Dermatophytes

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Dermatophytes

  • dermatophyte infection
  • dermatophyte infections
  • dermatophyte onychomycosi
  • dermatophyte species

  • Selected Abstracts


    Tinea imbricata or Tokelau

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
    Alexandro Bonifaz MB
    Tinea imbricata (TI) or Tokelau is a superficial mycosis caused by Trichophyton concentricum, an anthropophilic dermatophyte. It is endemic in some islands of the South Pacific (Polynesia), South-East Asia, Central and South America, and Mexico, and is most often seen in individuals living in primitive and isolated conditions. The skin lesions are characteristically concentric and lamellar (imbricata: in Latin, tiled) plaques of scale. Predisposing conditions include humidity, inheritance, and immunologic factors. The diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds, supported by skin scrapings and culture. Tokelau is a chronic and highly relapsing disease and, although no first-line treatment exists, best results are obtained with oral griseofulvin and terbinafine and a topical combination of keratolytic ointments, such as Whitfield's. TI is a disease model that allows the correlation of a series of environmental, genetic, immunologic, and therapeutic conditions. [source]


    Histopathologic evidence of the nondermatophytic mould Scopulariopsis brevicaulis masking the presence of dermatophytes in a toenail infection

    JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 2009
    Catherine M. Stefanato
    Nondermatophytic toenail infection with Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is rare, but may occur often in association with dermatophytes. We report a case of an 84-year-old man who presented with onychomycosis of the big toenail. Histopathologic examination of the avulsed nail showed evidence of S.brevicaulis coinfection with a dermatophyte, despite negative mycology results for the latter. Our case underscores the importance of histopathologic examination of nail specimens as an additional invaluable tool in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, as it may unmask false-negative mycology findings. [source]


    Survey of dermatophytes on clinically normal cats in the southeast of England

    JOURNAL OF SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE, Issue 9 2005
    A. Patel
    Objectives: To report the incidence of dermatophytes on the hair coat of asymptomatic cats in the southeast of England. Asymptomatic cats are often blamed for transmission of dermatophytes between animals and humans. This study may help to clarify whether cats are responsible for the increase in fungal infections among the human population. Methods: A total of 169 clinically healthy cats without any dermatological signs were sampled using the Mackenzie brush technique and cultured for dermatophytes. Thirty cats were from a closed colony and 139 were feral or from domestic households in the southeast of England. Results: The incidence of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in household and feral cats was 2.16 per cent for each dermatophyte. This survey shows little difference in the isolation rates of M canis between the southeast and southwest of England, which was reported on in 1994. Clinical Significance: Given the low number of dermatophytes isolated, asymptomatic cats are unlikely to be responsible for the increasing incidence of human infection. Asymptomatic carriers with T mentagrophytes in the hair coat have not been previously reported and may need to be considered when treating humans with trichophytosis. [source]


    Tinea pedis in European marathon runners

    JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    C Lacroix
    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that 15% of the population in industrial countries suffer from tinea pedis (athlete's foot) and that persons who do sports are a high-risk population. Objective To investigate the responsibility of dermatophytes in interdigital lesions of the feet in European marathon runners and to identify associated risk factors. Subjects and methods Runners of the 14th Médoc Marathon (n = 147) were interviewed on risk factors for tinea pedis and underwent physical and mycological examinations. Results Interdigital lesions of the feet were found in 66 runners (45%). A dermatophyte was isolated in 45 runners (31%), 12 of whom were asymptomatic. Trichophyton interdigitale and T. rubrum accounted for 49% and 35.5%, respectively, of the cases of tinea pedis. Thirty-three (22%) of the 102 runners free of dermatophyte infection had lesions resembling those of tinea pedis. Increasing age and use of communal bathing facilities were predictive of T. rubrum culture. Conclusions Marathon runners are at high risk for tinea pedis, but dermatophytes are responsible for only half of the foot lesions found in runners. The existence of asymptomatic carriers calls for prophylactic measures. [source]


    Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton soudanense mimicking bacterial folliculitis

    MYCOSES, Issue 2 2007
    A. Ghilardi
    Summary We report the case of a 36-year-old Senegalese male with non-scarring alopecia of the scalp, including nodules and pustules, diagnosed as tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton soudanense. This dermatophyte is endemic in Central Africa and is becoming more frequent in Europe because of immigration. It has seldom been isolated in Italy. Tinea capitis is common in childhood and it is rare in adults, in which female sex is preferred. In adults, alopecic patches have to be distinguished from those due to other dermatoses inducing alopecia. [source]


