Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Dichotomy

  • clear dichotomy
  • false dichotomy
  • simple dichotomy

  • Selected Abstracts


    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2002
    Article first published online: 4 JUL 200
    Jahangir Maleki, Rollin M. Gallagher, Pain Medicine and Rehabilitation Center, MCP/Hahnemann School of Medicine Introduction: Functional MRI and PET studies of cortical pain processing indicate segregated pain pathways above the thalamus. Although experimental pain may result in multiple areas of altered cortical activity, it is postulated that thalamic pain fibers known as the lateral system, projecting to sensory cortex, serve to localize pain, whereas medial pathways projecting to limbic cortex, process affective aspects of pain. Case Study: A 27 y/o female, with left upper extremity pain and severe allodynia from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Type I (CRPS I / RSD), after receiving intra-pleural bupivacaine blocks developed an ipsilateral focal-onset secondary generalized tonic clonic seizure. This was followed by one hour of post-ictal confusion. Simultaneously she developed a dense left-sided motor and sensory deficit (Todd's palsy) with a motor deficit resolving in one day whereas a sensory deficit lasted 2 days. Throughout the duration of the sensory deficit she denied any left arm pain, although she continued to report the same intensity of pain, but now localized to her epigastric region. Interestingly, despite the lack of sensory perception on the left side, palpation of her left arm resulted in increased epigastric pain and suffering. Discussion: This case indicates a bifurcation of the pain pathway between the thalamus and cortex. Due to focal seizure activity, the sensory cortex (i.e. lateral system) was transiently rendered dysfunctional, during which time the continued presence of pain and allodynia without appropriate localization likely resulted from pain conduction, from the thalamus to functional limbic structures such as Cingulum (i.e. via the medial fibre system). Conclusion: This case report strongly supports the hypothesis of medial and lateral pain conducting fibers branching at the level of thalamus with medial sub-serving the emotional aspects of pain by projection to limbic cortex, whereas lateral fibres project to sensory cortex, primarily serving a localizing function. [source]

    Principles for Public Management Practice: From Dichotomies to Interdependence

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2001
    Martha S. Feldman
    In this essay we explore the relationship between management practices and a basic governance dilemma: how to manage flexibly and accountably. The challenge is both practical and theoretical. Managers must respond flexibly to the changing demands and expectations of the public and the ever-changing nature of public problems, yet they must do so in a manner that provides accountability to the public and political overseers. A dichotomous approach to the study of leadership as management action and the governance structures within which managers operate has inhibited the search for a public management theory that reconciles the dilemma. Emphasis upon managers as leaders typically focuses on the flexible actions managers might take to overcome structural "barriers," while emphasis upon governance structures typically focuses on the essential role of structure in ensuring accountability and restraining or motivating particular management efforts. The practicing manager, however, cannot deal with these aspects of the work separately. Managers must attend to demands for both flexible leadership action and structures that promise accountability. Anecdotal evidence provides illustrations of some of the ways that managers can integrate these demands. We suggest that these efforts point to an alternative theoretical framework that understands action and structure as mutually constitutive, creating a dynamic tension in which attention to one requires attention to the other. [source]

    Conceptual Dichotomies and Cultural Realities: Gender, Work, and Religion in Highland Guatemala

    Christopher L. Chiappari
    First page of article [source]

    Change in Psychotherapy: A Plea for No More "Nonspecific" and False Dichotomies

    Louis G. Castonguay
    What factors are responsible for change in psychotherapy? We welcome those who question the primacy frequently given to relationship variables in explaining client improvement, as well as the delineation of cognitive-behavioral oriented treatments found to be effective for several disorders. However, we are also concerned about the terminology used (i.e., "nonspecific variables"), as well as with the dichotomy of variables (techniques vs. relationship) that was emphasized. Although such ways of defining and categorizing process variables are predominant in the field, we argue that they may fail to do justice to the complexity of the process of change. [source]

    Addition of Azomethine Ylides to Aldehydes: Mechanistic Dichotomy of Differentially Substituted ,-Imino Esters

