Eosinophil Count (eosinophil + count)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Eosinophil Count

  • blood eosinophil count
  • sputum eosinophil count

  • Selected Abstracts

    Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Jorge Correale MD
    Objective To assess whether parasite infection is correlated with a reduced number of exacerbations and altered immune reactivity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods A prospective, double-cohort study was performed to assess the clinical course and radiological findings in 12 MS patients presenting associated eosinophilia. All patients presented parasitic infections with positive stool specimens. In all parasite-infected MS patients, the eosinophilia was not present during the 2 previous years. Eosinophil counts were monitored at 3- to 6-month intervals. When counts became elevated, patients were enrolled in the study. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12, transforming growth factor (TGF)-,, and interferon-, production by myelin basic protein,specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells were studied using enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT). FoxP3 and Smad7 expression were studied by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results During a 4.6-year follow-up period, parasite-infected MS patients showed a significantly lower number of exacerbations, minimal variation in disability scores, as well as fewer magnetic resonance imaging changes when compared with uninfected MS patients. Furthermore, myelin basic protein,specific responses in peripheral blood showed a significant increase in IL-10 and TGF-, and a decrease in IL-12 and interferon-,,secreting cells in infected MS patients compared with noninfected patients. Myelin basic protein,specific T cells cloned from infected subjects were characterized by the absence of IL-2 and IL-4 production, but high IL-10 and/or TGF-, secretion, showing a cytokine profile similar to the T-cell subsets Tr1 and Th3. Moreover, cloning frequency of CD4+CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells was substantially increased in infected patients compared with uninfected MS subjects. Finally, Smad7 messenger RNA was not detected in T cells from infected MS patients secreting TGF-,. Interpretation Increased production of IL-10 and TGF-,, together with induction of CD25+CD4+ FoxP3+ T cells, suggests that regulatory T cells induced during parasite infections can alter the course of MS. Ann Neurol 2007 [source]

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract: Report on the clinicopathologic features of a case and review of the literature,

    Emílio M. Pereira MD
    Abstract Background Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare fibroinflammatory lesion of the sinonasal tract that occurs mainly in young to middle-aged female patients. Only two previous cases affecting male patients have been reported, and its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. The authors report on the third case of the entity in a male patient and review the 12 previously reported cases. Case Report A 52-year-old male patient was initially seen with a 15 years history of allergic rhinitis, progressive nasal obstruction, and left-sided hearing loss. All laboratory tests were unremarkable, except the nasal discharge eosinophil count that showed a conspicuous eosinophilia. The video-assisted-nasofibroscopic examination and CT scans disclosed a thickened deviated nasal septum with a subjacent infiltrative lesion. The histologic analysis of the nasal septum showed a variable mixed inflammatory cellular infiltration mainly composed of eosinophils, plasma cells, and histiocytes with a perivascular distribution; in other areas, an angiocentric fibrosing lesion with a peculiar perivascular onion-skin pattern was observed. The patient had a partial resection of the lesion with symptomatic control. Conclusions The presence of rhinitis and nasal eosinophilia in our case associated with the clinical aspects of the previously reported cases further support an allergic cause for EAF. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 307,311, 2002; DOI 10.1002/hed.10041 [source]

    Value of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) for the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement due to inflammatory bowel disease

    Ezgi Ozyilmaz MD
    Abstract Background: Pulmonary involvement due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is frequent when evaluating a patient with IBD and pulmonary involvement remains complicated. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and the methods used are mostly invasive or expensive procedures. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the value of the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) level for the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement due to IBD and to investigate any correlation between FENO level and disease activity. Methods: Thirty-three nonsmoker patients with IBD (25 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 8 Crohn's Disease [CD]) who were free of corticosteroid treatment and 25 healthy subjects as a control group were enrolled in this study. All patients with IBD were investigated for pulmonary involvement with medical history, physical examination, chest roentgenogram, oxygen saturation, blood eosinophil levels, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and FENO level. Results: Pulmonary involvement was established in 15 patients (45.5%) with IBD. The FENO level was higher in patients with pulmonary involvement than without pulmonary involvement and healthy controls independent from the pulmonary symptoms, eosinophil count, duration of disease, activity of disease, and surgery history (FENO: 32 ± 20; 24 ± 8; 14 ± 8 ppb, respectively) (P < 0.05). In addition, diffusion capacity (DLCO) was found to be significantly lower in patients with CD compared with UC (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that an increased FENO level may be used for identifying patients with IBD who need further pulmonary evaluation. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009 [source]

    Utility of eosinophilia as a diagnostic clue in lower abdominal pain in northern Australia: a retrospective case,control study

