Dopamine Secretion (dopamine + secretion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Role of annexin A6 isoforms in catecholamine secretion by PC12 cells: Distinct influence on calcium response

Paulina Podszywalow-Bartnicka
Abstract Noradrenaline and adrenaline are secreted by adrenal medulla chromaffin cells via exocytosis. Exocytosis of catecholamines occurs after cell stimulation with various endogenous activators such as nicotine or after depolarization of the plasma membrane and is regulated by calcium ions. Cytosolic [Ca2+] increases in response to cell excitation and triggers a signal-initiated secretion. Annexins are known to participate in the regulation of membrane dynamics and are also considered to be involved in vesicular trafficking. Some experimental evidence suggests that annexins may participate in Ca2+ -regulated catecholamine secretion. In this report the effect of annexin A6 (AnxA6) isoforms 1 and 2 on catecholamine secretion has been described. Overexpression of AnxA6 isoforms and AnxA6 knock-down in PC12 cells were accompanied by almost complete inhibition or a 20% enhancement of dopamine secretion, respectively. AnxA6-1 and AnxA6-2 overexpression reduced ,[Ca2+]c upon depolarization by 32% and 58%, respectively, while AnxA6 knock-down increased ,[Ca2+]c by 44%. The mechanism of AnxA6 action on Ca2+ signalling is not well understood. Experimental evidence suggests that two AnxA6 isoforms interact with different targets engaged in regulation of calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 111: 168,178, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Uncoupling protein 2 influences dopamine secretion in PC12h cells

Shigeru Yamada
Abstract Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) belongs to the UCP family, and is distributed in many organs including the brain. Although UCP2 is known to be related to many functions such as the regulation of insulin secretion or the scavenging of the radicals, the role of UCP2 in the central nervous system remains unclear. In this report, rat UCP2 (rUCP2) and its mutants were overexpressed in the PC12h cells to determine the physiological roles played by UCP2 in neural cells and to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate these functions. It was found that rUCP2 was activated by the stimulation of the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) cascade. Moreover, the activation of rUCP2 suppressed intracellular ATP levels and inhibited the cAMP-dependent increase of dopamine secretion. Thus, UCP2 appears to be regulated by the excitatory stimulus via the cAMP-PKA cascade and serves to negatively control the synaptic output by reducing intracellular ATP levels. [source]

Role of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway and extracellular environment in the nitric oxide donor-induced increase in dopamine secretion from PC12 cells: a microdialysis in vitro study

Pier Andrea Serra
Abstract In vitro microdialysis was used to investigate the mechanism of nitric oxide (NO) donor-induced changes in dopamine (DA) secretion from PC12 cells. Infusion of the NO-donor S-nitroso- N -acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 1.0 mm) induced a long-lasting increase in DA and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) dialysate concentrations. SNAP-induced increases were inhibited either by pre-infusion of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 0.1 mm) or by Ca2+ omission. Ca2+ re-introduction restored SNAP effects. SNAP-induced increases in DA + 3-MT were unaffected by co-infusion of the l -type Ca2+ channel inhibitor nifedipine. The NO-donor (+/,)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide (NOR-3, 1.0 mm) induced a short-lasting decrease in dialysate DA + 3-MT. Ascorbic acid (0.2 mm) co-infusion allowed NOR-3 to increase dialysate DA + 3-MT. ODQ pre-infusion inhibited NOR-3 + ascorbic acid-induced DA + 3-MT increases. Infusion of high K+ (75 mm) induced a 2.5-fold increase in dialysate DA + 3-MT. The increase was abolished by NOR-3 co-infusion. Conversely, co-infusion of ascorbic acid (0.2 mm) with NOR-3 + high K+ restored high K+ effects. Co-infusion of nifedipine inhibited high K+ -induced DA + 3-MT increases. These results suggest that activation of the NO/sGC/cyclic GMP pathway may be the underlying mechanism of extracellular Ca2+ -dependent effects of exogenous NO on DA secretion from PC12 cells. Extracellular Ca2+ entry may occur through nifedipine-insensitive channels. NO effects and DA concentrations in dialysates largely depend on both the timing of NO generation and the extracellular environment in which NO is generated. [source]

Effect of Urotensin II on PC12 Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells

Y. Aita
Urotensin II (U-II), initially identified as a cyclic peptide from fish urophysis, acts both as a strong vasoconstrictor and vasodilator in the vasculature via its receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 14. In addition, U-II and its receptor are co-expressed in the adrenal medulla, as well as in human pheochromocytomas, suggesting that this peptide may have some function in chromaffin cells. However, the precise role of U-II in these cells is unknown. In the present study, we initially demonstrate that U-II and its receptors mRNA are co-expressed in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Moreover, U-II has not effect on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of catecholamine, in terms of enzyme activity or at the mRNA level. However, U-II does induce an increase in the phosphorylation of TH specifically at Ser31 without affecting phosphorylation at the two other sites (Ser19 and Ser40). U-II also markedly activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38, but not Jun N-terminal kinase. Blockade of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor by AG1478 significantly reduces activation of ERK, suggesting that EGF receptor transactivation could act upstream of the ERK pathway in PC12 cells. Furthermore, U-II significantly increases dopamine secretion from PC12 cells. Finally, we show that U-II induced significant DNA synthesis in a ERKs and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent manner. The results obtained indicate that U-II may exert its effects as a neuromodulator in chromaffin cells. [source]

Circadian rhythm of restless legs syndrome: Relationship with biological markers

Martin Michaud PhD
Recently, it was suggested that the intensity of restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms may be modulated by a circadian factor. The objective of this study was to evaluate, during a 28-hour modified constant routine, the nycthemeral or circadian variations in subjective leg discomfort and periodic leg movements (PLMs) and to parallel these changes with those of subjective vigilance, core body temperature, and salivary melatonin. Seven patients with primary RLS and seven healthy subjects matched for sex and age entered this study. Although the symptoms were more severe in patients than in controls, a significant circadian variation in leg discomfort and PLM (p < 0.01) was found for both groups. In both groups, the profiles of leg discomfort and PLM were significantly correlated with those of subjective vigilance, core body temperature, and salivary melatonin. However, among these variables, the changes in melatonin secretion were the only ones that preceded the increase in sensory and motor symptoms in RLS patients. This result and those of others studies showing that melatonin exerts an inhibitory effect on central dopamine secretion suggest that melatonin might be implicated in the worsening of RLS symptoms in the evening and during the night. [source]