DSS Colitis (dss + colitis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dipeptidyl peptidase expression during experimental colitis in mice

Roger Yazbeck PhD
Abstract Background: We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection. Materials and Methods: Wildtype (WT) and DPIV,/, mice consumed 2% DSS in drinking water for 6 days to induce colitis. Mice were treated with saline or the DP inhibitors Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA or Ile-Thia. DP mRNA and enzyme levels were measured in the colon. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 and GLP-1 concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay, regulatory T-cells (Tregs) by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) on FOXp3+T cells in blood, and neutrophil infiltration assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Results: DP8 and DP2 mRNA levels were increased (P < 0.05) in WT+saline mice compared to untreated WT mice with colitis. Cytoplasmic DP enzyme activity was increased (P < 0.05) in DPIV,/, mice at day 6 of DSS, while DP2 activity was increased (P < 0.05) in WT mice with colitis. GLP-1 (63%) and GLP-2 (50%) concentrations increased in WT+Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA mice compared to day-0 controls. MPO activity was lower in WT+Ile-Thia and WT+Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA treated mice compared to WT+saline (P < 0.001) at day 6 colitis. Conclusions: DP expression and activity are differentially regulated during DSS colitis, suggesting a pathophysiological role for these enzymes in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DP inhibitors impaired neutrophil recruitment and maintenance of the Treg population during DSS-colitis, providing further preclinical evidence for the potential therapeutic use of these inhibitors in IBD. Finally, DPIV appears to play a critical role in mediating the protective effect of DP inhibitors. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010 [source]

Angiopoietin-2 in experimental colitis

Vijay C. Ganta PhD
Abstract Background: The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes leukocyte infiltration, blood and lymphatic remodeling, weight loss and protein enteropathy. The roles of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in initiating gut inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and angiogenesis are not well understood. Methods: Disease activity index, histopathological scoring, myeloperoxidase assay, immunohistochemistry and sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic methods were employed in the present study to addess the roles of Ang-2 in experimental colitis. Results: Several important differences were seen in the development of experimental IBD in Ang-2,/, mice. Although weight change and disease activity differ only slightly in WT and Ang-2,/, + DSS treated mice, leukocyte infiltration, inflammation and blood and lymphatic vessel density is significantly attenuated compared to WT + DSS mice. Gut capillary fragility and water export (stool blood and form) appear significantly earlier in Ang-2,/, + DSS mice vs. WT. Colon lengths were also significantly reduced in Ang-2,/, and gut histopathology was less severe in Ang-2,/, compared to WT + DSS. Lastly, the decrease in serum protein content in WT + DSS was less severe in Ang-2,/, + DSS, thus protein losing enteropathy (PLE) a feature of IBD is relieved by Ang-2,/,. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that in DSS colitis, Ang-2 mediates inflammatory hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and neutrophil infiltration to reduce some, but not all clinical features of IBD. The implications for Ang-2 manipulation in the development of IBD and other inflammatory diseases and treatments involving Ang-2 are discussed. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor elicits bone marrow-derived cells that promote efficient colonic mucosal healing

Eric Bernasconi PhD
Abstract Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy is effective in treating some Crohn's disease (CD) patients and protects mice from colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration. However, its mechanisms of action remain elusive. We hypothesized that GM-CSF affects intestinal mucosal repair. Methods: DSS colitic mice were treated with daily pegylated GM-CSF or saline and clinical, histological, and inflammatory parameters were kinetically evaluated. Further, the role of bone marrow-derived cells in the impact of GM-CSF therapy on DSS colitis was addressed using cell transfers. Results: GM-CSF therapy reduced clinical signs of colitis and the release of inflammatory mediators. GM-CSF therapy improved mucosal repair, with faster ulcer reepithelialization, accelerated hyperproliferative response of epithelial cells in ulcer-adjacent crypts, and lower colonoscopic ulceration scores in GM-CSF-administered mice relative to untreated mice. We observed that GM-CSF-induced promotion of mucosal repair is timely associated with a reduction in neutrophil numbers and increased accumulation of CD11b+ monocytic cells in colon tissues. Importantly, transfer of splenic GM-CSF-induced CD11b+ myeloid cells into DSS-exposed mice improved colitis, and lethally irradiated GM-CSF receptor-deficient mice reconstituted with wildtype bone marrow cells were protected from DSS-induced colitis upon GM-CSF therapy. Lastly, GM-CSF-induced CD11b+ myeloid cells were shown to promote in vitro wound repair. Conclusions: Our study shows that GM-CSF-dependent stimulation of bone marrow-derived cells during DSS-induced colitis accelerates colonic tissue repair. These data provide a putative mechanism for the observed beneficial effects of GM-CSF therapy in Crohn's disease. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010;) [source]

Suppression of experimental colitis in mice by CD11c+ dendritic cells

Joseph E. Qualls PhD
Abstract Background: The innate immune system serves a critical role in homeostasis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Both macrophages (MØs) and dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to have pathogenic roles in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease. However, studies by several labs have established that resident MØs and DCs within the normal GI tract maintain an immunosuppressive phenotype compared to that seen in other peripheral sites. Recent studies by our lab demonstrated that the depletion of both MØs and DCs before the initiation of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis resulted in exacerbation of disease, partly caused by increased neutrophil influx. Methods/Results: In this current report, DSS-induced colitis was shown to be significantly more severe when DCs were selectively depleted in mice as indicated by changes in weight loss, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, and histopathology. In contrast to enhanced colitis in MØ/DC-depleted mice, which was associated with increased neutrophil influx, increased colitis in DC-depleted mice was not associated with an increase in neutrophils in the colon, as shown by CXCL1 chemokine levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. However, increased IL-6 gene and protein expression in colon tissues correlated positively with increased colitis severity in DC-depleted mice compared to colitis in DC-intact mice. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that resident DCs can suppress the severity of acute DSS colitis and that regulation of IL-6 production may contribute to DC-mediated control of intestinal inflammation. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

Interferon-gamma is causatively involved in experimental inflammatory bowel disease in mice

R. Ito
Summary Cytokines may be crucially involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but it remains controversial whether interferon (IFN)-,, a typical proinflammatory cytokine, is an essential mediator to cause the disorders. In the present study, IFN-,,/, and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were fed 2·5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days, in order to investigate DSS-induced intestinal inflammation. The DSS-treated WT mice exhibited a robust production of IFN-, in the gut, a remarkable loss of body weight, as well as high rate of mortality (60%). In striking contrast, IFN-, deficient mice did not develop DSS-induced colitis, as indicated by the maintenance of body weight and survival rate of 100%. Severe intestinal inflammation was demonstrated exclusively in WT animals in terms of the shortening of the bowel as well as the elevation of the disease activity index, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum haptoglobin level. Histological study of DSS-treated WT intestine revealed disruption of mucosal epithelium and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the organ from IFN-,,/, mice remained virtually normal in appearance. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses indicated abundant production of three chemokines, i.e. monokine induced by interferon-, (MIG), interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in the DSS-irritated intestine of WT but not of IFN-,,/, mice. The present results demonstrate clearly that IFN-, plays indispensable roles in the initiation of DSS colitis, and some chemokines are produced in an IFN-,-dependent fashion. [source]