    P. J. Clark
    Abstract Acute eosinophilic enteritis is a difficult diagnosis to make. Insufficient consideration of eosinophilia may commit patients to surgical treatment when medical therapy may be appropriate. The aim of the study was to determine whether the eosinophil count was considered in the diagnostic evaluation of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain who subsequently underwent appendectomy and whether eosinophilia was related to subsequent histology. The method used in the study was retrospective case,control. None of three patients with increased eosinophil counts had histologically proven appendicitis (Fisher's exact test 0.025); worm segments were seen in two patients. None of 39 patients who had histologically proven appendicitis had increased eosinophil counts. Eosinophilia may be underutilized and helminth infection may not be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. A normal eosinophil count in the setting of clinically suspected appendicitis may make the diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis less likely, but does not exclude it. Patients with abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia appear less likely to have acute appendicitis on subsequent histology; however, further study is required to validate these findings. The decision to operate remains one of clinical judgement. [source]

    Warfarin-induced allergic interstitial nephritis and leucocytoclastic vasculitis

    K. G. Kapoor
    Abstract Warfarin sodium has been associated with leucocytoclastic vasculitis and has once been associated with allergic interstitial nephritis. Hypersensitivity to warfarin sodium simultaneously resulting in allergic interstitial nephritis and leucocytoclastic vasculitis has not yet been previously reported. We present a 48-year-old man who was on warfarin sodium for 2 months and presented with acute renal failure and reddish purplish macules on his hypogastric regions and lower extremities bilaterally. Kidney biopsy showed allergic interstitial nephritis and punch skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis. Both biopsies also showed high eosinophil count, highly suggestive of a drug-induced reaction. After a negative comprehensive work-up and the absence of other recent medication changes, our patient was determined to have allergic interstitial nephritis and leucocytoclastic vasculitis secondary to warfarin sodium. [source]

    A case of suspected contact dermatitis in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    Joanne Morris
    Abstract Background, A 2-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) presented with vesicular dermatitis exhibiting freshly ruptured blisters, crusts, and papules on the extremities and face. Methods, Complete blood count, serum chemistry, skin biopsy, skin scrape, and culture of a fresh blister were initially submitted for diagnostics. Results, Skin biopsy of the affected area revealed a non-suppurative eosinophilic dermatitis with mild thickening of the epidermis. Serum chemistry showed a marked eosinophilia (1.74 × 103/,l, 17.4%). All other results were within normal limits. Initial differentials included contact dermatitis, immune-mediated disease such as pemphigus or psoriasis. Repeated blood work and skin biopsies were collected as well as serum for allergen-specific IgE latex and food allergy testing. Herpes B virus was added to the differential list after an oral lesion was noted upon repeated physical examination and samples were collected for testing. Repeat blood work maintained a marked eosinophilia and food allergy testing was within normal limits. Serum IgE for latex was equivocal and a follow-up latex sensitivity test was performed and was within normal limits. Repeated skin biopsies were consistent with acute eosinophilic spongiotic dermatitis with vesicles most likely due to contact dermatitis. No therapy was initiated during the diagnostic period and no etiology was confirmed. Conclusions, Over time the dermatitis and eosinophilia resolved spontaneously. The animal is currently free of any lesions and maintains an eosinophil count within normal limits. [source]

    Pemphigus vulgaris as a possible cause of protein-losing gastroenteropathy: A case report

    Takashi Ishige
    Abstract: We present a case of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) accompanied with protein-losing gastroenteropathy (PLE). A 9-year-old girl developed multiple oral ulcerations and erosions. She was first treated with oral antibiotics and a topical steroid without improvement. Laboratory data showed eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count 1.08 × 109/L) and hypoproteinemia (total serum protein 3.9 g/dL, albumin 2.2 g/dL). A biopsy specimen from the ileum showed intense eosinophil infiltration and albumin scintigraphy demonstrated protein exduation from the same site. Endoscopic examination of the oesophagus showed multiple ulcerations and erosions, and biopsy specimen showed eosinophilic spongiosis and immunohistologic staining demonstrated deposits of IgG and C3 in the intercellular space. Antidesmoglein-3 antibody elevated, she was diagnosed as PV complicated with PLE. Immunofluorescence study of a biopsy specimen from the terminal ileum showed no significant immunoglobulin or complement deposition, and autoantibody against intestinal mucosa was unclear in this case. Gastrointestinal evaluations should be considered in patients with hypoproteinemia associated with PV. [source]

    Clinicopathlogical features and prognosis of drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms: a study of 30 cases in Taiwan

    C-C Chiou
    Abstract Background, Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), a group of non-blistering severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCADRs), is characterized by skin rash and multiorgan involvement. Details of this reaction have not been reported in the literature so far. Aim, We investigate clinical and pathological features and prognosis of DRESS and hope this study will provide data concerning this disorder in Taiwan. Methods, From January 2001 to June 2006, a total of 30 patients, diagnosed with DRESS, were enrolled and evaluated for demographic characteristics, pathological findings, complications and outcome. Results, Patient ages ranged from 13 to 78, with an equal sex ratio. The most common offending drug was allopurinol followed by carbamazepine. Pathologic changes observed were lichenoid dermatitis, erythema multiforme, pseudolymphoma and vasculitis. Impairment of liver and renal functions and blood dyscrasia were frequent complications. Active infection or reactivation of HHV-6 was observed in 7 of 11 patients studied serologically. Two patients developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. The mortality rate was 10% (3 of 30). Conclusions, DRESS is a heterogeneous group of life-threatening conditions. The leading drug in DRESS in Taiwan is allopurinol. High eosinophil count and multiple underlying diseases are poor prognostic factors in patients with DRESS. [source]

