Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Eocene

  • early eocene
  • late eocene
  • lower eocene
  • middle eocene

  • Terms modified by Eocene

  • eocene baltic amber
  • eocene time

  • Selected Abstracts


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Abstract:,Eodysagrion mikkelseni gen. et sp. nov., type species of the new subfamily Eodysagrioninae, and the dysagrionine Primorilestes madseni sp. nov., the first thaumatoneurid damselflies from the lowermost Eocene of Denmark, are described. They confirm the presence of this American family in the Palaeogene of Western Europe. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    J. J. HOOKER
    Abstract:, A new genus and species of omomyid primate, Melaneremia bryanti, is described from the Early Eocene Blackheath Beds of Abbey Wood, London, UK. It shares unique derived characters with the European subfamily Microchoerinae and is its most primitive member. It is nevertheless more derived than the primitive omomyid Teilhardina belgica from the beginning of the European Eocene. Cladistic analysis shows that the Microchoerinae are sister group to a clade comprising subfamilies Omomyinae and Anaptomorphinae, but excluding Teilhardina belgica and T. asiatica, which are stem omomyids. The Mammalian Dispersal Event (MDE), which marks the beginning of the Eocene (558 Ma), saw the dispersal of primates, perissodactyls and artiodactyls into the Northern Hemisphere. At this time similar species of Teilhardina lived in Europe, Asia and North America. The Abbey Wood microchoerine lived about 1 million years later. It co-occurs with non-primate species identical or very similar to those that lived in North America. The latter were ground-dwellers, whereas the microchoerine and others that show distinct differences from North American relatives were tree-dwellers. Land-bridges connected North America and Europe via Greenland at the beginning of the Eocene, but 2 million years later these had been severed by submarine rifting. North American species at Abbey Wood indicate that a land connection still remained at c. 55 Ma. However, the forest belt that must have been continuous during the MDE to allow tree-dwellers to disperse between the continents is likely by this time to have been disrupted, perhaps by volcanic eruption. [source]

    Cenozoic environmental change in South America as indicated by mammalian body size distributions (cenograms)

    Darin A. Croft
    Abstract. A cenogram is a rank-ordered body size distribution of non-predatory terrestrial mammal species within a community. Studies of cenograms for modern faunas have shown that certain quantifiable attributes of cenograms are correlated with environmental variables such as rainfall and vegetation structure. Based on these correlations, cenograms of fossil communities have been used to infer palaeoenvironments and palaeoenvironmental variables. The present study uses cenogram statistics to interpret palaeoenvironmental conditions for eight Cenozoic South American mammal faunas, ranging from Eocene to Pleistocene in age. Body sizes for fossil taxa were taken either from the literature or were estimated using regressions of body size on molar length (or femoral bicondylar width) for modern mammals. Cenogram statistics are calculated for the eight fossil faunas and compared to similar statistics calculated for 16 modern South American mammal faunas, allowing palaeoenvironmental interpretations to be made. The palaeoenvironmental interpretations based on cenogram analyses sometimes support and sometimes contradict interpretations based on herbivore craniodental morphology (e.g. levels of hypsodonty). Simulations of expected errors in body size estimates for fossil taxa suggest that the discrepancies do not result primarily from erroneous body size estimates. It is possible that some of the incongruity in interpretations results from certain non-analogue attributes of South American faunas during much of the Cenozoic (e.g. the relatively depauperate mammalian predator diversity prior to the Great American Biotic Interchange). [source]

    Sources of sulphur in gypsiferous sediments and crusts and pathways of gypsum redistribution in southern Tunisia

    Nick A. Drake
    Abstract Southern Tunisia contains one of the most extensive gypsum accumulations in Africa comprising Triassic, Cretaceous, Eocene and Mio-Pliocene marine evaporites, spring deposits, playa sediments, aeolian sands and gypsum crusts. Sulphur isotope analysis (,34S) of bedrock samples, groundwater, playa brines, playa sediments, and gypsiferous crusts provides insight into the sources of gypsum in the region and sheds light on the processes that lead to gypsum crust formation. Results suggest that recycling of marine gypsum is the most likely source of the sulphate in the groundwater, playa sediments and crusts. The low ,34S values found in Eocene and Mio-Pliocene samples suggest that this recycling has been going on for millions of years. Though bedrock appears to be the ultimate source of the gypsum in the crusts, transport of this sulphate to playas, concentration therein, and subsequent dispersal across the landscape by aeolian processes provides the most likely pathway for sur,cial gypsum crust formation. Comparison of these results with those from Australia, Chile and Namibia suggests that, although the source of the sulphur varies from region to region, the processes of sur,cial crust formation appear to be similar. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2007
    S. S. Renner
    The northern hemisphere tree genus Acer comprises 124 species, most of them monoecious, but 13 dioecious. The monoecious species flower dichogamously, duodichogamously (male, female, male), or in some species heterodichogamously (two morphs that each produce male and female flowers but at reciprocal times). Dioecious species cannot engage in these temporal strategies. Using a phylogeny for 66 species and subspecies obtained from 6600 nucleotides of chloroplast introns, spacers, and a protein-coding gene, we address the hypothesis (Pannell and Verd, Evolution 60: 660,673. 2006) that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy. This hypothesis was based on phylogenetic analyses (Gleiser and Verd, New Phytol. 165: 633,640. 2005) that included 29,39 species of Acer coded for five sexual strategies (duodichogamous monoecy, heterodichogamous androdioecy, heterodichogamous trioecy, dichogamous subdioecy, and dioecy) treated as ordered states or as a single continuous variable. When reviewing the basis for these scorings, we found errors that together with the small taxon sample, cast doubt on the earlier inferences. Based on published studies, we coded 56 species of Acer for four sexual strategies, dioecy, monoecy with dichogamous or duodichogamous flowering, monoecy with heterodichogamous flowering, or labile sex expression, in which individuals reverse their sex allocation depending on environment,phenotype interactions. Using Bayesian character mapping, we infer an average of 15 transformations, a third of them involving changes from monoecy-cum-duodichogamy to dioecy; less frequent were changes from this strategy to heterodichogamy; dioecy rarely reverts to other sexual systems. Contra the earlier inferences, we found no switches between heterodichogamy and dioecy. Unexpectedly, most of the species with labile sex expression are grouped together, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity in Acer may be a heritable sexual strategy. Because of the complex flowering phenologies, however, a concern remains that monoecy in Acer might not always be distinguishable from labile sex expression, which needs to be addressed by long-term monitoring of monoecious trees. The 13 dioecious species occur in phylogenetically disparate clades that date back to the Late Eocene and Oligocene, judging from a fossil-calibrated relaxed molecular clock. [source]