    Brinton Seashore-Ludlow
    Abstract The formal 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides and aldehydes is explored, as hydrolysis of the resulting oxazolidine product gives facile access to valuable syn -,-aryl-,-hydroxy-,-amino esters. The use of using benzaldehyde-derived imines as the ylide precursor results in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with high conversions but low diastereoselectivity. In contrast, the employment of benzophenone-derived imines as the ylide precursor results in an aldol reaction, which gives the intermediate oxazolidine in high diastereoselectivity and requires a weak acid catalyst to achieve higher conversions. [source]

    Dismantling the Self/Other Dichotomy in Science: Towards a Feminist Model of the Immune System

    HYPATIA, Issue 1 2001
    Despite the development of a vast body of literature pertaining to feminism and science, examples of how feminist phifosophies might be applied to scientific theories and practice have been limited. Moreover, most scientists remain unfamiliar with how feminism pertains to their work. Using the example of the immune system, this paper applies three feminist epistemologies feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and feminist postmodernismtoassess competingchims of immune function within a feminist context. [source]

    Beyond the Producer-driven/Buyer-driven Dichotomy The Evolution of Global Value Chains in the Internet Era

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 3 2001
    Gary Gereffi
    Summaries The Internet is still in the early stages of its development, but its impact on global value chains is already evident. While it may be premature to try to identify lasting changes on producer-driven and buyer-driven chains, several possible scenarios are emerging and they are not mutually exclusive. The first scenario is that electronic commerce will lead to the emergence of infomediary-based value chains that privilege direct on-line access to consumers. A second scenario is that the Internet is really just extending the logic of buyer-driven chains as both information and power continue to shift inexorably from manufacturers, marketers and retailers to consumers. A third scenario is that the impact of the Internet will be captured and integrated into the practices of large established companies, thus reinforcing power relationships in existing producer-driven and buyer-driven governance structures. Although there is evidence to support all three scenarios, the third model currently seems to be dominant. [source]

    Dichotomy in cross-clade reactivity and neutralization by HIV-1 sera: Implications for active and passive immunotherapy,

    Lisa A. Cavacini
    Abstract The identification of broadly reactive and cross-clade neutralizing antibodies will facilitate the development of a more universally effective vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies in sera from individuals infected with Clade B HIV bind native primary viral isolates, and virus binding correlates with neutralization and stable clinical disease. In this study, we quantified cross-clade antibody reactivity and neutralization by Clades B and C sera. Primary viral isolates were captured by serum IgG bound to anti-human IgG and quantitated as p24 released by lysis of captured virus. Neutralization was determined using PHA-stimulated PBMC. Clade B antibodies reacted more frequently with Clade B R5 virus, but positive sera captured quantitatively more X4 virus than R5 and R5X4 virus. Clade B sera reacted less frequently and captured less Clade C virus than Clade B virus. Antibodies in Clade C sera captured Clades B and C isolates with equal frequency and quantity. There was no difference in neutralization of Clade B virus by either group of sera; however, Clade C sera neutralized Clade C virus, whereas Clade B sera were ineffective against Clade C virus. Thus, there are distinct differences in cross-clade reactivity of and neutralization by antibodies induced in response to Clade C infection compared to Clade B infection. Understanding antibody responses to native virions after Clade C infection and cross clade antibody behavior has implications for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine development. J. Med. Virol. 76:146,152, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    "Choice" in Filial Care Work: Moving beyond a Dichotomy

    Les auteures analysent le concept du «choix» dans le travail des aidants naturels filiaux. Dans la documentation théorique et empirique sur le travail des aidants naturels, une dichotomie entre le «choix» et l'«obligation» est considérée comme une construction sociale. Néanmoins, cette dichotomie ne reflète pas adéquatement les expériences familiales de fourniture de soins; par exemple, le choix et l'obligation ne constituent pas des motivations mutuellement exclusives. Ils sont plutôt «relationnels», «contextuels» et manifestes dans l'interaction entre des macro et des microcontextes. La dichotomie choix-obligation est également idéologique. Sur le plan de la politique morale, elle fait la promotion du déchargement de la responsabilité des gouvernements sur les familles, elle obscurcit la complexité des relations filiales et peut même promouvoir l'ambivalence psychologique. In this paper, we discuss the concept of "choice" in filial care work. A dichotomy between choice and obligation is constructed in theoretical and empirical literature on filial care work. However, this dichotomy does not adequately reflect family caregiving experiences; for instance, choice and obligation are not mutually exclusive motivations. Rather, choice and obligation are "relational" and "contextual" and manifest in the interaction between macro- and micro-contexts. The choice-obligation dichotomy is also ideological. At the moral-political level, it promotes the downloading of responsibility by governments to family, obscures the complexity of filial relationships, and may even promote psychological ambivalence. [source]