    An economic evaluation of NIOX MINO airway inflammation monitor in the United Kingdom

    ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
    D. Price
    Background:, Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, is easily measured by noninvasive means. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of FENO measurement using a hand-held monitor (NIOX MINO), at a reimbursement price of £23, for asthma diagnosis and management in the UK. Methods:, We constructed two decision trees to compare FENO measurement with standard diagnostic testing and guideline recommendations for management. For asthma diagnosis, we compared FENO measurement with lung function and reversibility testing, bronchial provocation and sputum eosinophil count. For asthma management, we evaluated the impact on asthma control, including inhaled corticosteroid use, exacerbations and hospitalizations, of monitoring with FENO measurement vs symptoms and lung function as in standard care. Resource use and health outcomes were evaluated over a 1-year time frame. Direct costs were calculated from a UK health-care payer perspective (2005 £). Results:, An asthma diagnosis using FENO measurement cost £43 less per patient as compared with standard diagnostic tests. Asthma management using FENO measurement instead of lung function testing resulted in annual cost-savings of £341 and 0.06 quality-adjusted life-years gained for patients with mild to severe asthma and cost-savings of £554 and 0.004 quality-adjusted life-years gained for those with moderate to severe asthma. Conclusions:, Asthma diagnosis based on FENO measurement with NIOX MINO alone is less costly and more accurate than standard diagnostic methods. Asthma management based on FENO measurement is less costly than asthma management based on standard guidelines and provides similar health benefits. [source]

    Predictors of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp

    ALLERGY, Issue 1 2009
    D. H. Han
    Background:, Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSNP) and asthma are inflammatory lesions of the respiratory epithelium. This study was conducted to evaluate predictive factors of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in patients with CRSNP. Methods:, BHR was evaluated using a methacholine bronchoprovocation test (MBPT) in 122 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with CRSNP at Seoul National University Hospital from January 2004 to June 2006. The following parameters were analyzed and compared between the BHR and non-BHR groups: symptoms, atopic status, current smoking, disease severity of CRSNP based on the Lund,Mackay scoring system of sinus CT, and counts of eosinophils in the serum and nasal tissues. Results:, Thirty-five percent of the patients were found to have BHR, and BHR was found to occur more frequently in patients that were currently suffering from sneezing (P = 0.007). In addition, the mean eosinophil counts of the serum and nasal tissues were higher in the BHR group than in the non-BHR group (P = 0.001 for the serum, P = 0.045 for the nasal tissues), and the eosinophil counts of the serum correlated to those of the nasal tissues (r = 0.334, P = 0.013). The disease severity, as determined by the Lund,Mackay scoring system, was not different between the two groups (P > 0.05). The best cutoff serum eosinophil count for predicting BHR in CRSNP patients was determined to be 300 cells/,l (sensitivity 70%, specificity 70%). Conclusion:, Taken together, these results indicate that moderate to severe sneezing and a serum eosinophil count , 300 cells/,l may be predictive factors for BHR in patients with CRSNP. [source]

    Basement membrane thickening and clinical features of children with asthma

    ALLERGY, Issue 6 2007
    E. S. Kim
    Background:, Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway obstruction. Although asthma induces partially reversible airway obstruction, obstruction can sometimes become irreversible. This may be a consequence of airway remodeling, which includes a number of structural changes, such as epithelial detachment, basement membrane (BM) thickening, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and new vessel formation. This study evaluated children with asthma for the presence of BM thickening. Methods:, Eighteen children with asthma and 24 control subjects underwent flexible bronchoscopy with endobronchial biopsy. Light microscopy was used to measure BM thickness in paraffin-embedded biopsy sections. The association between BM thickening and age, sex, duration of asthma, asthma severity, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25,75%, methacholine PC20, eosinophil count, and presence of atopy was examined. Results:, Basement membrane thickness was greater in subjects with asthma (8.3 ± 1.4 ,M) than in control subjects (6.8 ± 1.3 ,M, P = 0.0008). Multiple regression analysis revealed that sex, FEV1/FVC, total IgE, and atopy (IgE for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus >0.34 kUA/l) were significant predictive factors for BM thickness. There was no significant association between BM thickness and age, duration of asthma, FEV1, FEF25,75%, methacholine PC20, eosinophil count, or asthma severity. Conclusions:, Basement membrane thickening has been known to be present in children with asthma. In addition, we report an association between BM thickness and sex, FEV1/FVC, total IgE, and the presence of IgE specific to D. pteronyssinus. [source]