    Syntectonic infiltration by meteoric waters along the Sevier thrust front, southwest Montana

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2006
    A. C. RYGEL
    Abstract Structural, petrographic, and isotopic data for calcite veins and carbonate host-rocks from the Sevier thrust front of SW Montana record syntectonic infiltration by H2O-rich fluids with meteoric oxygen isotope compositions. Multiple generations of calcite veins record protracted fluid flow associated with regional Cretaceous contraction and subsequent Eocene extension. Vein mineralization occurred during single and multiple mineralization events, at times under elevated fluid pressures. Low salinity (Tm = ,0.6C to +3.6C, as NaCl equivalent salinities) and low temperature (estimated 50,80C for Cretaceous veins, 60,80C for Eocene veins) fluids interacted with wall-rock carbonates at shallow depths (3,4 km in the Cretaceous, 2,3 km in the Eocene) during deformation. Shear and extensional veins of all ages show significant intra- and inter-vein variation in ,18O and ,13C. Carbonate host-rocks have a mean ,18OV-SMOW value of +22.2 3, (1,), and both the Cretaceous veins and Eocene veins have ,18O ranging from values similar to those of the host-rocks to as low as +5 to +6,. The variation in vein ,13CV-PDB of ,1 to approximately +6, is attributed to original stratigraphic variation and C isotope exchange with hydrocarbons. Using the estimated temperature ranges for vein formation, fluid (as H2O) ,18O calculated from Cretaceous vein compositions for the Tendoy and Four Eyes Canyon thrust sheets are ,18.5 to ,12.5,. For the Eocene veins within the Four Eyes Canyon thrust sheet, calculated H2O ,18O values are ,16.3 to ,13.5,. Fluid,rock exchange was localized along fractures and was likely coincident with hydrocarbon migration. Paleotemperature determinations and stable isotope data for veins are consistent with the infiltration of the foreland thrust sheets by meteoric waters, throughout both Sevier orogenesis and subsequent orogenic collapse. The cessation of the Sevier orogeny was coincident with an evolving paleogeographic landscape associated with the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway and the emergence of the thrust front and foreland basin. Meteoric waters penetrated the foreland carbonate thrust sheets of the Sevier orogeny utilizing an evolving mesoscopic fracture network, which was kinematically related to regional thrust structures. The uncertainty in the temperature estimates for the Cretaceous and Eocene vein formation prevents a more detailed assessment of the temporal evolution in meteoric water ,18O related to changing paleogeography. Meteoric water-influenced ,18O values calculated here for Cretaceous to Eocene vein-forming fluids are similar to those previously proposed for surface waters in the Eocene, and those observed for modern-day precipitation, in this part of the Idaho-Montana thrust belt. [source]

    A large collection of Presbyornis (Aves, Anseriformes, Presbyornithidae) from the late Paleocene and early Eocene of Mongolia

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2010
    Evgeny N. Kurochkin
    Abstract We describe a large collection of fossil ,waterfowl' bones that are referable to the extinct clade Presbyornithidae (Anseriformes). All of these fossils were collected between 1971 and 1994 from Upper Paleocene and Lower Eocene sediments at the Tsagaan Khushuu site in the Gobi Desert of southern Mongolia. The collection includes specimens referred to a new small species within the genus Presbyornis Wetmore, 1926 as well as large numbers of bones that we place in the genus Presbyornis. On this basis of the Tsagaan Khushuu collection we suggest that several species of Presbyornis likely coexisted in this region; indeed, the presence of large numbers of middle-sized, morphologically consistent but probably ecologically disparate species at the Tsagaan Khushuu site is consistent with the range of variation seen, for example, in taxa of extant dabbling ducks (Anatini). Although the anatomy and phylogenetic position of Presbyornithidae (in particular Presbyornis) are well known, this material from Mongolia further demonstrates the prevalence of these birds in aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats by the earliest Paleogene. Because presbyornithids are also well documented from the late Cretaceous, their palaeoecology and morphological diversity provides a clue to selective avian survivorship across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Campanile trevorjacksoni sp. nov., (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Eocene of Jamaica: at last, a name for the first fossil used in intercontinental biostratigraphic correlation (de la Beche 1827)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2008
    Roger W. Portell
    Abstract A new species of giant fossil gastropod belonging to the genus Campanile, Campanile trevorjacksoni sp. nov., is described from the Lower Eocene Stettin Formation of the Yellow Limestone Group of Jamaica. Over 180 years ago, internal moulds of these giant gastropods were first reported from the Eocene of Jamaica and referred to as Cerithium; it is only with the discovery of an external mould of the shell spire that it can now be removed from open nomenclature. The ornate shell of C. trevorjacksoni has flat-sided to slightly rounded whorls; straight, impressed sutures; seven beaded, spiral cords per whorl and a nodose subsutural ridge in the more adapertural part of the shell. This sculpture differentiates C. trevorjacksoni from other Paleogene Campanile species. In 1827, de la Beche included C. trevorjacksoni (as Cerithium) in a list of over 20 taxa with which he correlated his white limestone formation (including the Yellow Limestone Group of modern use) with the (Eocene) Calcaire grossier of the Paris Basin. These specimens are lost, but re-examination of de la Beche's list suggests his identifications were mostly reasonable. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Fish and ostracod remains from the Santos Basin (Cretaceous to Recent), Brazil

