Dipterocarp Forest (dipterocarp + forest)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Dipterocarp Forest

  • lowland dipterocarp forest

  • Selected Abstracts

    Home Range Size of Sympatric Squirrel Species Inhabiting a Lowland Dipterocarp Forest in Malaysia,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2001
    A. A. Saiful
    ABSTRACT Home range sizes and spatial overlap of four sympatric squirrel species were investigated in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Malaysia using a radio-tracking method. The population density of Callosciurus caniceps was highest and C. notatus was next highest, while C. nigrovittatus and Lariscus insignis were scarce. C. caniceps was larger than C. nigrovittatus and C. notatus while L. insignis was extremely small. For females, home range size was smaller in L. insignis than Callosciurus spp., which may support the body weight hypothesis: larger species have larger home ranges. Among the three Callosciurus species, female C. caniceps had the smallest home range. These differences were accounted for by habitat characteristics rather than by density or body weight; C. caniceps was dominant in bushy areas and used crowded small trees while C. notatus and C. nigrovittatus used large trees in the forest. In this study, home range size did not change seasonally; this differs from studies in temperate regions, possibly because food availability is much less variable among seasons in tropical rain forest. Home range overlap among heterospecific individuals was common but different species seemed to partition space by using different vertical levels of the forest. Consequently, the home range size and spatial overlap of sympatric squirrel species may be affected by habitat diversity in tropical rain forest. [source]

    Mating System Parameters in a Tropical Tree Species, Shorea leprosula Miq. (Dipterocarpaceae), from Malaysian Lowland Dipterocarp Forest,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4a 2000
    S. L. Lee
    First page of article [source]

    Difference in Intensity of Ant Defense among Three Species of Macaranga Myrmecophytes in a Southeast Asian Dipterocarp Forest,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2000
    Takao Itioka
    ABSTRACT To examine interspecific variation in the intensity of ant defense among three sympatric species of obligate myrme-cophytes of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae), we measured the ratio of ant biomass to plant biomass, ant aggressiveness to artificial damage on host plants, and increase in herbivore damage on host plants when symbiont ants were removed. Increase in herbivore damage from two- and four-week ant exclusion varied significantly among the three species. The decreasing order of vulnerability to herbivory was M. winkleri, M. trachyphylla, and M. beccariana. The antip/ant biomass ratio (= rate of the dry weight of whole ant colonies to the dry weight of whole aboveground plant parts) and ant agressiveness also varied significantly among the three species; the orders of both the ant/plant biomass ratio and ant aggressiveness were the same as in the herbivory increase. These results indicated that the intensity of ant defense differs predictably among sympatric species of obligate myrmecophytes on Macaranga. In addition to the interspecific difference in the total intensity of ant defense, when symbiont ants were excluded, both patterns of within-plant variation in the amount of herbivore damage and compositions of herbivore species that caused the damage differed among species. This suggests that the three Macaranga species have different systems of ant defense with reference to what parts of plant tissue are protected and what herbivorous species are avoided by ant defense. Thus, it is important to consider the interspecific variation in ant defense among Macaranga species to understand the herbivore community on Macaranga plants and the mechanisms that promote the coexistence of multiple Macaranga myrmecophytes. [source]

    Survival of Flower-visiting Chrysomelids during Non General-flowering Periods in Bornean Dipterocarp Forests

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 5 2008
    Keiko Kishimoto-Yamada
    ABSTRACT In SE Asian rain forests, general flowering, a community-wide synchronous flowering, occurs at irregular and supra-annual intervals. During general flowering periods (GFP), most Dipterocarpaceae and many other trees flower profusely, while flowering plants are scant between GFP. During flowerless periods, anthophilous animals that depend on floral resources for food may suffer food shortages and subsequently decrease in abundance. Flower-visiting chrysomelid adults are major pollinators for some canopy tree species that flower during GFP. Although such chrysomelids feed on flower petals, the means by which they survive flowerless periods remains unknown. We determined the abundance of flower-visiting chrysomelids in GFP and non-GFP through light trap samples and examined the effects of the presence of young leaves and flowers of dipterocarps on local abundance, and feeding preferences of flower-visiting chrysomelids. We found no clear tendency that the chrysomelid species number and the abundance during GFP were consistently higher than those during non-GFP. Chrysomelid adults were more abundant on trees with many young leaves or flowers than on trees lacking young leaves and flowers. At least a few flower-visiting chrysomelids were observed feeding on young dipterocarp leaves and visiting young leaves and flowers of non-dipterocarps in the canopy during non-GFP. All results consistently suggest that chrysomelids are able to survive flowerless periods by feeding on the young leaves of dipterocarps and on the young leaves and flowers of non-dipterocarps; through this alternate feeding, chrysomelid populations are maintained at sufficient levels to function as effective pollinators of trees that flower during GFP. [source]