    Lower levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in peripheral blood are associated with a diagnosis of asthma 6 yr after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

    Eli Silver
    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) play a crucial role in antiviral immunity and promoting Th1 polarization, possibly protecting against development of allergic disease. Examination of the relationship between peripheral blood plasmacytoid DC levels and manifestations of asthma and atopy early in life. We have isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 73 children (mean age ± SD: 6.6 ± 0.5 yr old) participating in the RSV Bronchiolitis in Early Life (RBEL) study. Flow cytometry was performed on PBMC detecting DC surface-markers: Blood Dendritic Cell Antigens (BDCA) 1, 3, and 2 which identify myeloid type 1, type 2, and plasmacytoid cells, respectively. Total serum IgE, peripheral eosinophil count, and allergy skin tests were documented. About 45% (n = 33) of study participants had physician-diagnosed asthma by 6 yr of age. These children had significantly lower quantities (mean ± SD) of plasmacytoid DC than their non-asthmatic counterparts (1020 ± 921 vs. 1952 ± 1170 cells per 106 PBMC, p = 0.003). We found significantly lower numbers of myeloid dendritic cells in children with asthma (3836 ± 2472 cells per 106 PBMC) compared with those without asthma (4768 ± 2224 cells per 106 PBMC, p = 0.02); however, this divergence was not significant after adjusting for covariates of age, gender, race, skin test reactivity, smoke exposure, and daycare attendance. We did not identify any direct association between DC levels and markers of atopy: skin test reactivity, peripheral eosinophilia, and IgE level. Children who are diagnosed with asthma after severe RSV bronchiolitis appear to have a relative deficiency of plasmacytoid DC in peripheral blood. [source]

    Relationship between adipokines and manifestations of childhood asthma

    Kyung W. Kim
    Although the prevalences of asthma and obesity are increasing substantially in recent decades, very little is known about the possible association between them. We evaluated the roles of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, which are adipokines produced by adipose tissue, on childhood asthma, and their association with pulmonary function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We studied 149 atopic asthmatic children, 37 non-atopic asthmatic children, and 54 healthy children. Body mass index was calculated using height and weight, which were measured on the same day that pulmonary function tests and methacholine challenge tests were performed. Skin prick tests were performed, and total eosinophil count, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), serum eosinophil cationic protein, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were measured in all subjects. Atopic asthmatics had lower resistin levels compared with non-atopic asthma and control groups, but leptin and adiponectin did not show any difference among these three groups. Resistin demonstrated positive correlation with methacholine PC20 and negative correlations with eosinophil count and serum total IgE. Leptin and adiponectin showed associations with forced expiratory volume in 1 s or forced expiratory flow between 25,75%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that resistin was a significant predictive factor for asthma. There was no direct association between asthma and leptin or adiponectin. Our findings suggest that resistin may play a negative predictive role in asthma. Adiponectin and leptin showed close associations with pulmonary function and may have disease-modifying effects in children with asthma. [source]

    Efficacy of prednisolone in children hospitalized for recurrent wheezing

    Tuomas Jartti
    Data on the efficacy of corticosteroids on respiratory picornavirus-induced wheezing are limited. To determine whether prednisolone is effective in rhinovirus- or enterovirus-induced recurrent wheezing, we conducted a controlled trial comparing oral prednisolone (2 mg/kg/day in three divided doses for 3 days) with placebo in hospitalized wheezing children and studied post hoc virus-specific efficacy in early wheezing (<3 episodes, reported elsewhere) and in recurrent wheezing (,3 episodes). Virus-negative children where excluded. Our primary endpoint was the time until children were ready for discharge. Secondary endpoints included oxygen saturation and exhaled nitric oxide during hospitalization, duration of symptoms, blood eosinophil count, and impulse oscillometry 2 wk after discharge, and occurrence of relapses during the following 2 months. Virus-specific effects were analyzed with interaction analysis in a multivariate regression model. During the study period, 661 patients were hospitalized, 293 randomized, and 59 were accepted in this analysis (mean age 2.6 yr, s.d. 1.3). Prednisolone did not significantly decrease the time until ready for discharge in all patients (prednisolone vs. placebo, medians, 18 vs. 24 h, p = 0.11). However, prednisolone decreased the time until ready for discharge in children with picornavirus infection (respectively, 12 vs. 24 h, p = 0.0022) and more specifically, in children with enterovirus infection (6 vs. 35 h, p = 0.0007). In the secondary endpoints, prednisolone decreased the duration of cough and dyspnea in rhinovirus-affected children (p = 0.033 for both). Prospectively designed clinical trial is needed to test the hypothesis that prednisolone reduces symptoms in picornavirus-affected wheezing children. [source]

    Exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children and adolescents after nasal allergen challenge