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2002
    C. Giles Miller
    Abstract For the first time, ichthyoliths are described from the Santos sedimentary basin, offshore southern Brazil. Isolated teeth, dermal scales and the first documented otoliths from Cretaceous (Albian) to Recent cuttings from five wells are described. The following groups are represented: Chondrichthyans: Triakidae, Carcharhinidae; Ginglymostomatidae: ?Ginglymostoma sp., Lamnidae indet., Scyliorhinidae; Osteichthyans: Teleostei; Myctophiidae: Diaphus aff. splendidus sp. complex, Diaphus spp., Diaphus cf. garmani, Ceratoscopelus aff. warmingii; Sternoptychidae: Valenciennellus tripunctulatus, teeth of indeterminate Teleostei. The majority of these ichthyofossils represent extant forms, known to occur in the Atlantic Ocean, and are of potential value for stratigraphical correlations between oil-yielding basins in the region. Ostracods are not well preserved but can be identified to generic level indicating marine environments. The ostracod faunas offer potential for intrabasinal correlation in the Eocene and Oligocene. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A new Eocene swift-like bird with a peculiar feathering

    IBIS, Issue 3 2003
    Gerald Mayr
    A new taxon of swift-like birds is described from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Germany). It is tentatively assigned to the extinct family Jungornithidae and exhibits a completely unexpected feathering, which contrasts sharply with that of recent swifts. The short and rounded wings clearly show that it was not adapted to gliding, but might have caught its prey by sallying flights from a perch. The tail of the new taxon is very long and the tail feathers are broad and nearly symmetrical. The phylogenetic relationships between the Jungornithidae and other apodiform birds are still not convincingly resolved. The early Oligocene genus Jungornis itself shares unique derived characters with hummingbirds which are, however, absent in the Eocene genus Argornis and in the new taxon from Messel. [source]

    A rhabdocoel turbellarian (Platyhelminthes, Typhloplanoida) in Baltic amber with a review of fossil and sub-fossil platyhelminths

    George Poinar Jr.
    Abstract. Palaeosoma balticus n. g., n. sp. (Rhabdocoela, Typhloplanoida), the oldest body fossil of a turbellarian and the first representative of the phylum Platyhelminthes found in fossilized resin, is described from Baltic amber 40 million years old. Characters of the fossil turbellarian are epidermal cilia, rhabdoids, a rosulate pharynx, adhesive papillae, and sensory bristles. The body cavity contains developing eggs or capsules. The fossil demonstrates that rhabdocoels had developed a terrestrial habit and were producing subitaneous eggs by the Eocene. A summary of the fossil and sub-fossil records of platyhelminths is presented. [source]

    Metamorphic and cooling history of the Shimanto accretionary complex, Kyushu, Southwest Japan: Implications for the timing of out-of-sequence thrusting

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2008
    Hidetoshi Hara
    Abstract Illite crystallinity, K,Ar dating of illite, and fission-track dating of zircon are analyzed in the hanging wall (Sampodake unit) and footwall (Mikado unit) of a seismogenic out-of-sequence thrust (Nobeoka thrust) within the Shimanto accretionary complex of central Kyushu, southwest Japan. The obtained metamorphic temperatures, and timing of metamorphism and cooling, reveal the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the complex, and related development of the Nobeoka thrust. Illite crystallinity data indicate that the Late Cretaceous Sampodake unit was metamorphosed at temperatures of around 300 to 310C, while the Middle Eocene Mikado unit was metamorphosed at 260 to 300C. Illite K,Ar ages and zircon fission-track ages constrain the timing of metamorphism of the Sampodake unit to the early Middle Eocene (46 to 50 Ma, mean = 48 Ma). Metamorphism of the Mikado unit occurred no earlier than 40 Ma, which is the youngest depositional age of the unit. The Nobeoka thrust is inferred to have been active during about 40 to 48 Ma, as the Sampodake unit started its post metamorphic cooling after 48 Ma and was thrust over the Mikado unit at about 40 Ma along the Nobeoka thrust. These results indicate that the Nobeoka thrust was active for more than 10 million years. [source]

    Geological age of the Yokawa Formation of the Kobe Group (Japan) on the basis of terrestrial mammalian fossils

