Dew Point (dew + point)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Climatic factors affecting the occurrence of cloudy stain on the fruit skin of ,Triumph' Japanese persimmon

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
C. Reig
Cloudy stain is a physiological disorder of the Japanese persimmon blemishing the skin and causing a great reduction of fruit quality, thus decreasing its commercial value. The stain starts at or just prior to the fruit colour-break stage, coinciding with the presence of cuticular cracks which increase cuticle water permeability and expose subepidermal cells to air and water, causing oxidation of polyphenol substances of large skin areas that turn almost black. The incidence of the disorder examined over four consecutive years in two growing areas of Spain revealed significant differences from year to year, between areas and even the tree face examined. The data consistently showed that cooler groves and fruit located on the northern face of the canopy were more prone to develop the stain. During the 4 years of the study, the average daily minimum temperature of a period of 15,25 days prior to the onset of staining followed the same order as the yearly staining rate, and accumulated hours below 13C correlated significantly with the percentage of fruit starting the disorder. No relationship was found between the time-course of relative humidity (RH) and the onset of staining, but once the stain started the lower RH resulted in the lower percentage of affected fruit. Dew point, wind speed, rainfall and evapotranspiration did not correlate either with the onset of staining or with its incidence. Rind of cloudy-stained fruit had higher concentration of N, K, Mg and Fe and lower concentration of Ca than that of healthy fruit, but it is not the cause of the disorder. Accordingly, we conclude that cloudy stain of Japanese persimmon starts after a period of low temperature (, 13C) and, afterwards, RH is responsible for its development and severity. [source]


The differences in human cumulative irritation responses to positive and negative irritant controls from three geographical locations

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 5 2008
Mingyi W. Trimble
A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate whether studies from three geographically diverse locations have similar response profiles to the positive and negative controls in a standard 14-day cumulative irritation study. The positive irritant control (0.1% sodium lauryl sulphate) and the negative control (0.9% sodium chloride, saline) data from seventeen 14-day cumulative irritation studies were reviewed. The studies were compiled from three locations representing dry/hot, humid/hot, and dry/cold environments (Scottsdale, Arizona; St Petersburg, Florida; and Winnipeg, Manitoba, respectively). Irritation scores were generated by trained skin graders from a total of 442 subjects studied between 1999 and 2005. Cumulative irritation scores were reviewed and compared between study locations. The irritation scores for the positive and negative controls were not significantly different between locations. Temperature and relative humidity variation did not correlate significantly with overall irritation. However, the dryer climate (i.e. negative or low dew point) had a tendency to induce a higher overall irritation level for both positive and negative controls. [source]


Solution theory model for thermophysical properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 12 2009
Albeiro Restrepo
Abstract A general model for predicting the thermophysical properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures has been developed based on applicable theory for the excess Gibbs energy of nonideal solutions. In our approach, flexible thermodynamic forms are chosen to describe the properties of both the gas and liquid phases of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. After an extensive study of models for describing nonideal liquid effects, the Wohl [3]-suffix equations, which have been extensively used in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, have been developed into a general form applicable to mixtures where one component is a polyolester or alkylbenzene lubricant. We have developed a nonideal solution computer code, based on the Wohl model that predicts dew point or bubble point conditions over a wide range of composition and temperature and includes the calculation of the enthalpy and entropy of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Our present analysis includes the thermodynamic properties of an ideal solution mixture and the corrections due to nonideal solution behavior. These nonideal solution corrections are based on analysis of the excess Gibbs energy of the mixture. We find that these nonideal solution corrections are small (<4%) for most refrigerant/lubricant mixtures, except at very low temperatures. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]


Environmental dew point and skin and lip weathering

JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
C Devillers
Abstract Xerosis represents a physiological response of the stratum corneum (SC) to environmental threats. The influence of the environmental dew point (DP) is not fully understood. This parameter is the air temperature at which the relative humidity is maximum. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the environmental DP and the water-holding capacity of the skin and lower lip vermilion. For comparison, SC property was evaluated after occlusive application of cooled and uncooled hydrogel pads. Electrometric measurements using a dermal phase meter (DPM) device were performed on the back of the hands, the cheeks and the lower lip of 40 healthy menopausal women. Assessments were performed in the outdoor conditions during winter and spring. The same measurements were recorded after hydrogel pads, at room temperature or cooled to 4 C, were placed for 15 min on the test sites. The environmental DP was recorded at each evaluation time. The SC water-holding capacity was discretely influenced by the DP. In the open-air environmental conditions, a positive linear relationship was found on the cheeks between the DP and DPM values. The relationship was weaker on the lips. Conversely, a consistent increase in DPM values was recorded immediately after removal of the cooled and uncooled hydrogel pads. The observations made in the open-air testing conditions are consistent with the predicted events following the Arrhenius law. By contrast, the combination of cooling and occlusion by the hydrogel pads is responsible for the reverse effect on the SC. [source]