    Christophe Pedroletti
    Epidemiological data suggest a comorbidity link between nasal and bronchial allergic disease. Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a sensitive marker of bronchial inflammation and increases after bronchial allergen provocation. We studied FENO in 19 children and adolescents with allergic asthma and 10 controls before and 2, 6 and 24 h after a single nasal allergen challenge. The correlation between FENO and other markers of allergic inflammation, such as eosinophils in blood and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in serum and nasal lavage was also assessed. FENO remained unchanged 24 h post-challenge in both steroid and steroid-naïve patients. At 6 h post-challenge, FENO decreased in both asthmatics and controls. The asthmatic subjects showed a positive correlation between FENO and blood eosinophils before (r = 0.71, p = 0.001) and after the challenge, and between FENO and ECP in nasal lavage (r = 0.62, p = 0.02) 2 h after the challenge. Mean ECP in nasal lavage increased post-challenge but not significantly. We conclude that a single nasal allergen challenge does not augment bronchial inflammation although FENO, is related to blood eosinophil count and to the nasal inflammatory response. Our data do not support the theory of a direct transmission of the nasal inflammation to the lower airways. [source]

    Neonatal Eosinophilic Pustulosis in a 2-Month Old

    Manasi Kadam Ladrigan M.D.
    Complete resolution of his skin lesions occurred spontaneously by 4 months of age, paralleling a decline in his eosinophil count. We discuss the relationship of this eruption to other pustular disorders of infancy and hypothesize a mechanism that may initiate the eruption. [source]

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a case with ABO-incompatible liver transplantation for biliary atresia complicated by portal vein thrombosis

    Yohei Yamada
    Yamada Y, Hoshino K, Shimojima N, Shinoda M, Obara H, Kawachi S, Fuchimoto Y, Tanabe M, Kitagawa Y, Morikawa Y. Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a case with ABO-incompatible liver transplantation for biliary atresia complicated by portal vein thrombosis. Pediatr Transplantation 2010: 14:e49,e53. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:, Idiopathic HES is characterlized by prolonged eosinophilia without an identifiable underlying cause and multiple-organ dysfunction. We report a case of a LDLT for a 12-yr-old Japanese girl with BA accompanied by HES. Histological examination of the resected liver showed biliary cirrhosis with dense eosinophilic infiltration of portal tracts and the lobules of the liver. She developed portal vein thrombosis on post-operative day 10 and the histopathological findings of the thrombus revealed dense eosinophilic deposition, suggesting that HES might have influenced the formation of this thrombus. Liver graft biopsies also demonstrated the presence of activated eosinophilils with biliary damage. Blood chemistry findings suggested liver dysfunction as a result of the eosinophilic infiltrations. Prednisolone treatment improved the liver dysfunction. Four years after LDLT, she remains clinically well on prednisolone at 0.3 mg/kg/day, with an eosinophil count ranging from 10 to 15%. A literature review has not shown any previous reports of HES with BA. This case demonstrates the possibility of an association between eosinophilic infiltration and liver dysfunction during follow-up for BA and after LDLT. [source]

    Efficacy of pollen immunotherapy in seasonal allergic rhinitis

    Abstract Background: The efficacy of subcutaneous pollen immunotherapy has been documented in published double-blind, placebo-controlled studies related to treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. In the present study, subjective (symptom scores) and objective (nasal peak inspiratory flow, nasal smear, nasal biopsy) parameters were used to study the efficacy of pollen immunotherapy. Methods: Forty-eight patients (32 male), mean ± SE age 13.6 ± 2.8 years allergic to grass-pollen participated in the present study. Patients were divided into three groups: group I, 24 patients who did not receive pollen immunotherapy; group II, 12 patients who received the build-up phase of pollen immunotherapy; and group III, 12 patients who had just finished pollen immunotherapy. With regard to objective and subjective parameters these three groups were compared. Results: When group I was compared to groups II and III, the patients who had not received any immunotherapy were found to have a high daytime nasal symptoms score (P < 0.01), high daytime eye symptoms score(P < 0.01) and high night-time symptoms score (P < 0.01). In objective parameters, it was found that group I had low nasal peak inspiratory flow (P < 0.05), and a high eosinophil count in nasal smears (P < 0.05) and peripheral blood (P < 0.05). It was also demonstrated that there was an increased eosinophil infiltration (P < 0.01) and mast cell infiltration (P < 0.05) in nasal biopsy in group I. There was no significant difference between group II and group III according to these results (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Immunotherapy leads to a better clinical and histopathological prognosis in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. [source]

    Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases

    Ulrich Kalus
    Abstract Nigella sativa (black seed) is an important medicinal herb. In many Arabian, Asian and African countries, black seed oil is used as a natural remedy for a wide range of diseases, including various allergies. The plant's mechanism of action is still largely unknown. Due to the lack of study data on its ef,cacy in allergies, four studies on the clinical ef,cacy of Nigella sativa in allergic diseases are presented. In these studies, a total of 152 patients with allergic diseases (allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic eczema) were treated with Nigella sativa oil, given in capsules at a dose of 40 to 80 mg/kg/day. The patients scored the subjective severity of target symptoms using a prede,ned scale. The following laboratory parameters were investigated: IgE, eosinophil count, endogenous cortisol in plasma and urine, ACTH, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and lymphocyte subpopulations. The score of subjective feeling decreased over the course of treatment with black seed oil in all four studies. A slight decrease in plasma triglycerides and a discrete increase in HDL cholesterol occurred while the lymphocyte subpopulations, endogenous cortisol levels and ACTH release remained unchanged. Black seed oil therefore proved to be an effective adjuvant for the treatment of allergic diseases. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inflammatory subtypes in asthma: Assessment and identification using induced sputum