    Effects of fires on butterfly assemblages in lowland dipterocarp forest in East Kalimantan

    Toshiya HIROWATARI
    Abstract The post-fire butterfly fauna in lowland dipterocarp forest of the Bukit Soeharto Education Forest (BSEF), East Kalimantan, Indonesia, was assessed during the period November 1998,April 2000 by means of consecutive Malaise trap samples, with supplementary field observations for March,April 1999. A total of 514 butterflies belonging to 61 species and representing six families were caught in the traps. Melanitis leda (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae), Charaxes bernardus (Nymphalidae: Charaxinae), and Danaus genutia (Nymphalidae: Danainae) were the species most frequently caught (60, 52 and 47 individuals, respectively), representing 31% of the total. These three species are generalists and "disturbance indicators" for tropical rainforest, being characteristic of disturbed or secondary forests, being distributed widely, and having larvae that feed on a wide range of host plants. In contrast, other species, such as Trogonoptera brookiana and Troides amphrysus, were recorded before the fires but were not recorded again afterwards. The pre- and post-fire butterfly fauna of East Kalimantan were compared on the basis of butterfly specimens deposited in the Tropical Rain Forest Research Center that were collected in and around the Bukit Soeharto Education Forest before the fires (1988,1995). On the basis of the post-fire survey, based on Malaise trap samples and field observations, only 43% of the butterfly species (not including Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae) were confirmed to have persisted. The data suggest that refugia that are not affected by fire are necessary for the conservation of specialist butterflies, as well as many other forms of wildlife. [source]

    Mixed-species bird flocks in dipterocarp forest of north-central Burma (Myanmar)

    IBIS, Issue 4 2001
    We studied the bird community in deciduous, dipterocarp forest of north-central Burma (Myanmar) during December 1994, March 1996, and January 1997 and 1999. Most members of this community participated in mixed-species flocks. Seventy-three flocks were encountered during our study, containing 52 species. Of these, 25 species occurred in more than 10% of flocks, and were included in our analyses. There were 26 significant correlations among species pairs, 25 of which were positive. Cluster analysis indicated that there were three principal types of flocks: one consisting mostly of small passerines and picids, commonly including Common Wood-Shrike, Small Minivet and White-browed Fantail, among others; a second type consisting mainly of sylviids, e.g. Arctic, Dusky and Radde's Warblers; and a third type which generally centred around Greater and Lesser Necklaced Laughingthrushes. Bird-eating hawks were numerous at these sites, and we witnessed several attacks on flocks during the study. Thus we infer that enhanced protection from predation is an important benefit conferred by flock membership. In contrast, there was little overlap in foraging behaviour among species, suggesting that foraging facilitation is a relatively minor benefit enjoyed by flock members, although we did observe White-browed Fantails and Greater Racket-tailed Drongos kleptoparasitizing other species on occasion. [source]