    Antifungal effects of aminosulphoxide and disulphide derivatives

    MYCOSES, Issue 3 2006
    Veerle Wittebolle
    Summary 2-Benzenesulphinyl-(1,4)-naphtoquinone and 14 derivatives were synthesised and were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity against a human myelomonocyte cell line and their antifungal activity against two yeast, i.e. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis and against two filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum and against one dermatophyte, namely Trichophyton tonsurans. The cytotoxicity and antifungal activities were investigated in comparison with amphotericin B as reference drug. No compound was significantly more toxic than amphotericin B at 0.2 ,g ml,1. The best results of antifungal activity were obtained with GFL 10, GFL 13 and GFL 30 on C. tropicalis, F. oxysporum and T. tonsurans. For C. albicans and A. niger, there was no difference between amphotericin B and the other molecules. The sterol quantitation, the time-kill curves were carried out for these three compounds in order to confirm their action in ergosterol synthesis. Time-kill curves showed a fungistatic activity. For C. tropicalis GFL 10, GFL 13 and GFL 30 increased the growth delay better than amphotericin B, in contrast to F. oxysporum. As for T. tonsurans, GFL10 and GFL13 gave a delay, but the effect of GFL 30 was a bit less marked. [source]


    Case reports: tinea corporis in a 13-year-old German girl due to Trichophyton schoenleinii

    MYCOSES, Issue 11-12 2004
    T. C. Roos
    Trichophyton schoenleinii; Tinea corporis Summary We report the first case of a tinea corporis with partly profound lesions in a 13-year-old girl on her arms, legs and trunk due to Trichophyton schoenleinii but without any lesion on scalp and hair. Moreover, this is the first case of an infection with Trichophyton schoenleinii in Germany since more than 40 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopy of mycological specimens. Other causes of the skin symptoms could be excluded (atopic dermatitis, bacterial or other fungal infection). Clinical and epidemiological aspects of this anthropophile dermatophyte are briefly reviewed. Zusammenfassung Wir berichten über den ersten Fall einer Tinea corporis mit teilweise profunden Läsionen bei einem 13jährigen Mädchen an Armen, Beinen und am Stamm verursacht durch Trichophyton schoenleinii. Darüber hinaus ist dies der erste in Deutschland aufgetretene Fall einer Trichophyton schoenleinii Infektion seit über 40 Jahren. Außerdem war es sehr ungewöhnlich, dass die Patientin keine Symptome einer Tinea capitis bzw. eines Haarbefalls, eines Favus oder eines Pseudomyzetoms zeigte, sondern ausschließlich nummuläre, tief excoriierte Läsionen einer Tinea corporis. Die Diagnose wurde kulturell bestimmt. Klinik und Epidemiologie dieses anthropophilen Dermatophyten werden diskutiert. [source]


    Fungal flora of human toe webs

    MYCOSES, Issue 11-12 2002
    C. A. Oyeka
    Dermatomykosen; Zehenzwischenraum; Epidemiologie; Nigeria Summary. A total of 100 young adults (67 males and 33 females) participated in the study. Clinical evaluation showed that only 10 of the volunteers showed some scaling, fissuring and peeling of the toe webs. Four of these complained of occasional itching. Fourteen different genera of fungi were recovered from 78 of the 100 youths screened. Yeasts were recovered from 21 (27%) of the positive cases, nondermatophytes from 38 (49%) and dermatophytes from 19 (24%). Microsporum gypseum was the most commonly recovered dermatophyte. Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichosporon cutanueum were the most frequently recovered nondermatophytic mould and yeast, respectively. More males (62.8%) harboured these organisms than females (37.2%). The study further showed that human toe webs that are apparently healthy harbour a variety of fungi, that may be potential pathogens. Zusammenfassung. An der Studie nahmen 100 freiwillige, junge Erwachsene teil (67 Männer und 33 Frauen). Nur bei 10 zeigten sich Schuppung, Fissuren und Hautablösung im Zehenzwischenraum. Vier davon klagten über gelegentlichen Juckreiz. Von 78 der 100 Probanden wurden 14 verschiedene Pilzgattungen isoliert, Hefen von 21 (27%), Nicht-Dermatophyten von 38 (49%) und Dermatophyten von 19 (24%) Probanden. Microsporum gypseum war der am häufigsten gefundene Dermatophyt, Rhizopus stolonifer der häufigste Schimmelpilz und Trichosporon cutaneum die häufigste Hefe. Männer beherbergten Pilze häufiger als Frauen (63% vs. 37%). Die Studie zeigt, dass auch augenscheinlich gesunde Zehenzwischenräume eine Vielfalt von Pilzen beherbergen, die potentielle Erreger darstellen. [source]