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Jodie L. SIMPSON
    Objective: The authors sought to investigate the detection of non-eosinophilic asthma using induced sputum. Although this is an important subtype of clinical asthma, its recognition is not standardized. Methods: Adult non-smokers with asthma and healthy controls underwent sputum induction and hypertonic saline challenge. Non-eosinophilic asthma was defined as symptomatic asthma with normal sputum eosinophil counts. The normal range for sputum eosinophil count was determined using the 95th percentile from the healthy control group as a cut-off point. Results: The recognition of non-eosinophilic asthma using eosinophil proportion was in agreement with a definition based on absolute eosinophil count (kappa 0.67). Non-eosinophilic asthma was a stable subtype over both the short term (4 weeks) and longer term (5 years, kappa 0.77). Airway inflammation in asthma could be categorized into four inflammatory subtypes based on sputum eosinophil and neutrophil proportions. These subtypes were neutrophilic asthma, eosinophilic asthma, mixed granulocytic asthma and paucigranulocytic asthma. Subjects with increased neutrophils (neutrophilic asthma and mixed granulocytic asthma) were older and had an increased total cell count and cell viability compared with other subtypes. Conclusion: Induced sputum eosinophil proportion is a good discriminator for eosinophilic asthma, providing a reproducible definition of a homogenous group. The remaining non-eosinophilic subjects are heterogeneous and can be further classified based on the presence of neutrophils. These inflammatory subtypes have important implications for the investigation and characterization of airway inflammation in asthma. [source]

    Isolated symptomatic cutaneous disease in hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Veronica Preda
    ABSTRACT A 41-year-old Phillipino man presented with a 3-year history of a relapsing and remitting generalized chronic pruritic erythematous papular and plaque-like eruption. Investigations showed a persistently elevated eosinophil count. His disease was limited to cutaneous involvement with an absence of demonstrable internal organ involvement, despite extensive investigations and multidisciplinary review. Other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. A diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome was made. Our patient's presentation raises a number of issues related to hypereosinophilic syndrome. In particular, relating to managing hypereosinophilic syndrome and the challenge of minimizing therapy side-effects. Our case highlights the considerable morbidity of untreated isolated cutaneous disease, for which he was hospitalized with suicidal ideations. In a minority of reports, skin involvement is the only manifestation of hypereosinophilic syndrome. [source]

    Annular erythema with eosinophilia: A subset of Wells' syndrome

    R. Howes
    We present a 52-year-old lady with a 5-year history of a persistent, widespread, annular erythema associated with lethargy, arthralgias, and an inflammatory synovitis. Skin biopsies have shown mild lichenoid change at the dermoepidermal junction; and oedema, mucin, and a diffuse lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate without flame figures in the dermis. A full blood count including an eosinophil count; liver, renal and thyroid function; rheumatoid factor, ANA, ENA, dsDNA, complement studies, immunoglobulins, and serum protein elecrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis; flow cytometry of peripheral blood for lymphocyte markers; stool examination for ova, cysts and parasites; and a CT scan of the chest and abdomen have shown no significant abnormality. Hydroxychloroquine has stabilised but not cleared her condition. Cases presenting clinically with annular erythema and histologically with eosinophilic cellulitis are difficult to classify. We discuss the classification of this case in the context of the literature. [source]

    Characteristics of extrinsic vs. intrinsic atopic dermatitis in infancy: correlations with laboratory variables

    J-H. Park
    Summary Background, Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been divided into the extrinsic type (ADe) and the intrinsic type (ADi) according to the serum IgE levels and the presence or absence of allergen-specific IgE. Although previous studies have demonstrated differences in the various immunological parameters, the characteristics of AD in infancy have rarely been reported. Objectives, Our study was performed to analyse the correlations between the laboratory parameters of infantile ADe and ADi. Methods, We recruited 237 infants with AD and checked the SCORAD index, the number of peripheral blood eosinophils, the serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels, the total serum IgE levels and the specific serum IgE levels in all the patients. We also checked the serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 levels in 20 patients with ADe and in 20 with ADi. Results, This study showed many peculiar characteristics of infantile AD. In infancy, ADi was more prevalent than ADe. The eosinophil count, the ECP level and the SCORAD in ADi were lower than in ADe. Furthermore, a group of patients without characteristics of ADi or ADe could be identified. We tentatively classify this group as indeterminate type (ADind) and propose it as a separate entity. The clinical severity was well correlated with the eosinophil count and the serum ECP levels in ADe and ADi. Therefore these two parameters could be used as clinical severity markers in infancy. Infants are more allergic to food, and the variety of specific allergenic responses was connected with clinical severity. A higher eosinophil count, a higher ECP level and a higher detection rate of IL-5 in the peripheral blood of infants with ADe means that eosinophils have a more prominent role in ADe than in ADi. Conclusions, Infantile AD has many distinctive features in its laboratory variables as compared with AD in other age groups. Clinicians should recognize these facts when they deal with infants with AD, and further studies are warranted on the natural course of infantile AD. [source]

