Drying Kinetics (drying + kinetics)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


THIN-LAYER DRYING KINETICS OF SESAME HULLS UNDER FORCED CONVECTION AND OPEN SUN DRYING

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2007
MAJDI A. AL-MAHASNEH
ABSTRACT Sesame hulls are a useful by-product of the sesame processing industry. The sesame hulls are produced at a high moisture content (68% wet basis) and need further drying to prevent deterioration. In this study, both open sun drying (OSD) and forced convection drying (FCD) at 42, 55, and 76C and 1.2 m/s air velocity were investigated. Six common thin-layer drying models were fitted to the experimental data. Several statistical parameters were used to evaluate the performance of thin-layer drying models, including r2, x2, root mean square error (RMSE) and residuals. Sesame hull drying was found to take place completely in the falling rate region. The modified Page model was found to describe OSD data well, while the Wang and Singh model was the best model for describing FCD. Effective diffusivity was found to be 1.89 10 - 8 m2/s and 7.36 10 - 10 to 1.20 10 - 9 m2/s for OSD and FCD, respectively. Activation energy was also found to be 12.95 kJ/mol for FCD. [source]


Shrinkage of initially very wet soil blocks, cores and clods from a range of European Andosol horizons

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
F. Bartoli
Summary In advanced stages of volcanic ash soil formation, when more clay is formed, soil porosity values and soil water retention capacities are large and the soils show pronounced shrinkage on drying. Soil shrinkage is a key issue in volcanic soil environments because it often occurs irreversibly when topsoils dry out after changes from permanent grassland or forest to agriculture. European Andosols have developed in a wide range of climatic conditions, leading to a wide range in intensity of both weathering and organo-mineral interactions. The question arises as to whether these differences affect their shrinkage properties. We aimed to identify common physically based shrinkage laws which could be derived from soil structure, the analysis of soil constituents, the selected sampling size and the drying procedure. We found that the final volumetric shrinkage of the initially field-wet (56,86% of total porosity) or capillary-wet (87,100% of total porosity) undisturbed soil samples was negatively related to initial bulk density and positively related to initial capillary porosity (volumetric soil water content of soil cores after capillary rise). These relationships were linear for the soil clods of 3,8 cm3, with final shrinkage ranging from 21.2 to 52.2%. For soil blocks of 240 cm3 and soil cores of 28.6 cm3 we found polynomial and exponential relationships, respectively, with thresholds separating shrinkage and nearly non-shrinkage domains, and larger shrinkage values for the soil cores than for the soil blocks. For a given sample size, shrinkage was more pronounced in the most weathered and most porous Andosol horizons, rich in Al-humus, than in the less weathered and less porous Andosol horizons, poor in Al-humus. The Bw horizons, being more weathered and more porous, shrank more than the Ah horizons. We showed that the structural approach combining drying kinetics under vacuum, soil water analysis and mercury porosimetry is useful for relating water loss and shrinkage to soil structure and its dynamics. We also found that the more shrinkage that occurred in the Andosol horizon, the more pronounced was its irreversible mechanical change. [source]


Hot air dehydration of figs (Ficus carica L.): drying kinetics and quality loss

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
Antonio Piga
Summary The dehydration of fruit from fig trees is normally achieved by sun drying. There is concern about the safety of the end product, mainly because there is a risk of the development of aflatoxins. These concerns can be overcome by artificial drying (oven dehydration). Fig fruits of a local cultivar, which were either pre-treated by blanching or blanching plus sulphuring or not treated at all, underwent hot air dehydration under mild processing conditions in a pilot airflow cabinet dryer. Sampling was carried out at regular intervals to calculate the rate of dehydration and assess quality changes. Microbiological counts and nonenzymatic browning were also monitored. Pretreatments resulted in a shorter processing time, compared with control fruits. In general, a falling dehydration rate period was observed. A dramatic loss of ascorbic acid was recorded, while an informal sensorial assay of the dried fruits gave a positive assessment. [source]


Microwave and convective dehydration of ethanol treated and frozen apple , physical properties and drying kinetics

