DPPH

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Terms modified by DPPH

  • dpph free radical
  • dpph radical
  • dpph radical scavenging activity
  • dpph scavenging activity

  • Selected Abstracts


    Comparison of xanthine oxidase-inhibiting and free radical-scavenging activities between plant adaptogens of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Rhodiola rosea

    DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 4 2010
    Chi-Ting Horng
    Abstract The present study employed 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and xanthine,xanthine oxidase (XO) assays to compare the antioxidant capacity between two plant adaptogens, Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) and Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae). The IC50 value for XO activity for Rhodiola was 355.4,g/ml, while that for Eleutherococcus was >1,000,g/ml. Eleutherococcus inhibited DPPH generation by 58.32.8% at 1,000,g/ml, whereas Rhodiola inhibited DPPH radical by 91.12.6% at the same concentration. The results suggested that Rhodiola inhibited not only XO but also served as a potent radical scavenger. Rhodiola has potential as a natural source of antioxidants. Drug Dev Res 71:249,252, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Effect of mangiferin on radiation-induced micronucleus formation in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 1 2005
    Ganesh Chandra Jagetia
    Abstract Irradiation causes a variety of lesions in important biomolecules of the cell through generation of free radicals leading to genomic instability. DNA strand breaks, acentric fragments, or defective kinetochores are manifested as micronuclei after the first cell division. Chemicals that can trap free radicals may reduce the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone derived from Mangifera indica (mango), was investigated for its ability to reduce the frequency of radiation-induced micronucleated binucleate cells (MNBNCs) in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). HPBL cultures were pretreated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 ,g/ml of MGN for 30 min before exposure to 3 Gy of 60Co ,-radiation. The maximum decline in radiation-induced micronuclei was observed at a concentration of 50 ,g/ml MGN; thereafter, a nonsignificant elevation in MNBNC frequency was observed at 100 ,g/ml MGN. Since the lowest MNBNC frequency was observed for 50 ,g/ml MGN, dose-response studies were undertaken using this concentration. Irradiation of HPBLs with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy of ,-radiation caused a dose-dependent elevation in the MNBNC frequency, while treatment of HPBLs with 50 ,g/ml MGN 30 min before radiation resulted in significant declines in these frequencies. MGN alone did not alter the proliferation index. Irradiation caused a dose-dependent decline in the proliferation index, while treatment of HPBLs with 50 ,/ml MGN significantly elevated the proliferation index in irradiated cells. MGN treatment reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation in HPBLs in a concentration-dependent fashion. In cell-free studies, MGN inhibited the induction of OH (hydroxyl), O2, (superoxide), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and ABTS+ (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study indicate that MGN possesses radioprotective properties by suppressing the effects of free radicals. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 45:000,000, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Correlation between physicochemical analysis and radical-scavenging activity of vegetable oil blends as affected by frying of French fries

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 8 2006
    Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
    Abstract The main goal of the present work was to compare and correlate the results of physicochemical parameters and antiradical performance of some oil blends during deep-frying, which will be an initial indicator for applying antiradical tests for monitoring deep-frying oils. Two oil blends were prepared. The first blend was a mixture (1,:,1, wt/wt) of sunflower seed oil and palm olein (SO/PO) and the second was a mixture (1,:,1, wt/wt) of cottonseed oil and palm olein (CO/PO). The oil blends were evaluated during intermittent frying of French fries on two consecutive days for 16,h, with oil replenishing after 8,h. Changes in the fatty acid profile and some physicochemical parameters (peroxide value, color index, viscosity, total polar compounds and UV absorbance at 232 and 270,nm) were used to evaluate the alterations during frying. A quick spectrophotometric method was developed to assess deep-frying oil quality. With the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, the neutralization of the stable radical DPPH by antioxidants present in the oil during frying was measured. Radical-scavenging activity (RSA) of both oil blends was recorded during frying, wherein the results showed that the SO/PO blend had the highest RSA. It was evident from the results that a proportional correlation and positive relationship existed between the levels of fatty acids and the physicochemical characteristics of the vegetable oil blends and their RSA. The initial results obtained allow us to suggest that antiradical measurements could be used to quantify the oxidative and hydrolytic deterioration of vegetable oils upon frying. [source]