    Photodynamic Treatment of the Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and its Microconidia with Porphyrin Photosensitizers,

    PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Threes G. M. Smijs
    ABSTRACT The application of photosensitizers for the treatment of fungal infections is a new and promising development within the field of photodynamic treatment (PDT). Dermatophytes, fungi that can cause infections of the skin, hair and nails, are able to feed on keratin. Superficial mycoses are probably the most prevalent of infectious diseases in all parts of the world. One of the most important restrictions of the current therapeutic options is the return of the infection and the duration of the treatment. This is especially true in the case of infections of the nail (tinea unguium) caused by Trichophyton rubrum, an anthropophilic dermatophyte with a worldwide distribution. Recently, we demonstrated that 5,10,15-tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) and deuteroporphyrin monomethylester were excellent photosensitizers toward T. rubrum when using broadband white light. This study demonstrates the photodynamic activity of these photosensitizers with red light toward both a suspension culture of T. rubrum and its isolated microconidia. The higher penetration depth of red light is important for the PDT of nail infections. In addition, we tested the photodynamic activity of a newly synthesized porphyrin, quinolino-[4,5,6,7-efg]-7-demethyl-8-deethylmesoporphyrin dimethylester, displaying a distinct peak in the red part of the spectrum. However, its photodynamic activity with red light toward a suspension culture of T. rubrum appeared to be only fungistatic. Sylsens B was the best photosensitizer toward both T. rubrum and its microconidia. A complete inactivation of the fungal spores and destruction of the fungal hyphae was found. In studies into the photostability, Sylsens B appeared to be photostable under the conditions used for fungal PDT. A promising result of this study is the demonstration of the complete degradation of the fungal hyphae in the time after the PDT and the inactivation of fungal spores, both with red light. These results offer the ingredients for a future treatment of fungal infections, including those of the nail. [source]


    Cutaneous infections in the elderly: diagnosis and management

    DERMATOLOGIC THERAPY, Issue 3 2003
    Jeffrey M. Weinberg
    ABSTRACT:, Over the past several years there have been many advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous infectious diseases. This review focuses on the three major topics of interest in the geriatric population: herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), onychomycosis, and recent advances in antibacterial therapy. Herpes zoster in adults is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that causes chickenpox in children. For many years acyclovir was the gold standard of antiviral therapy for the treatment of patients with herpes zoster. Famciclovir and valacyclovir, newer antivirals for herpes zoster, offer less frequent dosing. PHN refers to pain lasting ,2 months after an acute attack of herpes zoster. The pain may be constant or intermittent and may occur spontaneously or be caused by seemingly innocuous stimuli such as a light touch. Treatment of established PHN through pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapy will be discussed. In addition, therapeutic strategies to prevent PHN will be reviewed. These include the use of oral corticosteroids, nerve blocks, and treatment with standard antiviral therapy. Onychomycosis, or tinea unguium, is caused by dermatophytes in the majority of cases, but can also be caused by Candida and nondermatophyte molds. Onychomycosis is found more frequently in the elderly and in more males than females. There are four types of onychomycosis: distal subungual onychomycosis, proximal subungual onychomycosis, white superficial onychomycosis, and candidal onychomycosis. Over the past several years, new treatments for this disorder have emerged which offer shorter courses of therapy and greater efficacy than previous therapies. The treatment of bacterial skin and skin structure infections in the elderly is an important issue. There has been an alarming increase in the incidence of gram-positive infections, including resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and drug-resistant pneumococci. While vancomycin has been considered the drug of last defense against gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria, the late 1980s saw an increase in vancomycin-resistant bacteria, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). More recently, strains of vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA) have been isolated. Gram-positive bacteria, such as S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are often the cause of skin and skin structure infections, ranging from mild pyodermas to complicated infections including postsurgical wound infections, severe carbunculosis, and erysipelas. With limited treatment options, it has become critical to identify antibiotics with novel mechanisms of activity. Several new drugs have emerged as possible therapeutic alternatives, including linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. [source]


    Kerion and dermatophytic granuloma.