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2007
    Takehisa Tsubamoto
    Abstract The age of the Yokawa Formation of the Cenozoic Kobe Group distributed in Hyogo Prefecture of western Japan based on mammalian fossils is discussed. Two fossil dental specimens of terrestrial mammals discovered from the lowest part of the Yokawa Formation in the Sanda area are described. These two fossils described here are: (i) a right mandibular fragment with p2,m3 of Bothriodon sandaensis sp. nov. (selenodont anthracotheriid artiodactyl), which appears to be the most primitive among the species of the genus; and (ii) right m1,m3 of cf. Hyrachyus sp. (primitive rhinocerotoid perissodactyl). In the lower part of the Yokawa Formation, Zaisanamynodon (amynodontid perissodactyl) was previously reported. The morphology (,evolutionary stage') of B. sandaensis is indicative of the latest Middle to Late Eocene, that of cf. Hyrachyus sp. is indicative of the Early to Middle Eocene, and Zaisanamynodon is indicative of the Late Middle to Late Eocene. Therefore, the fossil mammals of the Yokawa Formation indicate an latest Middle Eocene (ca. 38 Ma) correlation for the lower part of the formation, as a working hypothesis. Although the resolution of the geological age based on these mammalian fossils is relatively low compared to that based on marine index fossils, this result is concordant with the recent radiometric correlation of the lower part of the Yokawa Formation in the Sanda area. [source]

    Molecular clocks keep dispersal hypotheses afloat: evidence for trans-Atlantic rafting by rodents

    Diane L. Rowe
    Abstract Aim, In order to resolve disputed biogeographical histories of biota with Gondwanan continental distributions, and to assess the null hypothesis of vicariance, it is imperative that a robust geological time-frame be established. As an example, the sudden and coincident appearance of hystricognath rodents (Rodentia: Hystricognathi) on both the African and South American continents has been an irreconcilable controversy for evolutionary biologists, presenting enigmas for both Gondwanan vicariance and Late Eocene dispersal hypotheses. In an attempt to resolve this discordance, we aim to provide a more robust phylogenetic hypothesis and improve divergence-date estimates, which are essential to assessing the null hypothesis of vicariance biogeography. Location, The primary centres of distribution are in Africa and South America. Methods, We implemented parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods to generate a phylogeny of 37 hystricognath taxa, the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this group to date, on the basis of two nuclear gene regions. To increase phylogenetic resolution at the basal nodes, these data were combined with previously published data for six additional nuclear gene regions. Divergence dates were estimated using two relaxed-molecular-clock methods, Bayesian multidivtime and nonparametric rate smoothing. Results, Our data do not support reciprocal monophyly of African and South American lineages. Indeed, Old World porcupines (i.e. Hystricomorpha) appear to be more closely related to New World lineages (i.e. Caviomorpha) than to other Old World families (i.e. Bathyergidae, Petromuridae and Thryonomyidae). The divergence between the monophyletic assemblage of South American lineages and its Old World ancestor was estimated to have occurred c. 50 Ma. Main conclusions, Our phylogenetic hypothesis and divergence-date estimates are strongly at odds with Gondwanan-vicariance isolating mechanisms. In contrast, our data suggest that transoceanic dispersal has played a significant role in governing the contemporary distribution of hystricognath rodents. Molecular-clock analyses imply a trans-Tethys dispersal event, broadly confined to the Late Cretaceous, and trans-Atlantic dispersal within the Early Eocene. Our analyses also imply that the use of the oldest known South American rodent fossil as a calibration point has biased molecular-clock inferences. [source]

    ,First' appearances in the Cenozoic land-mammal record of the Greater Antilles: significance and comparison with South American and Antarctic records

    R.D.E. MacPhee
    Abstract Aim, Through analysis of fossil records, the aim of this paper is to show that fossil representatives of at least three land-mammal clades (pitheciine atelid primates, heteropsomyine echimyid rodents, and megalonychid phyllophagan xenarthrans) that once lived in the Greater Antilles are as old as, if not older than, ,first' occurrences of these same groups on the South American mainland. Location, Greater Antilles, South America, Antarctic Peninsula. Methods, Analysis of Cenozoic land-mammal fossil records for the three areas. Results, Comparison reveals an interesting similarity to the Tertiary vertebrate palaeontological record for the Antarctic Peninsula (Seymour Island), in the sense that the latter also includes early (Eocene) representatives of some typical ,South American' groups (e.g. meridiungulates, sloths, certain marsupial groups). Conclusions, Given how limited the Antillean and Antarctic records are in quantity and quality, it seems unlikely that these ,first' appearances have much bearing on real origins (basal divergences). Rather, it suggests that the fossil basis for interpreting the origin and earliest diversification of ,South American' clades during the latest Cretaceous/early Cenozoic is probably even scantier than generally realized. In particular, the Antillean record strengthens arguments that some crown-group continental lineages are considerably older than fossil evidence currently allows , a point increasingly (if unevenly) supported by molecular studies of many of the same clades. [source]

    Spatial patterns of disparity and diversity of the Recent cuttlefishes (Cephalopoda) across the Old World

    Pascal Neige
    Abstract Aim Diversity and disparity metrics of all Recent cuttlefishes are studied at the macroevolutionary scale (1) to establish the geographical biodiversity patterns of these cephalopods at the species level and (2) to explore the relationships between these two metrics. Location Sampling uses what is known about these tropical, subtropical and warm temperate cephalopods of the Old World based on a literature review and on measurements of museum specimens. Some 111 species spread across seventeen biogeographical areas serve as basic units for exploring diversity and disparity metrics in space. Methods Landmarks describe the shape of the cuttlebone (the inner shell of the sepiids) and differences between shapes are quantified using relative warp analyses. Relative warps are thus used as the morphological axis for constructing morphospaces whose characteristics are described by disparity indices: total variance, range, and minimum and maximum of relative warps. These are analysed and then compared with the diversity (species richness) metric. Results Results show no significant latitudinal or longitudinal gradients either for diversity or for disparity. Around the coast of southern Africa, disparity is high regardless of whether diversity (species richness) is high or low. In the ,East Indies' area disparity is low despite the high diversity. Main conclusions The relationship between diversity and disparity is clearly not linear and no simple adjustment models seem to fit. The number of species in a given area does not predict its disparity level. The particular pattern of southern Africa may be the result of paleogeographical changes since the Eocene, whereas that of the ,East Indies' may indicate that this area could act as a centre of origin. However, the lack of any clear phylogenetical hypothesis precludes the study from providing any explanation of the observed patterns. [source]