    Habitat associations of Sterculiaceae trees in a Bornean rain forest plot

    Toshihiro Yamada
    Ashton (1980) Abstract. Questions: 1. Are trees in a Bornean tropical rain forest associated with a particular habitat? 2. Does the strength of habitat association with the species-specific optimal habitat increase with tree size? Location: A 52-ha plot in a mixed dipterocarp forest in a heterogeneous landscape at the Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia. Methods: Ten species from the Sterculiaceae were chosen as representative of all species in the plot, on the assumption that competition among closely related species is more stringent than that among more distantly related taxa. Their habitat associations were tested using data from a 52-ha plot by a torus-translation test. Results: The torus-translation test showed that eight out of the ten species examined had significant association with at least one habitat. We could not find negative species-habitat associations for rare species, probably due to their small sample sizes. Among four species small trees were less strongly associated with habitat than large trees, implying competitive exclusion of trees in suboptimal habitats. The other four species showed the opposite pattern, possibly owing to the smaller sample size of large trees. A habitat had a maximum of three species with which it was significantly positively associated. Conclusions: For a species to survive in population equilibrium in a landscape, habitats in which ,source' subpopulations can be sustained without subsidy from adjacent habitats are essential. Competition is most severe among related species whose source subpopulations share the same habitat. On the evidence of source subpopulations identified by positive species-habitat association, species-habitat association reduces the number of confamilial competitors. Our results therefore indicate that edaphic niche specialization contributes to coexistence of species of Sterculiaceae in the plot, consistent with the expectations of equilibrium hypotheses. [source]

    Spatial structure and genetic diversity of two tropical tree species with contrasting breeding systems and different ploidy levels

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Kevin K. S. Ng
    Abstract Analyses of the spatial distribution pattern, spatial genetic structure and of genetic diversity were carried out in two tropical tree species with contrasting breeding systems and different ploidy levels using a 50-ha demographic plot in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Shorea leprosula is a diploid and predominantly outcrossed species, whereas S. ovalis ssp. sericea is an autotetraploid species with apomictic mode of reproduction. Genetic diversity parameters estimated for S. leprosula using microsatellite were consistently higher than using allozyme. In comparisons with S. leprosula and other tropical tree species, S. ovalis ssp. sericea also displayed relatively high levels of genetic diversity. This might be explained by the lower pressure of genetic drift due to tetrasomic inheritance, and for autotetraploids each locus can accommodate up to four different alleles and this allows maintenance of more alleles at individual loci. The observed high levels of genetic diversity in S. ovalis ssp. sericea can also be due to a random retention of more heterogeneous individuals in the past, and the apomictic mode of reproduction might be an evolutionary strategy, which allows the species to maintain high levels of genetic diversity. The spatial distribution pattern analyses of both species showed significant levels of aggregation at small and medium but random distribution at the big diameter-class. The decrease in magnitude of spatial aggregation from small- to large-diameter classes might be due to compensatory mortality during recruitment and survival under competitive thinning process. Spatial genetic structure analyses for both species revealed significant spatial genetic structure for short distances in all the three diameter-classes. The magnitude of spatial genetic structure in both species was observed to be decreasing from smaller- to larger-diameter classes. The high spatial genetic structuring observed in S. ovalis ssp. sericea at the small-diameter class is due primarily to limited seed dispersal and apomictic mode of reproduction. The similar observation in S. leprosula, however, can be explained by limited seed and pollen dispersal, which supports further the fact that the species is pollinated by weak fliers, mainly of Thrips and Megalurothrips in the lowland dipterocarp forest. [source]

    Dry season habitat use by critically endangered white-shouldered ibis in northern Cambodia

    H. L. Wright
    Abstract We present the first scientific study of white-shouldered ibis Pseudibis davisoni habitat preferences in dry dipterocarp forest. Foraging sites included seasonal pools, forest understorey grasslands and fallow rice fields, with terrestrial sites used more following rainfall. Habitat and anthropogenic effects in logistic models of foraging site selection were examined by multimodel inference and model averaging. White-shouldered ibis preferred pools with greater cover of short vegetation (<25 cm) and less of the boundary enclosed, and forest sites with greater cover of bare substrate and lower people encounter rate. At forest sites, livestock density was positively related to bare substrate extent and thus may improve suitability for foraging ibis. At pools, livestock removed tall vegetation between the early and late dry season indicating their importance in opening up foraging habitats after wet season growth. However, by the late dry season, pools with greater livestock density had less short vegetation, the habitat favoured by ibis. Conservation strategies for white-shouldered ibis must consider a range of habitats, not just seasonal wetlands, and should incorporate extensive grazing and associated burning practises of local communities. Further understanding of the effects of these practices on vegetation, prey abundance and prey availability are therefore needed for effective conservation of this species. This will also develop our understanding of potentially beneficial anthropogenic influences in tropical environments. [source]