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Mycological, histopathological findings in 19 children with inflammatory tinea capitis of the scalp
    Background, Inflammatory tinea capitis or kerion is the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to a dermatophytic infection. Majocchi's granuloma, in contrast, usually begins as a suppurative folliculitis and culminates in a granulomatous reaction. Objectives, To present clinical, mycological and histopathological findings for 19 cases of kerion of the scalp in children. Methods, Nineteen children were investigated (14 boys and five girls) with a mean age of 6.5 years. A potassium hydroxide (KOH) exam and culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar were performed, followed by a biopsy with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-schiff (PAS) and Gomori-Grocott stains. The same investigations were carried out in four control cases of noninflammatory tinea capitis. Results, Clinical history varied from 2 to 16 weeks (mean 6.6 weeks). Diagnosis was confirmed by a positive KOH exam: all cases except one had a positive culture. The following dermatophytes were isolated: Microsporum canis (32%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (27%), Trichophyton tonsurans (21%), Trichophyton rubrum (10%) and Microsporum gypseum (5%). The histopathological findings were: suppurative folliculitis (SF) 11%, SF plus suppurative dermatitis 37%, suppurative and granulomatous dermatitis (SGD) 26% and SGD plus fibrosing dermatitis 26%. Fungi were observed in 63% of the histopathological sections. Perifollicular infiltrates (PF) around the parasitized hair follicles were identified in the four noninflammatory control cases due to M. canis. Conclusions, Kerion Celsi is an inflammatory or suppurative type of tinea capitis caused by zoophylic dermatophytes (M. canis and T. mentagrophytes), but also by antrophophylic (T. tonsurans and T. rubrum) and geophylic (M. gypseum) dermatophytes. Histopathological findings showed a spectrum from mild suppurative folliculitis to dense granulomatous infiltrates without a clear relationship with the clinical features. [source]


    Histopathologic evidence of the nondermatophytic mould Scopulariopsis brevicaulis masking the presence of dermatophytes in a toenail infection

    JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 2009
    Catherine M. Stefanato
    Nondermatophytic toenail infection with Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is rare, but may occur often in association with dermatophytes. We report a case of an 84-year-old man who presented with onychomycosis of the big toenail. Histopathologic examination of the avulsed nail showed evidence of S.brevicaulis coinfection with a dermatophyte, despite negative mycology results for the latter. Our case underscores the importance of histopathologic examination of nail specimens as an additional invaluable tool in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, as it may unmask false-negative mycology findings. [source]


    Subtle intracorneal findings in inflammatory disorders: hyphae or not?

    JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 9 2004
    Sarolta K. Szabo
    Background:, Spongiotic and lichenoid dermatitides are frequently stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains to check for the presence of dermatophytes. PAS+ structures without a septate morphology are often seen with lichenoid dermatitides, however, their nature has not been previously characterized. Methods:, Fifteen consecutive biopsies of lichenoid and five spongiotic dermatitides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), PAS, and antibodies to CD1a. Results:, Twelve of 15 lichenoid and none of the five spongiotic dermatitis showed PAS+ structures in the stratum corneum. Distinct septation or branching was not identified in these PAS+ structures. Eleven of 15 from the lichenoid group, but none from the spongiotic group, showed CD1a+ structures in the stratum corneum. This staining pattern suggests that the intracorneal structures represent the dendritic processes of Langerhans' cells (LCs) within the stratum corneum. Conclusions:, PAS+ and CD1a+ structures are present in the stratum corneum of lichenoid, but not in spongiotic, dermatitis. This study morphologically confirms extension of LC dendrites into the stratum corneum in lichenoid but not in spongiotic dermatitides. [source]


    Trypanocidal and antifungal activities of p -hydroxyacetophenone derivatives from Calea uniflora (Heliantheae, Asteraceae)

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 5 2004
    Andréa Mendes do Nascimento
    The dichloromethane extract of underground parts of Calea uniflora (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) exhibited trypanocidal and antifungal activities. Four p -hydroxyacetophenone derivatives were isolated as the main compounds: 2-senecioyl-4-(hydroxyethyl)-phenol (1), 2-senecioyl-4-(angeloyloxy-ethyl)-phenol (2), and two new derivatives, 2-senecioyl-4-(methoxyethyl)-phenol (3) and 2-senecioyl-4-(pentadecanoyloxyethyl)-phenol (4). 1 and 4 were active towards Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, reducing their number by 70 and 71% at 500 ,g mL,1, whereas 2 and 3 were inactive. All the compounds tested showed antifungal activity with minimal inhibitory concentration values between 500 and 1000 ,g mL,1 against pathogenic Candida spp. and dermatophytes. The isolation, structure elucidation, NMR spectral assignments and bioactivity results of these compounds are reported. [source]