    The P,T path of the ultra-high pressure Lago Di Cignana and adjoining high-pressure meta-ophiolitic units: insights into the evolution of the subducting Tethyan slab

    Abstract The Lago di Cignana ultra-high-pressure unit (LCU), which consists of coesite,eclogite facies metabasics and metasediments, preserves the most deeply subducted oceanic rocks worldwide. New constraints on the prograde and early retrograde evolution of this ultra-high pressure unit and adjoining units provide important insights into the evolution of the Piemontese,Ligurian palaeo-subduction zone, active in Paleocene,Eocene times. In the LCU, a first prograde metamorphic assemblage, consisting of omphacite + Ca-amphibole + epidote + rare biotite + ilmenite, formed during burial at estimated P < 1.7 GPa and 350 < T < 480 C. Similar metamorphic conditions of 400 < T < 650 C and 1.0 < P < 1.7 GPa have been estimated for the meta-ophiolitic rocks juxtaposed to the LCU. The prograde assemblage is partially re-equilibrated into the peak assemblage garnet + omphacite + Na-amphibole + lawsonite + coesite + rutile, whose conditions were estimated at 590 < T < 605 C and P > 3.2 GPa. The prograde path was characterized by a gradual decrease in the thermal gradient from ,9,10 to ,5,6 C km,1. This variation is interpreted as the evidence of an increase in the rate of subduction of the Piemonte,Ligurian oceanic slab in the Eocene. Accretion of the Piemontese oceanic rocks to the Alpine orogen and thermal relaxation were probably related to the arrival of more buoyant continental crust at the subduction zone. Subsequent deformation of the orogenic wedge is responsible for the present position of the LCU, sandwiched between two tectonic slices of meta-ophiolites, named the Lower and Upper Units, which experienced peak pressures of 2.7,2.8 and <2.4 GPa respectively. [source]

    Characterization of Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Precursor cDNA in the Old World Mole-Rat Cryptomys Hottentotus Pretoriae: High Degree of Identity with the New World Guinea Pig Sequence

    T. Kalamatianos
    Abstract Regulation of pituitary gonadotrophins by the decapeptide gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) is crucial for the development and maintenance of reproductive functions. A common amino acid sequence for this decapeptide, designated as ,mammalian' GnRH, has been identified in all mammals thus far investigated with the exception of the guinea pig, in which there are two amino acid substitutions. Among hystricognath rodents, the members of the family Bathyergidae regulate reproduction in response to diverse cues. Thus, highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) are social bathyergids in which breeding is restricted to a particular season in the dominant female, but continuously suppressed in subordinate colony members. Elucidation of reproductive control in these animals will be facilitated by characterization of their GnRH1 gene. A partial sequence of GnRH1 precursor cDNA was isolated and characterized. Comparative analysis revealed the highest degree of identity (86%) to guinea pig GnRH1 precursor mRNA. Nevertheless, the deduced amino acid sequence of the mole-rat decapeptide is identical to the ,mammalian' sequence rather than that of guinea pigs. Successful detection of GnRH1-synthesizing neurones using either a guinea pig GnRH1 riboprobe or an antibody against the ,mammalian' decapeptide is consistent with the guinea pig-like sequence for the precursor and the classic ,mammalian' form for the decapeptide. The high degree of identity in the GnRH1 precursor sequence between this Old World mole-rat and the New World guinea pig is consistent with the theory that caviomorphs and phiomorphs originated from a common ancestral line in the Palaeocene to mid Eocene, some 63,45 million years ago. [source]


    S.F. Jones
    Numerical modelling is used to investigate for the first time the interactions between a petroleum system and sill intrusion in the NE Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Although hydrocarbonexploration has been successful in the western Sverdrup Basin, the results in the NE part of thebasin have been disappointing, despite the presence of suitable Mesozoic source rocks, migrationpaths and structural/stratigraphic traps, many involving evaporites. This was explained by (i) theformation of structural traps during basin inversion in the Eocene, after the main phase ofhydrocarbon generation, and/or (ii) the presence of evaporite diapirs locally modifying the geothermalgradient, leading to thermal overmaturity of hydrocarbons. This study is the first attempt at modellingthe intrusion of Cretaceous sills in the east-central Sverdrup Basin, and to investigate how theymay have affected the petroleum system. A one-dimensional numerical model, constructed using PetroMod9.0, investigates the effectsof rifting and magmatic events on the thermal history and on petroleum generation at the DepotPoint L-24 well, eastern Axel Heiberg Island (7923,40,N, 8544,22,W). The thermal history isconstrained by vitrinite reflectance and fission-track data, and by the tectonic history. The simulationidentifies the time intervals during which hydrocarbons were generated, and illustrates the interplaybetween hydrocarbon production and igneous activity at the time of sill intrusion during the EarlyCretaceous. The comparison of the petroleum and magmatic systems in the context of previouslyproposed models of basin evolution and renewed tectonism was an essential step in the interpretationof the results from the Depot Point L-24 well. The model results show that an episode of minor renewed rifting and widespread sill intrusionin the Early Cretaceous occurred after hydrocarbon generation ceased at about 220 Ma in theHare Fiord and Van Hauen Formations. We conclude that the generation potential of these deeperformations in the eastern Sverdrup Basin was not likely to have been affected by the intrusion ofmafic sills during the Early Cretaceous. However, the model suggests that in shallower sourcerocks such as the Blaa Mountain Formation, rapid generation of natural gas occurred at 125 Ma, contemporaneous with tectonic rejuvenation and sill intrusion in the east-central Sverdrup Basin. A sensitivity study shows that the emplacement of sills increased the hydrocarbon generation ratesin the Blaa Mountain Formation, and facilitated the production of gas rather than oil. [source]