    Factors Affecting the Distribution and Abundance of Asplenium nidus L. in a Tropical Lowland Rain Forest in Peninsular Malaysia

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2010
    Liwen Zhang
    ABSTRACT Asplenium nidus is an abundant epiphytic fern of tropical rain forests in the Old World, where it plays an important ecological role in the forest canopy as host to diverse arthropod communities. We investigated the factors that determine the distribution and abundance of A. nidus in the canopy of an aseasonal lowland dipterocarp forest at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. We found that A. nidus was more abundant in the understory, and on hosts with smooth bark and relatively flat branch angles. Ferns were found on a wide diversity and size range of host taxa. However, both host taxa and host diameter at breast height had a significant effect on A. nidus occupancy. Asplenium nidus had an aggregated spatial distribution at all scales within the study area. Spatial aggregation at larger scales appears to be driven by habitat preference, as A. nidus abundance was positively associated with swampy areas and negatively associated with hilly areas. At smaller scales, limited dispersal of their wind-dispersed spores most likely explains the aggregated distribution. Larger individuals occurred higher in the canopy and were more common in the hilly area. Thus, the distribution of A. nidus may represent a trade-off between the availability of suitable microsites for establishment in the understory and better growth conditions higher in the canopy. However, A. nidus is known to comprise a complex of cryptic species, and future studies should incorporate molecular techniques to elucidate the potential role of speciation in explaining these patterns. Abstract in Malaysian is available at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/btp [source]

    Performance Trade-offs Driven by Morphological Plasticity Contribute to Habitat Specialization of Bornean Tree Species

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2009
    Daisy H. Dent
    ABSTRACT Growth-survival trade-offs play an important role in niche differentiation of tropical tree species in relation to light-gradient partitioning. However, the mechanisms that determine differential species performance in response to light and soil resource availability are poorly understood. To examine responses to light and soil nutrient availability, we grew seedlings of five tropical tree species for 12 mo at < 2 and 18 percent full sunlight and in two soil types representing natural contrasts in nutrient availability within a lowland dipterocarp forest in North Borneo. We chose two specialists of nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor soils, respectively, and one habitat generalist. Across all species, growth was higher in high than low light and on more nutrient rich soil. Although species differed in growth rates, the ranking of species, in terms of growth, was consistent across the four treatments. Nutrient-rich soils improved seedling survival and increased growth of three species even under low light. Slower-growing species increased root allocation and reduced specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area ratio (LAR) in response to decreased nutrient supply. All species increased LAR in response to low light. Maximum growth rates were negatively correlated with survival in the most resource-limited environment. Nutrient-poor soil specialists had low maximum growth rates but high survival at low resource availability. Specialists of nutrient-rich soils, plus the habitat generalist, had the opposite suite of traits. Fitness component trade-offs may be driven by both light and belowground resource availability. These trade-offs contribute to differentiation of tropical tree species among habitats defined by edaphic variation. [source]

    Seed Dispersal by Birds and Bats in Lowland Philippine Forest Successional Area

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2009
    Regielene S. Gonzales
    ABSTRACT In the tropical forests of SE Asia, only a few studies have dealt with the role animal dispersal plays in early forest succession and rehabilitation, and a comparison of bird and bat dispersal is even rarer. We investigated seed dispersal by birds and bats in a successional area in the lowland dipterocarp forest of the Subic Watershed Forest Reserve (SWFR) in Luzon Island, Philippines. Using pairs of day and night traps, we collected seeds during 3 mo of wet season and 3 mo of dry season in a 1.2-ha study site. Bird-dispersed seeds predominated over those dispersed by bats in terms of both seed abundance and number of seed species. The most abundant endozoochorous seed species were significantly biased toward either bird or bat dispersal. Birds and bats appeared to compete more strongly for fruit resources during the dry season than during the wet season, and bats responded more to changes in the seasons than birds did. GLM analyses showed that the factor that had the strongest influence on overall seed distribution was the number of fleshy-fruited trees surrounding the traps, and that the distribution pattern of day-dispersed seeds was affected by more physical factors (number of trees, size of trees, presence of fleshy-fruited and conspecific trees) in the study site than the pattern of night-dispersed seeds were. Given that birds are the more important dispersers in the study site, restoration efforts in SWFR might benefit by focusing on attracting these dispersers into its degraded habitats. [source]