    Serum antidiuretic hormone is elevated in relation to the increase in average total body transepidermal water loss in severe atopic dermatitis

    T. Aoki
    Summary Background, While elevation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (arginine vasopressin) levels in the serum has been reported in severe atopic dermatitis (AD), the cause is as yet unexplained. On the other hand, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is known to increase in the damaged skin due to AD. Objectives, As ADH increases as a result of dehydration of the body, this study examined whether the high ADH level in severe AD is a reaction to the increased water loss through the entire body skin surface area. Methods, Forty-eight patients of different ages and with various degrees of AD along with six age- and sex-matched control persons were the study subjects. Using a quick responsive evaporimeter, an average total body TEWL (ATEWL) value was obtained for each subject. Laboratory tests including ADH, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and peripheral blood eosinophil count (EOS) were also performed. Clinical severity grading was made globally. The relevancy of this grading was empirically demonstrated by its statistically significant relation to LDH and EOS which are commonly known as appropriate gauges for AD severity. Results, ATEWL was observed to be significantly greater in patients with AD of at least moderate severity than in normal controls, and ADH was significantly greater in patients with severe and very severe AD. Both ATEWL and ADH showed a significant relation to AD severity. Finally, a significant correlation was found between ADH and ATEWL. Conclusions, It is possible that elevated ADH is at least in part a reaction to increased ATEWL. [source]

    The bronchial response to mannitol is attenuated by a previous methacholine test: but not vice versa

    E. Gade
    Summary Aim To examine the airway response to inhaled mannitol performed before or after a methacholine challenge test in a group of asthmatics with different levels of disease. Methods A total of 48 asthmatics, 18,73 years of age, were included in the study. Two pairs of challenges were performed in a random order on two separate days 24 h apart: either with mannitol performed first on day one, followed 1 h by methacholine, and methacholine as the first on day two, followed 1 h by mannitol or vice versa. A questionnaire-based interview was performed and lung function, exhaled nitric oxide, skin prick test, and blood eosinophil count were measured. Results A total of 44% of the asthmatics used inhaled corticosteroids and 48% were atopic. The airway response to mannitol was attenuated when mannitol was given after methacholine, compared with the response to mannitol when it was given first [log response dose ratio (RDR): 1.42 vs. 1.60 (P=0.004)], whereas the response to methacholine was unchanged in the opposite test order [log RDR: 0.81 vs. 0.96 (P=0.102)]. Conclusion Bronchial challenges with inhaled mannitol and methacholine may be performed on the same day but provocation with mannitol should be performed before methacholine. [source]

    Bacillus Calmette,Guérin-induced interleukin-12 did not additionally improve clinical and immunologic parameters in asthmatic children treated with sublingual immunotherapy

    C. Arikan
    Summary Objective To evaluate the effect of bacillus Calmette,Guérin (BCG) as an adjuvant to specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) on the cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and clinical outcome. Methods Thirty-two children with asthma and rhinitis allergic to house dust mite (HDM) with negative purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test response were enrolled. After a run-in period of 8 weeks, patients were randomized to receive either SLIT only (n=16) or one dose of BCG immunization before initiation of SLIT (n=16) with a standardized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus)+D. farinea 50/50 extract. PPD-negative asthmatics (n=5) allergic to HDM receiving inhaled therapy only were included for comparison of cytokine levels in PBMC cultures. Efficacy was assessed both at the end of run-in and 6 months of treatment periods with criteria including symptom, medication and quality-of-life (QoL) scores, IgE levels, lung function, provocation concentration (PC20), eosinophil count and skin prick tests. IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IFN-, levels were determined in antigen specifically and polyclonally stimulated PBMC cultures. Results Both treatment groups showed significant improvement at the end of 6 months for asthma and rhinitis scores and QoL, number of asthma attacks, amount of ,2 -agonists, inhaled and intranasal steroids, blood eosinophil counts and PC20. Interestingly, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated IL-12 and D. pteronyssinus- stimulated IFN-, in PBMC were significantly higher in the treatment groups than controls. In addition, IL-12 levels in response to D. pteronyssinus and PHA stimulation were significantly higher in the SLIT+BCG group than the SLIT alone group and controls. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that successful SLIT is parallel to increased IFN-, production by PBMC. Although simultaneous BCG vaccination enhanced IL-12 production, it did not additionally improve the clinical outcome. [source]