    Fracturing the Real-Self,Fake-Self Dichotomy: Moving Toward "Crystallized" Organizational Discourses and Identities

    Sarah J. Tracy
    This article begins with the following question: Why, even with the proliferation of poststructuralist theoretical understandings of identity, do people routinely talk in terms of "real" and "fake" selves? Through an analysis of critical empirical studies of identity-construction processes at work, this article makes the case that the real-self,fake-self dichotomy is created and maintained through organizational talk and practices and, in turn, serves as a constitutive discourse that produces four subject positions with both symbolic and material consequences: strategized self-subordination, perpetually deferred identities, "auto-dressage," and the production of "good little copers." The article challenges scholars to reflexively consider the ways they may perpetuate the dichotomy in their own academic practices. Furthermore, the authors present the metaphor of the "crystallized self" as an alternative to the real-self,fake-self dichotomy and suggest that communication scholars are well-poised to develop alternative vocabularies, theories, and understandings of identity within the popular imagination. [source]

    Fashioned Forest Pasts, Occluded Histories?

    International Environmental Analysis in West African Locales
    This article considers how environmental problematics are produced and interpreted, using case material from West Africa's humid forest zone. Examing the experiences of several countries over the long term, it is possible to identify a deforestation discourse produced through national and international institutions. This represents forest and social history in particular ways that structure forest conservation but which obscure the experience and knowledge of resource users. Using fine-grained ethnography to explore how such discourse is experienced and interpreted in a particular locale, the article uncovers problems with ,discourse' perspectives which produce analytical dichotomies which confront state and villager, and scientific and ,local' knowledges. The authors explore the day-to-day encounters between villagers and administrators, and the social and historical experiences which condition these. Instances where the deforestation discourse becomes juxtaposed with villagers' alternative ideas about landscape history prove relatively few and insignificant, while the powerful material effects of the discourse tend to be interpreted locally within other frames. These findings present departures from the ways relations between citizen sciences and expert institutions have been conceived in recent work on the sociology of science and public policy. [source]

    Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus

    Chitra D. Mandyam
    Abstract Hippocampal function and plasticity differ with gender, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying sex differences remain elusive and may be established early in life. The present study sought to elucidate sex differences in hippocampal plasticity under normal developmental conditions and in response to repetitive, predictable versus varied, unpredictable prenatal stress (PS). Adult male and diestrous female offspring of pregnant rats exposed to no stress (control), repetitive stress (PS-restraint), or a randomized sequence of varied stressors (PS-random) during the last week of pregnancy were examined for hippocampal proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and local microenvironment using endogenous markers. Regional volume was also estimated by stereology. Control animals had comparable proliferation and regional volume regardless of sex, but females had lower neurogenesis compared to males. Increased cell death and differential hippocampal precursor kinetics both appear to contribute to reduced neurogenesis in females. Reduced local interleukin-1beta (IL-1,) immunoreactivity (IR) in females argues for a mechanistic role for the anti-apoptotic cytokine in driving sex differences in cell death. Prenatal stress significantly impacted the hippocampus, with both stress paradigms causing robust decreases in actively proliferating cells in males and females. Several other hippocampal measures were feminized in males such as precursor kinetics, IL-1,-IR density, and cell death, reducing or abolishing some sex differences. The findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sex differences and highlight the critical role early stress can play on the balance between proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and hippocampal microenvironment in adulthood. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008. [source]

    The Wealth of Nations at the Turn of the Millennium: A Classification System Based on the International Division of Labor,