    Tree growth is related to light interception and wood density in two mixed dipterocarp forests of Malaysia

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    D. A. KING
    Summary 1The development of simple predictors of tree growth is important in understanding forest dynamics. For this purpose, tree height, crown width in two perpendicular directions, trunk diameter at 13 m height (d.b.h.) and crown illumination index (CI) were determined for 727 pole-sized trees (8,20 cm d.b.h.) of 21 species, on forest dynamics plots at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia and Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. A light-interception index (LI = AcrCI2, where Acr is crown area) was calculated for each tree, and wood density (stem wood dry mass/fresh volume) was estimated for each species from reported values. 2Diameter growth rates were linearly correlated with LI (mean per species r2 = 045, excluding substantially damaged and vine-covered trees). 3Among trees of all species, diameter growth rate was highly correlated with LI/wood density. 4Mean growth rate per species varied 10-fold among the study species, but increased linearly with mean LI/wood density ratio (r2 = 078), consistent with the previous pattern. 5Thus much of the variability in tree growth rates, both within and among species, can be accounted for by the simple mechanistic assumption that, within a given size class, growth is proportional to light interception/wood density. [source]

    Seed predation during general flowering events of varying magnitude in a Malaysian rain forest

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Summary 1The lowland dipterocarp forests of Southeast Asia exhibit interspecifically synchronized general flowering (GF) and mast fruiting at irregular multi-year intervals of 1 to 11 years. The predator satiation hypothesis (PSH) posits that GF events enhance seed survival by reducing the survival, reproduction and population sizes of seed predators between GF events, and then satiating the reduced seed predator populations during GF events. 2Three GF events of different magnitudes occurred in Pasoh Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia, during 2001, 2002 and 2005. We exploited this natural experiment to test two predictions of the PSH. The first prediction was that seed survival should increase with the magnitude of the GF event. The second prediction was that seed predation should decrease with time since the previous GF event. 3A reproductive survey of all (c. 900) dipterocarp trees 30 cm d.b.h. in a 50 ha plot showed that flowering pervasiveness (the proportion of dipterocarp species participating) was high and similar in all three GF events. However, relative flowering magnitudes (measured by an index of individual tree participation and flowering intensity in Shorea species) were 2, 5 and 8 for the 2001, 2002 and 2005 GF events, respectively. 4The percentage of Shorea seeds surviving pre- and post-dispersal predation increased with the magnitude of GF events, which is consistent with the first prediction. 5Pre-dispersal insect seed predators consumed 12.9%, 11.2% and 3.4% of Shorea seeds in the 2001, 2002 and 2005 GF events, respectively, which is consistent with both predictions. 6Pre-dispersal seed predation by primates (mainly leaf monkeys) increased from 11.9% to 38.6% then fell to 9.3% in the 2001, 2002 and 2005 GF events, respectively. 7Predator satiation occurred only at population and community levels. At the individual tree level there was no relationship between the percentage of seeds surviving pre- and post-dispersal seed predation and variation in seed crop size or seed density beneath the tree. This suggests that attempts to test the PSH on the scale of individual trees may miss key community level effects. 8Our results suggest a more significant role of pre-dispersal seed predation in the evolution of reproductive synchrony than was recognized in the original statement of the PSH. [source]

    Life history of amphibians in the seasonal tropics: habitat, community and population ecology of a caecilian (genus Ichthyophis)