    H. L. Kheidri
    The southern Bibans region in northern Algeria is located in the external zone of the Tell fold-and-thrust belt. Field observations in this area together with seismic data integrated with previous studies provide evidence for a number of Tertiary deformation phases. Late Eocene Atlassic deformation was followed by Oligocene (?)-Aquitanian-Burdigalian compression, which was associated with the development of a foreland basin in front of a southerly-propagating thrust system. Gravity-driven emplacement of the Tellian nappes over the basin margin probably occurred during the Langhian-Serravallian-Tortonian. The Hodna Mountains structural culmination developed during the Miocene-Pliocene. Analysis of brittle structures points to continued north-south shortening during the Neogene, consistent with convergence between the African and Eurasian Plates. The unconformably underlying Mesozoic-Cenozoic autochthonous sequence in this area contains two potential source rock intervals: Cenomanian-Turonian and Eocene. Reservoir rocks include Lower Cretaceous siliciclastics and Upper Cretaceous to Palaeogene carbonates. Structural style has controlled trap types. Thus traps in the Tell fold-and-thrust belt are associated with folds, whereas structural traps in the Hodna area are associated with reactivated normal faults. In the latter area, there is also some evidence for base-Miocene stratigraphic traps. [source]


    H. Mohseni
    The Pabdeh Formation is part of a thick carbonate-siliciclastic succession in the Zagros Basin of SW Iran which includes carbonate reservoirs of Cretaceous and Cenozoic ages. From field observations and petrographic and facies analysis of exposures in the type section of the Pabdeh Formation, four lithofacies were recognized. These are from oldest to youngest: (i) a mottled, bioturbated bioclastic wackestone/mudstone facies; (ii) a wackestone/packstone facies with horizontal burrows on bedding planes; (iii) a thin-bedded bioclastic wackestone/mudstone facies alternating with thin bioclastic-oolitic-intraclastic intervals; and (iv) a bioclastic foraminiferal / algal / peloidal packstone facies. These observations indicate that facies evolved upwards from deep outer-ramp deposits to inner-ramp deposits within a shoal complex, suggesting progradation of the ramp depositional system. Storm events significantly influenced the ramp system. Storm-generated surges transported sediments from nearshore to the deeper outer-ramp environment where they were deposited as shell-lags, composed mostly of bioclastic packstones, rich in pelagic microfauna with sharp, undulatory erosional basal contacts. The packstones rest on outer ramp mudstones deposited below storm base level. Sedimentary structures in the Pabdeh Formation are those typical of storm deposits, such as hummocky cross-stratification, ripple cross-lamination, ripple marks, escape burrows on the tops of the beds, couplets of fine- and coarse-grained laminae and mixed fauna, as well as intraclasts derived from underlying facies. These distinctive sequences are interpreted to have been generated by waning storm-generated currents. The dominance of fine-grained sediments (medium to fine sand); the lack of large- scale hummocky cross-stratification; the minor amounts of intraclasts derived from underlying facies; the paucity of amalgamated tempestite beds; and the finely-laminated (mm to cm scale) couplets of coarse and fine lamina all suggest a distal tempestite facies. Palaeogeographic reconstruction of the Zagros Basin during the Eocene indicates that the study area was situated in tropical, storm-dominated palaeolatitudes. [source]


    C. I. Macaulay
    The hydrocarbon reservoir of the Hasdrubal field (offshore Tunisia) lies within the Eocene El Garia Formation. This formation was deposited on a shallow north- to NE-facing ramp in the Early Eocene and is composed of a belt of nummulitic wackestones-grainstones. The nummulitic fades occupies a range of depositional environments from outer to mid ramp. In addition to Hasdrubal, several other producing oil- and gasfields have been discovered in the variably dolomitised El Garia Formation offshore Tunisia. Cores from three Hasdrubal wells were examined. Reservoir quality shows a limited relationship to primary depositional fabric and has been influenced significantly by compaction and later diagenesis. The highest permeabilities are typically developed within a dolomitised zone which occurs near the middle of the reservoir interval across the entire field, and which may follow a primary wackestone lithofabric (typically 20,30% bulk volume dolomite, with porosities of 15,22% and permeabilities of l-30mD). Fractures, particularly in zones surrounding faults, have resulted in enhanced permeabilities. Combined results of isotope (,18 O -5.0 to -7.3%oPDB) and fluid inclusion (Th 80,90d,C) analyses of dolomites from this dolomitised zone indicate that matrix dolomites are burial diagenesis cements. Dolomitisation of the reservoir was a "closed system " event and was not the result of major fluid flow or mixing. Magnesium ions for dolomitisation were derived from the transformation of high-Mg to low-Mg calcite in nummulite tests within the reservoir fades. Our analyses indicate that calcite cements were precipitated at temperatures of up to almost 150d,C in primary and secondary pores and in variably-sealed fractures Fracture lining and filling cements show a range of ,18 O values, which suggests that the fractures acted as fluid conduits over a range of temperatures during burial diagenesis Fracture densities measured in core increase rapidly close to seismically-resolvable faults in the reservoir facies Fracturing probably resulted in the leakage of hydrocarbons through the Compact Micrite Member seal which overlies the accumulation, as well as facilitating the ingress of hot fluids from stratigraphically deeper levels in the basin [source]