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2002
    Wolfgang Hoeschele
    Abstract: Simple dichotomies, such as First World,Third World, developed,developing countries, and north,south, are no longer adequate for understanding the complex economic geography of the world. Even the division into core, semi-periphery, and periphery groups diverse economies into an excessively limited number of categories. It is time to develop a new scheme that better classifies the countries of the world into coherent groups. This article constructs a new classification based on the international division of labor, using three fundamental dimensions. The first dimension is the success of the industrial and services economy in providing employment to the people within a country. The second is the export orientation of a country, concentrating either on natural-resource-intensive products (e.g., agricultural produce, food and beverages, minerals and metals) or on core industrial manufactures (from textiles to computers). The third is the presence of control functions in the world economy: countries that include the headquarters of major firms and are the source regions of major flows of foreign direct investments. The combination of these three dimensions leads to the creation of eight basic categories. I introduce a terminology that combines these basic categories into larger groups, depending on the context. This new conceptual scheme should facilitate a more informed analysis of world economic, political, social, and environmental affairs. [source]

    Historical Aspects of Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsies

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2005
    Peter Wolf
    Summary:, Early in these proceedings, the origin of the three terms in the title, "idiopathic generalized epilepsy," is discussed with respect to their significance over time, and typical misunderstandings. In the mid-20th century, a rather chaotic use of a multitude of often loosely defined terms had developed, which increasingly became an obstacle to a meaningful international discussion. The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) took the initiative to develop an internationally accepted terminology with a classification system consisting of a classification of seizures (1981) and a classification of syndromes (1989). The Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsies are one of its four major groups emerging from a double dichotomy of generalized versus localization-related and idiopathic versus symptomatic. The inclusion of biologic aspects such as syndrome-specific ages of onset ("age-related syndromes") or syndrome-specific relations of seizure occurrence to the sleep,wake cycle ("Epilepsy with Grand Mal on Awaking") meant that the syndrome classification merged the more biological views of the German school with the more neurophysiological ones of the French. Apart from establishing a common international language concerning epilepsy, the International Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes became an important stimulator of research, especially concerning the idiopathic epilepsies. In particular, genetic and functional imaging investigations aim at a better understanding of these conditions. It is now understood that most idiopathic syndromes have a,sometimes complex,genetic background, but we are also becoming aware of the inappropriateness of the time-honored term "generalized" and part of our dichotomies. Both localization-related and "generalized" idiopathic epilepsies seem to share a principle of ictogenesis based on functional anatomic pathogenic networks, and we seem to move toward understanding them as functional system disorders of the brain. [source]

    Challenging East,West value dichotomies and essentialising discourse on culture and social work

    Vishanthie SewpaulArticle first published online: 22 MAR 200
    All discourse, whether universalistic and/or particularistic, must be subject to contestation, so that we are held accountable for the thinking that we articulate in our writings, and so that we do not reinforce much of the taken for granted assumptions about the world. Critiques such as those of Hutchings and Taylor in this issue of IJSW remind us of social work's commitment to reflexivity and the need to contest discourse that might not be in the interests of particular groups of people. It is not the debate itself contained in the article that is an issue, but the framing of the debate and the assumptions upon which they are predicated. The discourse on human rights within the liberal democratic framework, in a rapidly globalising world characterised by neoliberal capitalism, needs to be critiqued on a global level. Hutchings and Taylor's article assumes the applicability and suitability of liberal democracy for the West and not for the East, with an assumption that the West is characterised by liberalism and the East by tradition and a bureaucratic authoritarianism. It is these assumptions, and the tendency to essentialise Chinese and Western culture and to reinforce the dichotomy between the West and the East, that I contest in this article. [source]

    The Governance Approach to European Integration

    Markus Jachtenfuchs
    This article argues that the study of European integration is divided into two distinct approaches: classical integration theory for which the shape of the Euro-polity is the dependent variable; and the governance approach for which it is the independent variable. An historical and conceptual overview of the approach focuses on the efficiency side of governance and excludes issues of democracy and legitimacy. From a sociology of knowledge perspective, the first part traces the roots of the present discussion back to three bodies of literature, namely studies on Europeanization, regulatory policy-making and network concepts. The second part presents the achievements of the approach: putting EU studies in a comparative perspective, directing attention towards democratic governance and bypassing old dichotomies on the future of the nation-state. The final section evaluates present shortcomings, most notably a bias toward problem-solving, the proliferation of case studies and the lack of a coherent theoretical perspective. [source]

