natural phytoplankton assemblage. [source]

Using combined measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate parameters of a biochemical C3 photosynthesis model: a critical appraisal and a new integrated approach applied to leaves in a wheat (Triticum aestivum) canopy

ABSTRACT We appraised the literature and described an approach to estimate the parameters of the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry model using measured CO2 assimilation rate (A) and photosystem II (PSII) electron transport efficiency (,2). The approach uses curve fitting to data of A and ,2 at various levels of incident irradiance (Iinc), intercellular CO2 (Ci) and O2. Estimated parameters include day respiration (Rd), conversion efficiency of Iinc into linear electron transport of PSII under limiting light [,2(LL)], electron transport capacity (Jmax), curvature factor (,) for the non-rectangular hyperbolic response of electron flux to Iinc, ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) CO2/O2 specificity (Sc/o), Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), rate of triose phosphate utilization (Tp) and mesophyll conductance (gm). The method is used to analyse combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements on leaves of various ages and positions in wheat plants grown at two nitrogen levels. Estimated Sc/o (25 °C) was 3.13 mbar µbar,1; Rd was lower than respiration in the dark; Jmax was lower and , was higher at 2% than at 21% O2; ,2(LL), Vcmax, Jmax and Tp correlated to leaf nitrogen content; and gm decreased with increasing Ci and with decreasing Iinc. Based on the parameter estimates, we surmised that there was some alternative electron transport. [source]

Adjustment of leaf photosynthesis to shade in a natural canopy: rate parameters

ABSTRACT The present study was performed to investigate the adjustment of the rate parameters of the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis to the natural growth light in leaves of an overstorey species, Betula pendula Roth, a subcanopy species, Tilia cordata P. Mill., and a herb, Solidago virgaurea L., growing in a natural plant community in Järvselja, Estonia. Shoots were collected from the site and individual leaves were measured in a laboratory applying a standardized routine of kinetic gas exchange, Chl fluorescence and 820 nm transmittance measurements. These measurements enabled the calculations of the quantum yield of photosynthesis and rate constants of excitation capture by photochemical and non-photochemical quenchers, rate constant for P700+ reduction via the cytochrome b6f complex with and without photosynthetic control, actual maximum and potential (uncoupled) electron transport rate, stomatal and mesophyll resistances for CO2 transport, Km(CO2) and Vm of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) in vivo. In parallel, N, Chl and Rubisco contents were measured from the same leaves. No adjustment toward higher quantum yield in shade compared with sun leaves was observed, although relatively more N was partitioned to the light-harvesting machinery in shade leaves (H. Eichelmann et al., 2004). The electron transport rate through the Cyt b6f complex was strongly down-regulated under saturating light compared with darkness, and this was observed under atmospheric, as well as saturating CO2 concentration. In vivo Vm measurements of Rubisco were lower than corresponding reported measurements in vitro, and the kcat per reaction site varied widely between leaves and growth sites. The correlation between Rubisco Vm and the photosystem I density was stronger than between Vm and the density of Rubisco active sites. The results showed that the capacity of the photosynthetic machinery decreases in shade-adjusted leaves, but it still remains in excess of the actual photosynthetic rate. The photosynthetic control systems that are targeted to adjust the photosynthetic rate to meet the plant's needs and to balance the partial reactions of photosynthesis, down-regulate partial processes of photosynthesis: excess harvested light is quenched non-photochemically; excess electron transport capacity of Cyt b6f is down-regulated by ,pH-dependent photosynthetic control; Rubisco is synthesized in excess, and the number of activated Rubisco molecules is controlled by photosystem I-related processes. Consequently, the nitrogen contained in the components of the photosynthetic machinery is not used at full efficiency. The strong correlation between leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic performance is not due to the nitrogen requirements of the photosynthetic apparatus, but because a certain amount of energy must be captured through photosynthesis to maintain this nitrogen within a leaf. [source]