    J. M. Anketell
    The late Ypresian (early Eocene) Jdeir Formation was deposited in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Gabes-Tripoli Basin, offshore Libya. The basin developed on the northern passive margin of the African Plate and was relatively unstable being affected by syn-sedimentary tectonic movements. Deposition was coeval with a relative rise of sea-level and the subsequent highstand. A lower, thinly-developed nummulitic bank facies with restricted distribution records the transgressive event and is succeeded by more micritic sediments that record the time of maximum flooding. The succeeding sea-level highstand is represented by a thick, and widely developed, progradational-aggradational nummulitic sequence that displays lateral changes across WE-ESE trending facies belts. Three major lithofacies are recognized in the Jdeir Formation: Nummulites packstone-grainstone, Alveolina-Orbitoliteswackestone-packtone, andFragmental-Discocyclina-Assilina wackestone-packstone, depositedin bank, back-bank, and fore-bank environments, respectively. The formation passes to the NNE into the pelagic lithofacies of the Hallab Formation; landward, to the south, it passes into shoreline evaporitic facies of the Taljah Formation. The lithofacies were structurally controlled by contemporaneous and/or syndepositional tectonic movements, with nummulitic facies tending to develop on uplifted areas. Petrographic and petrophysical studies indicate that porosity in the Jdeir Formation is controlled by depositional environment, tectonic setting and diagenesis. The combined effects of salt tectonics, a major unconformity at the top of the formation and meteoric diagenesis have produced excellent-quality reservoir facies at the Bouri oilfield and in other areas. Porosity is highest in the nummulitic bank facies and lowest in the Alveolina-Orbitolites micrite facies. Good to excellent reservoir quality occurs in the upper part of the nummulitic packstone-grainstone facies, especially where these sediments overlie structurally high areas. High rates of dissolution found at the crests of domes and anticlines suggest that early diagenetic processes and features are, in part, structurally controlled. Future exploration success will depend on investigation of similar structures within the Gabes-Tripoli Basin. Both porosity initiation and preservation are related to early depositional and diagenetic processes. The wide time-gap between hydrocarbon generation and reservoir formation points to the role of the seal in porosity preservation and rules out the assumption that early emplacement of oil had preserved the porosity. [source]


    I. Y. Mriheel
    Dolomitization in the early Eocene Jirani Formation in the Gabes-Tripoli Basin (offshore western Libya) occurred in two stages. Stage I dolomites are composed of two types, one associated with anhydrite (Type I) the other anhydrite free (Type II,). The stratigraphic and sedimentological settings together with petrographic and geochemical criteria suggest that dolomitization was effected by refluxed evaporative seawater. Stable isotope and trace element analyses suggest dolomitization of both Types from a fluid of near-surface seawater composition under oxidising conditions modified by evaporation. Non-luminescence and lack ofzonation of all the dolomite indicate that the dolomitizing fluids maintained a relatively constant composition. The geologic setting during the early Eocene, interpreted as hypersaline lagoon, supports an evaporative reflux origin for the anhydritic dolomite Type I. Type II developed under less saline conditions in the transition zone between lagoon and open marine shelf. Stage II dolomitization is recorded by negative isotope values in both Types I and II indicating their dissolution and recrystallization (neomorphism) by dilute solutions. A period of exposure of the overlying Jdeir Formation following a relative sea-level fall allowed ingress of meteoric waters into both the Jdeir and the underlying Jirani Formations. Flushing by meteoric waters also resulted in development of excellent secondaly porosity and caused major dissolution of anhydrite to form the anhydritic-free dolomite facies typical of Type II. Following, and possibly during, both Stages I and II, low temperature dolomites (Type IIIa) precipitated in pore spaces from residual jluids at shallow burial depths, partially occluding porosity. In the late stage of basin evolution, medium clystalline, pore-filling saddle dolomite precipitated, causing some filling of mouldic and vuggy porosity (Type IIIb). Very light oxygen isotopic signatures confirm that it developed from high temperature fluids during deep burial diagenesis. Calculation of temperatures and timings of the dolomitization and cement phases show that the main dolomitization phases and Type IIIa cements occurred in the early Eocene, and that the saddle dolomite precipitated in the Miocene; these results are consistent with age relationships established from stratigraphic, petrographic and geochemical signatures. The most common porosity includes intercrystal, vuggy and mouldic types. Porosity is both pre-dolomitization and syn-dolomitization in origin, but the latter is the most dominant. Hence, reservoir quality is largely controlled by fluid dynamics. [source]