Using dew points to estimate savings during a planned cooling shutdown

METEOROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, Issue 4 2005
Matthew T. Friedlein
In an effort to save money during the summer of 2003, Northern Illinois University (NIU) administrators instituted a four-day working week and stopped air conditioning buildings for the three-day weekends (Friday through Sunday). Shutting down the air conditioning systems caused a noticeable drop in electricity usage for that part of the campus that features in our study, with estimated total electricity savings of 1,268,492 kilowatt-hours or 17% of the average usage during that eight-week period. NIU's air conditioning systems, which relied on evaporative cooling to function, were sensitive to dew point levels. Greatest savings during the shutdown period occurred on days with higher dew points. An examination of the regional dew point climatology (1959,2003) indicated that the average summer daily dew point for 2003 was 14.9C(58.8F), which fell in the lowest 20% of the distribution. Based on the relationship between daily average dew points and electrical usage, a predictive model that could estimate electrical daily savings was created. This model suggests that electrical savings related to any future three-day shutdowns over summer could be much greater in more humid summers. Studies like this demonstrate the potential value of applying climatological information and of integrating this information into practical decision-making. Copyright 2005 Royal Meteorological Society [source]


A Grade Transition Strategy for the Prevention of Melting and Agglomeration of Particles in an Ethylene Polymerization Reactor

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (CET), Issue 7 2005
M. R. Rahimpour
Abstract To satisfy the diverse product quality specifications required by the broad range of polyethylene applications, polymerization plants are forced to operate under frequent grade transition policies. During the grade transition, the reactor temperature must be kept within the narrow range between the gas dew point and the polymer melting point, otherwise the particles melt or agglomerate inside the reactor. In the present study, a dynamic well-mixed reactor model is used to develop a grade transition strategy to prevent melting and agglomeration of particles in an ethylene polymerization reactor. The model predicts the conditions under which the temperature of the reactor is outside the allowable range in continuous grade transition. Manipulation of feed flow and cooling water flow rates has shown that the reactor temperature cannot be maintained within the allowable range. Hence, a semi-continuous grade transition strategy is used for this case so that the temperature is maintained within the allowable range. In addition, several continuous and semi-continuous grade transition strategies for the production of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), medium density polyethylene (MDPE), and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) are compared. [source]


Using dew points to estimate savings during a planned cooling shutdown

METEOROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, Issue 4 2005
Matthew T. Friedlein
In an effort to save money during the summer of 2003, Northern Illinois University (NIU) administrators instituted a four-day working week and stopped air conditioning buildings for the three-day weekends (Friday through Sunday). Shutting down the air conditioning systems caused a noticeable drop in electricity usage for that part of the campus that features in our study, with estimated total electricity savings of 1,268,492 kilowatt-hours or 17% of the average usage during that eight-week period. NIU's air conditioning systems, which relied on evaporative cooling to function, were sensitive to dew point levels. Greatest savings during the shutdown period occurred on days with higher dew points. An examination of the regional dew point climatology (1959,2003) indicated that the average summer daily dew point for 2003 was 14.9C(58.8F), which fell in the lowest 20% of the distribution. Based on the relationship between daily average dew points and electrical usage, a predictive model that could estimate electrical daily savings was created. This model suggests that electrical savings related to any future three-day shutdowns over summer could be much greater in more humid summers. Studies like this demonstrate the potential value of applying climatological information and of integrating this information into practical decision-making. Copyright 2005 Royal Meteorological Society [source]


Numerical model for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with experimental application and validation

ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2009
Javier Alonso Mora
Abstract The aim of this paper is to present a simple 3D computational model of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) that simulates over time the heat distribution, energy, and mass balance of the reactant gas flows in the fuel cell including pressure drop, humidity, and liquid water. Although this theoretical model can be adapted to any type of PEMFC, for verification of the model and to present different analysis it has been adapted to a single cell test fixture. The model parameters were adjusted through a series of experimental tests and the model was experimentally validated for a well-defined range of operating conditions: H2/air O2 as reactants, flow rates of 0.5,1.5 SLPM, dew points and cell temperatures of 30,80 C, currents 0,5 A and with/without water condensation. The model is especially suited for the analysis of liquid water condensation in the reactant channels. A key finding is that the critical current at which liquid water is formed is determined at different flows, temperatures, and humidity. Copyright 2008 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]