    The Secret Life of Things: Rethinking Social Ontology

    Iordanis Marcoulatos
    Despite a recent resurgence of interest in social ontology, the standard conceptualization of social/cultural objects reiterates dichotomies such as nature and culture, subjectivity and objectivity: the objective components of a social/cultural environment are usually divided into their (symbolically vacuous) material substratum, natural or manufactured, and their imposed or assigned social import. Inert materiality and subjectively or intersubjectively assigned meanings and functions remain distinct as constitutive aspects of a reality that is intuitively experienced as a whole. In contrast,by means of examining a broad range of natural/cultural entities,I propose an experiential or visceral ontology of the social, which addresses the comprehensive nature of our experience of cultural objects, as well as their perpetual transmutability within the space between nature and culture, objectivity and subjectivity. This perspective allows for a cathexis of meaning in the material constitution of cultural entities,in contrast to a mere imposition of detachable layers of meaning,and suggests a reconsideration of our unexamined perception of social/political action as editorial supervision and correction. Moreover, I point out the centrality of the concept of practice for recovering the lived sense of social things, since practice, by virtue of its inalienable informality, constitutes the field of Protean renewal of this sense. I understand my approach as complementary to the body-turn in contemporary social theory, since I extend the postulation of meaningfulness in the objective aspect of subjective existence (i.e. the body) towards its lived surroundings, which are here perceived as engaged in a process of meaningful practiced reciprocations with corporeal subjectivities. [source]

    Modern statistics: the myth and the magic

    David J. Hand
    Summary., The paper is a personal exploration of the puzzling contradiction between the fundamental excitement of statistics and its poor public image. It begins with the historical foundations and proceeds through the role of applications and the dramatic impact of the computer in shaping the discipline. The mismatch between the reality of statistics and its public perception arises from a number of dichotomies, some of which are explored. In particular, although statistics is perhaps typically seen as an impersonal discipline, in some sense it is very personal, and many of its applications are aimed at providing unique benefit to individuals. This benefit depends on the creation of detailed data sets describing individuals, but the contrary view is that this represents an invasion of privacy. Some observations on statistical education are made, and issues which will affect the future health of the discipline are examined. [source]


    Joachim K. Blatter
    New dichotomies emerge, for example, "jumping of scale" versus "relativation of scales"; "deterritorializiaton" versus "reterritorialization"; "spaces of place" versus "space of flows." These dichotomies can be interpreted as different proposals and/or diagnoses in respect to the geographic scale and functional scope of emerging institutions of metropolitan governance. The paper aims to trace the empirical question of which direction we are heading by analyzing recent metropolitan governance reforms in six West German metropolitan areas. The findings show that there is a general trend to create soft institutions of governance on a larger scale as a reaction to global competition and continental integration. Beyond this commonality, we discover quite different institutional trajectories. The regions which are strongly embedded in the global economy tend toward a "deterritorialized" form of metropolitan governance with rather weak institutions characterized by large geographic scales and functional specialization. In contrast, the regions which are not as much embedded in the global economy have been able to create strong governance institutions on a regional level characterized by a rather small geographic scope and based on a territorial logic of functional integration and geographic congruence. [source]

    The Diffusion of Rights: From Law on the Books to Organizational Rights Practices

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 3 2006
    Jeb Barnes
    How does law change society? To gain new leverage on this long-standing question, this article draws on two lines of research that often ignore each other: political science research on the mobilization of law, and sociological research on the diffusion of organizational practices. Our insights stem from six case studies of diverse organizations' responses to the accommodation provisions in the Americans with Disabilities Act and related state laws. We found that different modes of exposure to the law combined with organizational attributes to produce distinct "rights practices",styles of standard operating procedures and informal routines that reflect the understanding of legal requirements within an organization. The diversity of the organizational responses challenges simple dichotomies between compliance/noncompliance, change through deterrence/change through norms, and mobilization/nonmobilization, and it underscores the importance of combining political science and sociological perspectives on law and social change. [source]