    Survey of dermatophytes on clinically normal cats in the southeast of England

    JOURNAL OF SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE, Issue 9 2005
    A. Patel
    Objectives: To report the incidence of dermatophytes on the hair coat of asymptomatic cats in the southeast of England. Asymptomatic cats are often blamed for transmission of dermatophytes between animals and humans. This study may help to clarify whether cats are responsible for the increase in fungal infections among the human population. Methods: A total of 169 clinically healthy cats without any dermatological signs were sampled using the Mackenzie brush technique and cultured for dermatophytes. Thirty cats were from a closed colony and 139 were feral or from domestic households in the southeast of England. Results: The incidence of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in household and feral cats was 2.16 per cent for each dermatophyte. This survey shows little difference in the isolation rates of M canis between the southeast and southwest of England, which was reported on in 1994. Clinical Significance: Given the low number of dermatophytes isolated, asymptomatic cats are unlikely to be responsible for the increasing incidence of human infection. Asymptomatic carriers with T mentagrophytes in the hair coat have not been previously reported and may need to be considered when treating humans with trichophytosis. [source]


    Tinea pedis in European marathon runners

    JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    C Lacroix
    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that 15% of the population in industrial countries suffer from tinea pedis (athlete's foot) and that persons who do sports are a high-risk population. Objective To investigate the responsibility of dermatophytes in interdigital lesions of the feet in European marathon runners and to identify associated risk factors. Subjects and methods Runners of the 14th Médoc Marathon (n = 147) were interviewed on risk factors for tinea pedis and underwent physical and mycological examinations. Results Interdigital lesions of the feet were found in 66 runners (45%). A dermatophyte was isolated in 45 runners (31%), 12 of whom were asymptomatic. Trichophyton interdigitale and T. rubrum accounted for 49% and 35.5%, respectively, of the cases of tinea pedis. Thirty-three (22%) of the 102 runners free of dermatophyte infection had lesions resembling those of tinea pedis. Increasing age and use of communal bathing facilities were predictive of T. rubrum culture. Conclusions Marathon runners are at high risk for tinea pedis, but dermatophytes are responsible for only half of the foot lesions found in runners. The existence of asymptomatic carriers calls for prophylactic measures. [source]


    Epidemiological and mycological data of onychomycosis in Goiania, Brazil

    MYCOSES, Issue 1 2010
    L. K. H. Souza
    Summary Onychomycosis defined as fungal infection of the nail represents more than 50% of all onychopathies. Epidemiological studies have shown that this mycosis is worldwide in occurrence, but with geographical variation in distribution. The direct microscopy and culture of the nail samples were performed to identify the causative agent. Out of 2273 patients with nail infection examined between January 2000 and December 2004 in Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil, diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed in 1282 cases, with dermatophytes and Candida species being the most common aetiological agents isolated. Dermatophyte onychomycosis was more common in toenails than in fingernails, while onychomycosis caused by yeast had a similar frequency in both toenails and fingernails. Among the species identified, Candida albicans was responsible for 492 cases (38.4%) of onychomycosis, Trichophyton rubrum was found in 327 cases (25.6%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 258 cases (20.1%). Other fungi isolated from nail infections included Aspergillus sp., Trichosporon sp., Geotrichum sp. and Fusarium sp. In our study, yeast of the genus Candida were the dominant cause of onychomycosis in women and dermatophytes were the principal cause of this condition in men. [source]


    Current knowledge of host response in human tinea

    MYCOSES, Issue 4 2009
    J. Brasch
    Summary Skin infection caused by dermatophytes is called tinea. In this short review, the known mechanisms and factors involved in human tinea and important for the host response are briefly delineated. To establish tinea, fungal propagules must attach to the skin, germinate and overcome the epidermal barrier. Keratinases and other enzymes are released in this process and host keratinocytes are activated. This is followed by an inflammatory response mediated by a plentitude of cytokines and receptors, comprising innate as well as acquired immunity, including neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, antibodies and T cells. Cellular defence mechanisms appear to be decisive for clearing of infection. Nails and hair follicles are the particular sites often invaded by dermatophytes that show distinctive patterns of infection. Nails are largely excluded from defence mechanisms and steroid hormones of the pilosebaceous units may have a particular effect on follicular infection. Fungal invasion of the dermis can cause granulomatous reactions. Immune reactions to dermatophytes may lead to sterile eruptions distant from the infected skin areas. [source]