    The variation of antioxidant activities and chemical composition of essential oils of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale during harvesting stages

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2004
    Ali Yildirim
    Abstract The aerial parts of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale were collected at the budding, ,owering and vegetative stages. In the each stage, essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and steam distillation. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were analysed by GC and GC,MS; 43 different compounds were determined in total, and more than 96% of the essential oils were identi,ed by GC and GC,MS. They contain mainly linalool, , -caryophyllene, 3-octanol, phytol, , -bourbonene and germacrene D. Among the steam distillation oils, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was found at the budding stage and the lowest at the vegetative stage. At all stages, the DPPH radical scavenging activities of hydrodistillation oils were markedly lower than those of steam distillation oils. Steam distillation oils of the budding and ,owering stages showed the highest antioxidant activities. However, steam distillation oils of the vegetative stage in two doses (200 and 400 g) did not show antioxidant activities (p > 0.05, between these and control). None of the hydrodistillation oils showed detectable antioxidant activity. In contrast, in the presence of 400 g hydrodistillation oils of ,owering stage, prooxidant activity was found in the linoleic acid emulsion. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Four New Triterpenes from Anchusa azurea var. azurea

    HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 3 2010
    e Kuruzm-Uz
    Abstract Four new triterpene glycosides, named oleanazuroside 1 (1), oleanazuroside 2 (2), ursolazuroside 1 (3), and ursolazuroside 2 (4), together with the seven known compounds 5,11, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Anchusa azureaMiller var. azurea. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence (UV, IR, MALDI-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR). The radical-scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) of the BuOH extract and of 8 and 10 were very strong (Table,5). [source]


    DPPH (=,2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl,=,2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl) Radical-Scavenging Reaction of Protocatechuic Acid Esters (=,3,4-Dihydroxybenzoates) in Alcohols: Formation of Bis-alcohol Adduct

    HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 4 2006
    Shizuka Saito
    Abstract Protocatechuic acid esters (=,3,4-dihydroxybenzoates) scavenge ca. 5,equiv. of radical in alcoholic solvents, whereas they consume only 2,equiv. of radical in nonalcoholic solvents. While the high radical-scavenging activity of protocatechuic acid esters in alcoholic solvents as compared to that in nonalcoholic solvents is due to a nucleophilic addition of an alcohol molecule at C(2) of an intermediate o -quinone structure, thus regenerating a catechol (=,benzene-1,2-diol) structure, it is still unclear why protocatechuic acid esters scavenge more than 4,equiv. of radical (C(2) refers to the protocatechuic acid numbering). Therefore, to elucidate the oxidation mechanism beyond the formation of the C(2) alcohol adduct, 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester (4), the C(2) MeOH adduct, which is an oxidation product of methyl protocatechuate (1) in MeOH, was oxidized by the DPPH radical (=,2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) or o -chloranil (=,3,4,5,6-tetrachlorocyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione) in CD3OD/(D6)acetone 3,:,1). The oxidation mixtures were directly analyzed by NMR. Oxidation with both the DPPH radical and o -chloranil produced a C(2),C(6) bis-methanol adduct (7), which could scavenge additional 2,equiv. of radical. Calculations of LUMO electron densities of o -quinones corroborated the regioselective nucleophilic addition of alcohol molecules with o -quinones. Our results strongly suggest that the regeneration of a catechol structure via a nucleophilic addition of an alcohol molecule with a o -quinone is a key reaction for the high radical-scavenging activity of protocatechuic acid esters in alcoholic solvents. [source]


    DPPH free-radical scavenging ability, total phenolic content, and chemical composition analysis of forty-five kinds of essential oils