    I. H. Demirel
    The burial history and source-rock potential of Cretaceous carbonates in the Adiyaman region of SE Turkey have been investigated. The carbonates belong to the Aptian-Campanian Mardin Group and the overlying Karabogaz Formation. The stratigraphy of these carbonates at four well locations was recorded. At each well, the carbonate succession was found to be incomplete, and important unconformities were present indicating periods of non-deposition and/or erosion. These unconformities are of variable extent. When combined with the effects of rapid subsidence and sedimentation which took place in the SW of the Adiyaman region during end-Cretaceous foredeep development, they have resulted in variations in the carbonates' present-day burial depths, thereby influencing the regional pattern of source-rock maturation and the timing of oil generation. Burial history curves indicate that the carbonates' maturity increases from SW to NE, towards the Late Cretaceous thrust belt. Predicted levels of maturity for the Mardin Group are consistent with measured geochemical data from three of the wells in the study area (the exception being well Karadag-1). Three potential source-rock intervals of Cretaceous age have been identified. Two of these units , the Derdere and Karababa Formations of the Mardin Group , are composed of shallow-water carbonates which were deposited on the northern margin of the Arabian Platform. The third source-rock unit, the overlying Karabogaz Formation, is composed of pelagic carbonates which were deposited during a regional transgression. These potential source-rock intervals contain marine organic matter dominated by Type II kerogen. Total organic carbon contents range from 0.5 to 2.9 %. Time-temperature analyses indicate that the Mardin Group carbonates are immature to marginally mature at well locations in the SW of the study area, and are mature at western and NE well locations. The onset of oil generation in these Cretaceous source rocks took place between the middle Eocene (48 million yrs ago) and the Oligocene (28 million yrs ago). [source]

    Geological overview and cratering model for the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic

    Gordon R. Osinski
    Regional geological mapping has refined the sedimentary target stratigraphy and constrained the thickness of the sedimentary sequence at the time of impact to ,1880 m. New 40Ar,39Ar dates place the impact event at ,39 Ma, in the late Eocene. Haughton has an apparent crater diameter of ,23 km, with an estimated rim (final crater) diameter of ,16 km. The structure lacks a central topographic peak or peak ring, which is unusual for craters of this size. Geological mapping and sampling reveals that a series of different impactites are present at Haughton. The volumetrically dominant crater-fill impact melt breccias contain a calcite-anhydrite-silicate glass groundmass, all of which have been shown to represent impact-generated melt phases. These impactites are, therefore, stratigraphically and genetically equivalent to coherent impact melt rocks present in craters developed in crystalline targets. The crater-fill impactites provided a heat source that drove a post-impact hydrothermal system. During this time, Haughton would have represented a transient, warm, wet microbial oasis. A subsequent episode of erosion, during which time substantial amounts of impactites were removed, was followed by the deposition of intra-crater lacustrine sediments of the Haughton Formation during the Miocene. Present-day intra-crater lakes and ponds preserve a detailed paleoenvironmental record dating back to the last glaciation in the High Arctic. Modern modification of the landscape is dominated by seasonal regional glacial and niveal melting, and local periglacial processes. The impact processing of target materials improved the opportunities for colonization and has provided several present-day habitats suitable for microbial life that otherwise do not exist in the surrounding terrain. [source]

    Origin of a late Eocene to pre-Miocene buried crater and breccia lens at Fohn-1, North Bonaparte Basin, Timor Sea: A probable extraterrestrial connection

    John d. Gorter
    The crater displays the classic elements of impact structures, including a central uplift, ring syncline, and upraised rims. The presence in the breccia of redeposited Campanian and Maastrichtian microfossils suggests rebound of strata from levels deeper than 1250 m below the pre-Miocene unconformity. Morphometric modelling suggests an original crater at least 1400 m deep, which is consistent with the excavation of Cretaceous strata. Stratigraphic and palaeontological evidence suggests that the impact occurred between 36 and 24.6 Ma. The breccia contains a pseudotachylite component enriched in the inert Pt group elements (PGE) (Ir, Ru) by factors of 5,12 above the values of common sediments. The more mobile PGE (Os, Pt, Pd) show a wide scatter and terrestrial-type values. Opposite geochemical/stratigraphic trends pertain to different PGE species,the relatively inert Ir-Ru group shows an overall concentration at the base of the section, whereas the more mobile Os shows peaks at median levels of the section,suggesting upward diagenetic leaching. The near-chondritic PGE patterns at the base of the breccia pile are accompanied by near-chondritic Ni/Cr, Co/Cr, Ni/Ir, Ni/Pt, and Cu/Pd ratios. Departure from these values related to alteration at higher levels in the breccia pile is accompanied with high S levels (,1%). [source]

    The first fossil Bothriocerinae from Eocene Baltic amber with notes on recent taxa (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae)

    Jacek Szwedo
    Abstract The first fossil representative of Bothriocerinae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Cixiidae) from Eocene Baltic amber is described. This small group is currently distributed only in the New World. The fossil presents the evidence of a wider distribution of this group in the past. Bothriobaltia pietrzeniukae gen. and sp. n. is described and illustrated. Fossil record of the family, paleogeography of the Eocene, distribution pattern, phylogeny and ecology of the group in view of fossil record are discussed. [source]

    A new genus of rodents (Remyidae, Mammalia) from the Iberian Eocene

    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Abstract:, In this article, a new genus, Frontanyamys, is defined based on the new species F. russelli. The genus is recorded from the lower Upper Eocene (Bartonian) beds AT Sant Jaume de Frontanya (NE Spain). This genus shows clear affinities with the previously described genera Zamoramys, Remys and Pairomys. They are therefore assembled in the family Remyidae (new rank). The remyids are characterised by the precocious development of high-crowned molars and retain a morphologically primitive dental pattern. The oldest remyids are found in the middle Eocene of Spain (Zamoramys) and are probably derived from a morphologically primitive protrogomorph rodent such as Corbarimys paisi. The last representatives of the family such as Remys and Pairomys developed a fully lophodont dental pattern. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Abstract:, Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ,Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov.) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Pstittacidae than to other known Palaeogene psittaciforms and may, therefore, represent the oldest known crown-group parrot. [source]