    Trichophyton rubrum autoinoculation from infected nails is not such a rare phenomenon

    MYCOSES, Issue 4 2008
    Jacek C. Szepietowski
    Summary Kerion-like lesions are usually caused by zoophilic dermatophytes. Here, we present a rare case report , an inflammatory tinea barbae due to an anthropophilic fungus (Trichophyton rubrum), which is the main pathogen of onychomycosis and tinea pedis. Probably the infection, in the presented case, spread from diseased fingernails. We do postulate that physicians should consider autoinoculation as a not so rare way of fungal infection transmission. [source]


    Usefulness and pharmacokinetic study of oral terbinafine for hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis

    MYCOSES, Issue 1 2008
    Izumi Kikuchi
    Summary To study and establish an optimal administration method of oral antifungal, terbinafine (TBF), for hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, from the pharmacokinetic point of view, 20 patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were given TBF 125 mg once daily for 4 weeks and observed over time for improvement in dermatological symptoms and mycological efficacy. Targeting five of the patients, TBF concentration in the stratum corneum was measured using the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. TBF was detected in the stratum corneum of the sole 1 week after beginning the treatment in some cases and reached its peak 1 week after the completion of the treatment with a concentration of 247.8 ng g,1, which was approximately more than 50 times higher than its minimal inhibitory concentration against dermatophytes. TBF was not detected at 8 weeks post-treatment, although its concentration was 50.73 ng g,1 at 6 weeks post-treatment. Its effectiveness rate (effective + markedly effective) was 95% (19/20) with no adverse reactions, including abnormal changes in the laboratory test values, in any patient. These results suggest that TBF is a useful drug to treat hyperkeratotic tinea pedis from the pharmacokinetic point of view. [source]


    Dermatophytoses in cats and humans in central Italy: epidemiological aspects

    MYCOSES, Issue 6 2007
    R. Iorio
    Summary Two hundred hair/skin samples were collected from 2002 to 2004 from two groups of cats (privately owned and stray cats from a shelter) and 165 samples were obtained during the same period from persons in whom dermatophyte infection was highly suspected. The epidemiological data were statistically evaluated. Thirteen of the 100 privately owned cats (13%) and 100% of the stray cats were positive; of the 165 human samples examined 109 (66%) were positive for dermatophytes. Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated in both cat groups while Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most common in humans. Interestingly, a geophylic dermatophyte species (Microsporum gypseum) was found to be present and associated with clinical signs. Living in the countryside proved to be a risk factor for dermatophytoses in privately owned cats while in humans the main risk factor for M. canis was contact with animals followed by young age. None of the variables considered was associated with positivity for T. mentagrophytes while positivity for other fungi was correlated with life in the countryside. [source]


    Identification of Microsporum canis from dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in paraffin-embedded veterinary specimens using a common PCR protocol

    MYCOSES, Issue 3 2007
    Simona Nardoni
    Summary The effectiveness of a simple PCR protocol performed on paraffin-embedded tissues, obtained from histopathologically and culturally diagnosed cases of dermatophytic pseudomycetoma DPM was tested. The specimens were investigated using previously described primers (DH1L and DH1R) targeting the 18S rDNA gene and amplifying a 183-bp fragment. Microsporum canis was identified from all samples. The PCR protocol described in the present work demonstrated a 100% concordant result comparing the molecular characterisation with phenotypic characterisation of dermatophytes. Molecular biology could represent a valid identification tool in dermatophytic deep infections, when diagnosis cannot be achieved by cultural methods. [source]


    Trichophyton mentagrophytes of rabbit origin causing family incidence of kerion: an environmental study