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Alexander Kupfer
    Abstract Fundamental information on the ecology of the limbless tropical caecilians is needed for a well-founded conservation assessment. Here, essential life-history characters are presented for the oviparous caecilian Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis from a field site in South-east Asia (Mekong valley, north-eastern Thailand). Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis was found in a range of terrestrial macrohabitats including open scrubs, gallery forests and open secondary dipterocarp forests. In the dry season, caecilians were found mainly in soil but in the rainy season they were also detected in epigeic microhabitats (leaf litter or rotten vegetation). Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis were recorded in low densities (median 0.08 individuals/m2) and they share their habitat with a range of other terrestrial amphibians and reptiles. The population structure of I. cf. kohtaoensis varied seasonally. Records of late metamorphs were restricted to the cold dry season and occasionally to the onset of the rainy season. Females with clutches were only found in the rainy season. A life-history scenario of I. cf. kohtaoensis in north-eastern Thailand was set up. Reproduction and larval development is related to the rainy season. Mating and oviposition may start at the onset of the monsoon. Larvae hatch at the peak until the end of the rainy season and metamorphose until the end of the dry season. In the light of amphibian decline, this study may encourage further baseline work on the ecology of other caecilian species. [source]

    Feeding ecology of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 3-year record including two mast fruitings

    Tomoko Kanamori
    Abstract We observed the diet and activity of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the primary lowland dipterocarp forests of Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, during 2005,2007, including two mast fruitings. We collected 1,785,hr of focal data on 26 orangutans. We identified 1,466 samples of their food plants and conducted a fallen fruit census to monitor fruit availability in the study area. Their activity budget was 47.2% feeding, 34.4% resting, and 16.9% traveling. Fruits accounted for the largest part (60.9%) of feeding time, especially during mast fruiting periods (64.0,100%), although the percentages of leaves (22.2%) and bark (12.3%) were higher than those reported for P. abelii and P. pygmaeus wurmbii. Although 119 genera and 160 plant species were consumed by focal animals, only 9 genera accounted for more than 3% of feeding time (total: 67.8% for 9 genera). In particular, the focal orangutans fed intensively on Ficus and Spatholobus during most of the study period, especially in periods of fruit shortage. The percentage of fruit feeding changed markedly from 11.7 to 100% across different months of the year, and was positively correlated with the amount of fallen fruit. When fruit feeding and availability decreased, orangutans fed primarily on leaves of Spatholobus and Ficus, and the bark of Spatholobus and dipterocarp. The percentage of time devoted to feeding during mast fruitings, when the orangutans foraged almost exclusively on fruits, was lower than during seasons when the orangutan diet included leaves and bark as well as fruits. Resting increased as feeding decreased in the late stage of each fruiting season, suggesting that the orangutans adopted an energy-minimizing strategy to survive the periods of fruit shortage by using energy stored during the fruit season. Am. J. Primatol. 72:820,840, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Flower visitors and pollination in the Oriental (Indomalayan) Region

    BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Issue 3 2004
    Richard T. Corlett
    ABSTRACT Current knowledge of flower visitors and pollination in the Oriental Region is summarised. Much less is known about pollination than seed dispersal and the coverage of habitats and taxa in the region is very uneven. The available evidence suggests that pollination in lowland forests is dominated by highly social bees (mainly Trigona and Apis species), with beetles probably the next most important group, followed by other bees and flies. In comparison with the better-studied Neotropics, large solitary bees, moths, Lepidoptera and vertebrates are relatively less important. These differences are greatest in the canopy of the lowland dipterocarp forests of Southeast Asia, where they probably reflect the unique temporal pattern of floral resource availability resulting from,general flowering'at supra-annual intervals. Apis bees (but not Trigona species) are also important in most montane, subtropical and non-forest habitats. Apart from the figs (Ficus spp.), there are few well-documented examples of plant species visited by a single potential pollinator and most plant-pollinator relationships in the region appear to be relatively generalised. The small sizes of most pollinators and the absence of direct human exploitation probably make pollination mutualisms less vulnerable to failure as a result of human impacts than dispersal mutualisms, but more subtle impacts, as a result of altered gene flows, are likely to be widespread. On current evidence, pollination systems in the Oriental Region do not require any specific conservation action, but this review reinforces arguments for making the preservation (or restoration) of habitat connectivity the major focus of Oriental conservation. [source]