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
Tomas Funebo
The objective of this study was to examine how the drying kinetics and physical properties of apples are affected by pre-treatment with 95% ethanol or freezing at ,18 C before microwave-assisted air dehydration at 50, 60 and 70 C. Microwave heating was used to obtain these temperatures in the centre of the apple cubes. After dehydration the shrinkage and rehydration capacity were measured. The texture of dehydrated and rehydrated samples was analysed with a puncture test in a texture analyser. Samples were also analysed with confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the correlation between physical and microstructural properties. Diffusivity in the different dehydration processes was calculated. Ethanol-treated apples showed both high rehydration and high effective rehydration capacity compared with the other samples. Freezing before dehydration increased the diffusivity and reduced the firmness of rehydrated apples compared with no pre-treatment. [source]


DRYING METHODS AND QUALITY OF SHRIMP DRIED IN A JET-SPOUTED BED DRYER

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2005
RUNGTIP TAPANEYASIN
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of various parameters, i.e., size of shrimp, level and pattern of inlet drying air temperature, on the drying kinetics and various quality attributes of dried shrimp viz. shrinkage, rehydration ability, texture and color during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer. It was found that the use of a constant inlet air temperature of 100C yielded dried shrimp of the best quality in terms of low percentage of shrinkage, high percentage of rehydration, low maximum shear force and high value of redness compared to shrimp dried using other conditions. A simple mathematical model that enables prediction of the drying behavior of shrimp in a jet-spouted bed dryer has also been developed. [source]


MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF THIN-LAYER DRYING OF KIWIFRUIT SLICES

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2009
M DOYMAZ
ABSTRACT The effect of temperature on the drying kinetics of kiwifruit was investigated. The drying process was carried out at temperatures of 50, 55 and 60C, air velocity of 2.4 m/s and relative humidity between 10,25%. Drying time decreased considerably with increased air temperature. Drying process took place in the falling rate period. Twelve mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental data. The models were compared by four statistical parameters; i.e., determination of coefficient, mean relative percent error, reduced chi-square and root mean square error, and the best-fit model was selected. The modified Henderson and Pabis and Verma et al. models were given the best results in describing thin-layer drying of kiwifruits. The effective diffusivity of water during air-drying varied from 1.743 to 2.241 10,10 m2/s over the temperature range investigated, with activation energy equal to 22.48 kJ/mol. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Drying can be described as an industrial preservation method in which water content and activity of agricultural products are decreased by heated air to minimize biochemical, chemical and microbiological deterioration. Kiwifruit has a very short life because of softening and vitamin loss during cold storage. The use of drying prolongs the shelf-life of the kiwifruit, as the water content reduction slows down deterioration reactions. In this study, drying characteristics of kiwifruits were studied in a convectional hot-air dryer. The objectives of the present study were to determine experimentally the thin-layer drying characteristics and rehydration capacity of samples, and to fit the experimental data to 12 mathematical models available from the literature. [source]


Estimation of an effective water diffusion coefficient during infrared-convective drying of a polymer solution

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 9 2009
N. Allanic
Abstract This article deals with the drying of an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol mixed with a plasticizer. A heating combining forced convection and short-infrared radiation was investigated. A one-dimensional model taking into account the shrinkage of the product was developed to get the temperature and moisture content evolutions during the drying. The water diffusion coefficient was estimated by an inverse method. A sensitivity analysis and numerical tests showed the relevance of using an objective function taking both mass and temperature measurements into account for the estimation procedure. This estimation was performed on several convective and infrared-convective experimental drying kinetics. The model predictions fit well mass and temperature experimental data. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]


Drying Stages during the Heating of High-Alumina, Ultra-Low-Cement Refractory Castables

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 7 2003
Murilo D. M. Innocentini
The purpose of this work was to investigate the drying kinetics of high-alumina, ultra-low-cement refractory castables under continuous heating conditions. Three main drying stages were identified during the castable heat-up and were related to the phase change of free water and to the decomposition of hydrated products present in the body. A clear correlation was found between the actual heating profile inside the castable and the dewatering stages under various heating schedules. Thermal analysis was used to assess the drying temperature that represents the highest risk of steam pressure buildup and, thus, of explosive spalling. [source]