    Kinks and rotations in long Josephson junctions

    Wolfgang Hauck
    Abstract Kinks and rotations are studied in long Josephson junctions for small and large surface losses. Geometric singular perturbation theory is used to prove existence for small surface losses, while numerical continuation is necessary to handle large surface losses. A survey of the system behaviour in terms of dissipation parameters and bias current is given. Linear orbital stability for kinks is proved for small surface losses by calculating the spectrum of the linearized problem. The spectrum is split into essential spectrum and discrete spectrum. For the determination of the discrete spectrum, robustness of exponential dichotomies is used. Puiseux series together with perturbation theory for linear operators are an essential tool. In a final step, a smooth Evans function together with geometric singular perturbation theory is used to count eigenvalues. For kinks, non-linear orbital stability is shown. For this purpose, the asymptotic behaviour of a semigroup is given and the theory of centre and stable manifolds is applied. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Interaction of landscape and life history attributes on genetic diversity, neutral divergence and gene flow in a pristine community of salmonids

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 23 2009
    Abstract Landscape genetics holds promise for the forecasting of spatial patterns of genetic diversity based on key environmental features. Yet, the degree to which inferences based on single species can be extended to whole communities is not fully understood. We used a pristine and spatially structured community of three landlocked salmonids (Salvelinus fontinalis, Salmo salar, and Salvelinus alpinus) from Gros Morne National Park (Newfoundland, Canada) to test several predictions on the interacting effects of landscape and life history variation on genetic diversity, neutral divergence, and gene flow (m, migration rate). Landscape factors consistently influenced multispecies genetic patterns: (i) waterfalls created strong dichotomies in genetic diversity and divergence between populations above and below them in all three salmonids; (ii) contemporary m decreased with waterway distance in all three species, while neutral genetic divergence (,) increased with waterway distance, albeit in only two taxa; (iii) river flow generally produced downstream-biased m between populations when waterfalls separated these, but not otherwise. In contrast, we expected differential life history to result in a hierarchy of neutral divergence (S. salar > S. fontinalis > S. alpinus) based on disparities in dispersal abilities and population size from previous mark-recapture studies. Such hierarchy additionally matched varying degrees of spatial genetic structure among species revealed through individual-based analyses. We conclude that, whereas key landscape attributes hold power to predict multispecies genetic patterns in equivalent communities, they are likely to interact with species-specific life history attributes such as dispersal, demography, and ecology, which will in turn affect holistic conservation strategies. [source]

    Gender, Nations and States in a Global Era

    Sylvia Walby
    Nations and national projects are gendered in different ways. Feminist theory has raised important questions about the conceptualisation of ,difference'. This article develops the conceptualisation of the different ways in which nations and national projects are gendered, arguing for a mid-level conceptualisation of gender relations. It argues against, on the one hand, the excessive fragmentation of gender, and on the other, too simple dichotomies of mordless unequal gender relations. This draws on a theorisation of gender relations which connects the different dimensions into specific kinds of gender regimes, either public or domestic gender regimes. This enables us to conceptualise different national projects as having a more or less public or domestic gender project. The conflicts between different national projects and with other polities, such as states, are then conflicts between differently gendered projects. The usefulness of this mid-level conceptualisation is demonstrated through examples of the competing relations between the UK, Ireland, the EU and the Catholic Church in a global era. [source]

    Janus and Gender: Women and the Nation's Backward Look

    Tricia Cusack
    This article considers how nations are imagined and characterised in relation to the national roles allocated to women, with particular reference to the early Irish state. It examines two related dichotomies, that between ,civic' and ,ethnic' nationalisms, and the concept of the nation itself as ,Janus-faced', simultaneously looking ahead to the future and back to the past. It has been suggested that women bore the burden of the nation's ,backward look' towards a putative traditional rural past and an organic community, while men appropriated the nation's present and future. This thesis is examined with reference to Ireland and the representation of women in visual imagery and travel writing. [source]

    Four new species of Rhodophyceae from Fiji, Polynesia and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Antoine D. R. N'Yeurt
    SUMMARY Four new species of Rhodophyceae are described from the South Pacific, with type localities in Fiji, French Polynesia and Vanuatu. Chondria bullata from the Tuamotus (French Polynesia), Vanuatu, Palmerston Atoll (Cook Islands) and Fiji is unique owing to its non-constricted axes with markedly protruding, bubble-like cortical cells. Halymenia nukuhivensis, from the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia, is distinguished from others in the genus by its dichotomous, papery blades issued from a strap-shaped basal region, and the equal proportion of anti-clinal, periclinal and oblique filaments in its medullary layer. Jania articulata, so far known only from the Tuamotus in French Polynesia and Manihiki in the Northern Cook Islands, superficially resembles the genus Amphiroa with its articulated branches with numerous genicula between successive dichotomies, and its large axis diameter. Meristotheca peltata from the Fiji Islands is unique among the genus by its distinctly peltate, erect habit. The recent high number of newly described species from the South Pacific region emphasizes the need for more in-depth surveys, particularly in deeper outer reef slope habitats, which remain for the most part unexplored and could yield particularly interesting new taxa or distributional records. [source]