    Kenji Ishido
    We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with right subcostal pain. Minocycline had been prescribed to treat pruritus, and the symptoms resolved. Subsequently, the patient consulted a local physician because of right subcostal pain. Giant folds were found in the greater curvature of the gastric body, and he was referred to the Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed markedly enlarged folds in the greater curvature of the stomach, with redness and edematous mucosa in the lesser curvature. Biopsy showed marked inflammatory cell infiltration (mainly eosinophils), but no atypical cells. Blood tests showed marked eosinophilia and elevated immunoglobulin E levels in the serum. The results of various allergic examinations were negative, but the clinical course suggested drug-induced eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and treatment was started. Minocycline was withdrawn without adequate resolution of symptoms. Because the leukocyte and eosinophil counts continued to increase, the patient was given suplatast, an anti-allergic agent. The symptoms and hematological values improved promptly. The patient recovered uneventfully, with no recurrence. [source]

    Redefining the role of lymphocytes in gastroesophageal reflux disease and eosinophilic esophagitis

    B. Basseri
    SUMMARY Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and reflux esophagitis (RE) overlap clinically and histologically. RE is characterized by epithelial infiltration with small numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils, EoE by a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate. Lymphocytic esophagitis (LE), a new entity characterized by peripapillary lymphocytosis, questions the role lymphocytes play in esophageal inflammation. We test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in RE differs from EoE. One blinded pathologist read esophageal biopsies from 39 RE and 39 EoE patients. Both groups demonstrated significant numbers of lymphocytes (RE 22.7 ± 2.2/HPF, EoE 19.8 ± 1.8/HPF). Eosinophils/HPF in RE and EoE were 2.8 ± 0.7 and 74.9 ± 8.2, respectively (P < 0.001). Neutrophils were uncommon in RE (0.26 ± 0.16/HPF) and EoE (0.09 ± 0.04; P = 0.07). Eight of the 39 RE specimens had ,50 lymphocytes in ,1 HPF. Two were consistent with LE. There was an inverse correlation between numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes in EoE (R = ,0.47; P = 0.002), and no correlation between them in RE (R = 0.18; P = 0.36). The patients with EoE who used antireflux medications had fewer lymphocytes (16.3 ± 1.3 vs 22.2 ± 2.3/HPF; P = 0.030) and eosinophils (55.6 ± 5.2 vs 76.0 ± 8.7/HPF; P = 0.042) than those who did not. The pathological role of lymphocytes in RE and EoE may be underestimated. Our observation that 5% of the RE specimens meet histopathological criteria for LE potentially blurs the line between these entities. The observation that eosinophil counts are lower in EoE when antireflux meds are used supports the notion that reflux plays a role in the clinical expression of EoE. [source]

    Utility of eosinophilia as a diagnostic clue in lower abdominal pain in northern Australia: a retrospective case,control study

    P. J. Clark
    Abstract Acute eosinophilic enteritis is a difficult diagnosis to make. Insufficient consideration of eosinophilia may commit patients to surgical treatment when medical therapy may be appropriate. The aim of the study was to determine whether the eosinophil count was considered in the diagnostic evaluation of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain who subsequently underwent appendectomy and whether eosinophilia was related to subsequent histology. The method used in the study was retrospective case,control. None of three patients with increased eosinophil counts had histologically proven appendicitis (Fisher's exact test 0.025); worm segments were seen in two patients. None of 39 patients who had histologically proven appendicitis had increased eosinophil counts. Eosinophilia may be underutilized and helminth infection may not be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. A normal eosinophil count in the setting of clinically suspected appendicitis may make the diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis less likely, but does not exclude it. Patients with abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia appear less likely to have acute appendicitis on subsequent histology; however, further study is required to validate these findings. The decision to operate remains one of clinical judgement. [source]

    Prognostic Usefulness of Blood Leukocyte Changes in Canine Parvoviral Enteritis

    A. Goddard
    Background: Despite treatment, many dogs still die of complications related to canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis. Effective prognostication would be beneficial in managing this disease. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the occurrence of leukocytopenias at admission and at 24 and 48 hours after admission, and changes in absolute leukocyte counts over time, could be used to predict outcome. Animals: Sixty-two puppies with confirmed CPV. Methods: A prospective study was performed. CBC was performed daily until discharge or death (in which case a postmortem examination was performed). Results: Of the nonsurvivors (10/62; 16%), 9 died because of complications of the disease and 1 was euthanized because of a poor prognosis. There was a statistical significant difference in the occurrence of leukocytopenias between groups at 24 and 48 hours postadmission. The survivors showed a significant increase over time in certain leukocyte types (specifically lymphocytes) compared with values at admission. The positive predictive value for survivors was high. Nonsurvivors had marked thymic and lymphoid atrophy and marked bone marrow hypocellularity. Conclusion: An accurate prognosis could be obtained at 24 hours after admission by evaluating the change in total leukocyte, band neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts. [source]