    MYCOSES, Issue 5 2006
    P. Van Rooij
    Summary Our laboratory was contacted by a family living directly above a rabbit farm. Both their children had developed a kerion, in consequence of a misdiagnosed superficial mycosis. This study was designed to demonstrate a link between the two kerion cases and the environmental contamination. The degree of contamination was estimated and factors favourising the spread of infection were determined. Dermatophytes were isolated from various environmental sites using Rodac plates. For direct sampling of scalp and fur the brushing technique was used. The farm and home environment initially showed a severe contamination by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. At the farm, cages and surfaces covered with rabbit hair were strongly contaminated. As for the home environment, the dog's basket and clothes from the mother carried a large number of spores. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was identified as responsible agent for the children's kerions and the lesions of the rabbits. Mother, eldest child and dog seemed to be excellent carriers. Cleaning and disinfection measures resulted in a reduction of the overall contamination. The home environment was no longer a source of contamination. Nevertheless, on the farm a fair number of dermatophytes could still be isolated from the wire meshes and roof beams covered with fluff. [source]


    Fungal flora of human toe webs

    MYCOSES, Issue 11-12 2002
    C. A. Oyeka
    Dermatomykosen; Zehenzwischenraum; Epidemiologie; Nigeria Summary. A total of 100 young adults (67 males and 33 females) participated in the study. Clinical evaluation showed that only 10 of the volunteers showed some scaling, fissuring and peeling of the toe webs. Four of these complained of occasional itching. Fourteen different genera of fungi were recovered from 78 of the 100 youths screened. Yeasts were recovered from 21 (27%) of the positive cases, nondermatophytes from 38 (49%) and dermatophytes from 19 (24%). Microsporum gypseum was the most commonly recovered dermatophyte. Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichosporon cutanueum were the most frequently recovered nondermatophytic mould and yeast, respectively. More males (62.8%) harboured these organisms than females (37.2%). The study further showed that human toe webs that are apparently healthy harbour a variety of fungi, that may be potential pathogens. Zusammenfassung. An der Studie nahmen 100 freiwillige, junge Erwachsene teil (67 Männer und 33 Frauen). Nur bei 10 zeigten sich Schuppung, Fissuren und Hautablösung im Zehenzwischenraum. Vier davon klagten über gelegentlichen Juckreiz. Von 78 der 100 Probanden wurden 14 verschiedene Pilzgattungen isoliert, Hefen von 21 (27%), Nicht-Dermatophyten von 38 (49%) und Dermatophyten von 19 (24%) Probanden. Microsporum gypseum war der am häufigsten gefundene Dermatophyt, Rhizopus stolonifer der häufigste Schimmelpilz und Trichosporon cutaneum die häufigste Hefe. Männer beherbergten Pilze häufiger als Frauen (63% vs. 37%). Die Studie zeigt, dass auch augenscheinlich gesunde Zehenzwischenräume eine Vielfalt von Pilzen beherbergen, die potentielle Erreger darstellen. [source]


    Did earthworms contribute to the parasitic evolution of dermatophytes?

    MYCOSES, Issue 9-10 2002
    S. G. Shankar
    Dermatophyten; Regenwurm; Evolution Summary. The survival of dermatophyte species in the gut of four species of earthworms was studied by feeding the fungi to the earthworms. Recovery of the dermatophyte species in culture from the guts was only possible for Microsporum gypseum and Chrysosporium keratinophilum. In the light of these findings, we presume that earthworms could have influenced the parasitic evolution of certain dermatophytes. Zusammenfassung. Vertreter von vier Regenwurmarten wurden mit Dermatophyten-Arten gefüttert und deren Überleben nach Darmpas- sage untersucht. Außer Microsporum gypseum und Chrysosporium keratinophilumüberlebte keine Dermatophyten-Art. Aus diesen Befunden wird gefolgert, dass Regenwürmer die parasitäre Evolution gewisser Dermatophyten beeinflusst haben könnten. [source]


    Antifungal activity of Heterothalamus alienus metabolites

    PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2008
    Adriana del V. Pacciaroni
    Abstract The chemical study of Heterothalamus alienus gave rutin, spathulenol (1), (1R,7S)-germacra-4(15),5,10(14)-trien-1, -ol (2), sakuranetin (3), padmatin 3-acetate (4), (2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin-7,3,,4,-trimethyl ether (5), (2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin-7,4,-dimethyl ether (6), (2R,3R)-3-acetoxy-5,7,4,-trihydroxyflavanone (7), as the main components of an antifungal extract of the aerial parts of the plant. Compound 2 showed moderate activity, with Epidermophyton floccosum being the most susceptible species (MIC = 100 µg/mL); compound 3 showed the best antifungal behavior having a broad spectrum of action and the lowest MICs. This flavanone along with flavanolol 5 showed very good activity against standardized (MIC = 31.2 µg/mL) as well as clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MIC ranges 31.2,62.5 µg/mL and 31.2,125 µg/mL, respectively) and demonstrated not only fungistatic but also fungicide properties. Flavanolol 6 was active against all the dermatophytes tested with MICs of 62.5,250 µg/mL. Rutin, spathulenol (1) and the 3-acetylated flavanones 4 and 7 were inactive or marginally active against the fungal panel. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Screening South Indian medicinal plants for antifungal activity against cutaneous pathogens

    PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 9 2003
    A. Vonshak
    Abstract In this study, twenty-eight South Indian medicinal plants were screened for their anti-fungal activity against six species of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. soudanense, Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata, and C. krusei). Three plant species extracts, Celastrus paniculatus, Eriodendron anfractuosum and Ficus glomerata showed inhibitory activity. An aqueous extract of galls of Terminalia chebula showed inhibitory effects on three dermatophytes (Trichophyton spp.) and three yeasts (Candida spp.). Seeds extract of T. chebula inhibited only the growth of T. glabrata. An aqueous extract of T. chebula showed inhibitory effects higher than those measured in ethanol extracts. It is therefore suggested that tannins are plausible candidates for the anti-dermatophytic effects of T. chebula. Chebulinic acid, a known tannin of T. chebula was tested and found not inhibitory, thus a search for the active compound is needed. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Antifungal activity of Mahonia aquifolium extract and its major protoberberine alkaloids

    PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 7 2003
    Anna Volleková
    Abstract The crude extract of Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae) stem bark and its components berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine were screened for their inhibitory activity against a variety of dermatophytes and two Candida species of human origin using the in vitro dilution agar plate method. Jatrorrhizine was found to be the most effective against all fungal species tested (MIC ranges from 62.5 to 125 µg/mL), while the crude extract, berberine, and palmatine exhibited only marginal activity (MIC 500 to , 1000 µg/mL). Dermatophytes were more susceptible to jatrorrhizine than yeasts, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis appeared the least sensitive species to all the compounds tested. The effects of the alkaloids were compared with those of .uconazole and bifonazole for which the MIC ranges were 12.5 to >100 µg/mL. Our results suggest that jatrorrhizine may serve as a leading compound for further studies to develop new antifungal agents with highly potent antifungal activity and low host toxicity. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Fungicide Activity of 5-(4-Chlorobenzylidene)-(Z)-2-dimethylamino-1,3-thiazol-4-one against Cryptococcus Neoformans

    ARCHIV DER PHARMAZIE, Issue 1 2010
    Braulio Insuasty
    Abstract The present work describes the synthesis and antifungal evaluation of new 5-arylidene-(Z)-2-dimethylamino-1,3-thiazol-4-ones 4a,f, obtained by the reaction of aromatic aldehydes 1 and rhodanine 2 followed by treatment with DMF. All compounds were tested against a panel of yeasts, hialohyphomycetes, and dermatophytes using the microbroth dilution method. Compounds 4a and 4c showed antifungal activity, with compound 4a being the most active one. Compound 4a demonstrated to be fungicidal rather than fungistatic and selective activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. MIC100, MIC80, and MIC50 of 4a were determined against a panel of clinical isolates of C. neoformans showing ranges of MICs between 2 and 16 ,g/mL. [source]


    Antifungal and Antibacterial Activity of the Newly Synthesized 2-Xanthone Derivatives

    ARCHIV DER PHARMAZIE, Issue 1 2009
    Henryk Marona
    Abstract A series of 2-substituted xanthone derivatives 8,20 containing selected allyl, cinnamyl, morpholine, and imidazole moieties were synthesized and tested for their antifungal and antibacterial in-vitro properties. Of the newly synthesized derivatives, ten revealed antifungal activity especially against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the biggest inhibition zones ranged 35 mm for 11 and 13). 2-(3-(Allylamino)propoxy)-9H -xanthen-9-one hydrochloride 9 inhibited growth of all of the examined fungal species. Significant efficacy against evaluated yeasts and dermatophytes was also observed for 6-chloro-2-methyl-9H -xanthen-9-one derivatives 11,13 containing encyclic amine moieties. Additionally, compounds 9, 11, and 12 hindered development of bacteria species but in a lesser degree. They were efficacious against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. [source]