    Extreme versus quotidian: addressing temporal dichotomies in Philippine disaster management

    Francisco G. Delfin Jr.
    Abstract Brief narratives of two recent events in Luzon island,a flashflood in Angeles City and an eruption of Mayon volcano,underscore the disparity between natural hazards as amplifiers of everyday hardship for many Filipinos and the Philippine disaster management system's orientation towards extreme-event response. Three major factors contribute to this dichotomy. First, population dynamics combined with the lack of access to resources compels poor Filipinos to live and work in hazardous areas, discounting risk from extreme natural events to focus on daily needs. Second, the institutional setting of the country's disaster management within the military establishment makes it difficult, though not impossible, to focus and address the underlying causes of vulnerability. Third, existing modes of funding disaster expenditures are all biased towards immediate response rather than long-term risk-reduction. The implications of these findings to disaster management and research in the Philippines are identified. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Magic and Divination in Ancient Israel

    Ann Jeffers
    Despite officially condemning all magicians and divinatory practitioners, the Old Testament/Hebrew scriptures is replete with references to magic and divination. In an attempt to map out and understand the great variety of divinatory practices in the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible from techniques as varied as astrology, lot casting, necromancy or hepatoscopy to cite only a few, this article will re-examine the concept of ,magic' and re-evaluate the ways in which the Western world, especially since the nineteenth century, has viewed ,magic' as part of a series of dichotomies: religion vs. magic, science vs. magic; ,magic' is even seen as part of gender divisions (magic/women vs. religion/men). ,Emic' and ,etic' categories are also examined and a new definition situating magic as an ,emic' category is proposed: magic and divination are part of a complex system of religious intermediation where all the components of the cosmos interrelate. In this regard, ancient Israel shares the same worldview as its ancient Near Eastern neighbours and in particular a belief in cosmic forces originating and controlled by the dominant deity or deities. While the rational underpinning of such practices are examined (and questions about control and gender touched upon), it is also argued that a proper understanding of magic and divination in ancient Israel can only be viewed as an integral part of its cosmology. An ,emic' definition of magic suggests its connection with Torah and wisdom. [source]

    Ethical dichotomies and methods of seeking consent

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 6 2004
    Roger Worthington
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Informal and Illicit Entrepreneurs: Fighting for a Place in the Neoliberal Economic Order

    Rebecca B. Galemba
    Abstract A panel at the 2007 meetings of the American Anthropological Association examined the working lives of illicit and informal entrepreneurs living in "the gaps" or "shadows" of neoliberal globalization. Panelists challenged dichotomies such as informal/formal and legal/illegal by examining the everyday practices of workers in diverse settings. Emphasis was placed on entrepreneurs' efforts to legitimate their activities and identities to themselves and others. [source]

    Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908,2009): The apotheosis of heroic anthropology (Respond to this article at http://www.therai.org.uk/at/debate)

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 5 2010
    Albert Doja
    Claude Lévi-Strauss is one of the greatest interdisciplinary writers of the twentieth century whose influence extends far beyond his own discipline of social anthropology. His inquiry illuminates the borderlands between ,primitive' and non-primitive, self and other, myth and history, human and animal, art and nature, and the dichotomies that give structure to culture, society, history and agency. This commemorative article of his legacy assesses disciplinary and interdisciplinary debates influenced by Levi-Strauss's inquiry and methods, and looks at potential challenges for the future. Lévi-Strauss's ideas continue to be influential in our assessments of what we mean by culture, values, social organization, including social transformations and cultural ideologies such as ethnocentrism, nationalism, fundamentalism, pluralism, neo-liberalism, post-modernism, relativism, humanism and universalism. [source]