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
    H.-F. Wang
    J. Cosmet. Sci., 59, 509,522 (November/December 2008) Synopsis Forty-five kinds of commonly used essential oils were employed to investigate the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability and total phenolic content of major chemical compositions. The free-radical scavenging ability and total phenolic content of cinnamon leaf and clove bud essential oils are the best among these essential oils. One-half milliliter of cinnamon leaf and clove bud essential oils (10 mg mL EtOH) are shown to be 96.74% and 96.12% of the DPPH (2.5ml, 1.52 10 -4 M) free-radical scavenging ability, respectively. Their EC50 (effective concentrations) are 53 and 36 (,g mL -1). One milligram per milliliter of cinnamon leaf, clove bud, and thyme red essential oils were shown to be 420, 480, and 270 (mg g -1 of GAE) of total phenolic content, respectively. Eugenol in cinnamon leaf and clove bud essential oils (82.87% and 82.32%, respectively) were analyzed by GC-MS. It is clear that the amounts of the phenol compounds in essential oils and the DPPH free-radical scavenging ability are in direct proportion. [source]


    Wine industry residue as antioxidant in cooked chicken meat

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Ligianne Din Shirahigue
    Summary The effectiveness of grape extracts as food ingredient has been tested in various systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of four concentrations of residues of the wine industry in delaying lipid oxidation in processed chicken meat stored under refrigeration. The development of oxidation during the 14-day storage was evaluated through the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method (TBAS). The analyses of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were performed in grape residue extracts through DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-picrilidrazil) method, lipid peroxidation inhibition and Rancimat. The profile of polyphenols was determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Isabel grape extract (IGE) and Niagara grape extract (NGE) showed significant content of phenolic compounds. NGE and IGE had high antioxidant activity. The addition of grape extracts significantly increased the oxidative stability of processed and cooked chicken meat during the storage time. The extracts from both grape varieties when applied in concentrations of 40 and 60 mg of GAE, presented results similar to that of Butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT). [source]


    Evaluation of pre-heating and extraction solvents in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of garlic, and their application in fresh pork patties

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Sung Y. Park
    Summary The objectives of this study were to screen the optimum conditions for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of garlic as affected by pre-heating and different extraction solvents, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of these extracts in ground meat during refrigerated storage. Methanol extracted garlic had a greater total phenolic content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity and reducing power than water extracted one (P < 0.05), whereas the latter had a greater yield and iron chelating ability than the former (P < 0.05). Moreover, water extract from fresh garlic (WEFG) and methanol extract from heated garlic (MEHG) produced an inhibition zone against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The addition of garlic extracts (WEFG, MEHG and their combinations WEFMEHG)) to pork patties decreased the pH, hunter a values (redness), thiobarbituric acid substances values and the number of total plate count and Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05), while the hunter b values (yellowness) increased (P < 0.05). Results of this study indicated that the use of the garlic extracts was able to control lipid oxidation and microbial growth in pork patties. [source]


    Pigment and amylase production in Penicillium sp NIOM-02 and its radical scavenging activity

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
    Mohan Appasaheb Dhale
    Abstract Penicillium sp NIOM-02 was isolated from the marine sediment, produced red pigment. The pigment extracted from this fungus scavenged 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Penicillium sp NIOM-02 grown in media containing corn steep liquor scavenged 72,88% of DPPH radical. During solid-state fermentation on wheat (S1), the fungus produced more pigment (9.232 OD Units). Penicillium sp NIOM-02 grown on sugarcane bagasse scavenged 91% of DPPH radicals. It secreted more amylase (246 U mg,1) in culture medium No. 5 and the zymogram analysis revealed its molecular mass (53 kDa). The taka-amylase like character of amylase was determined by acarbose incorporated studies in the culture media. Production of pigment and radical scavenging activity of Penicillium sp NIOM-02, suggested its applications in food, pharmaceuticals and nutraceutical industries. [source]


    Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activity of five apple cultivars grown under organic and conventional agricultural practices

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Athanasios Valavanidis
    Summary The polyphenols and total antioxidant activities of five apple cultivars, grown by organic and conventional agricultural methods in neighbouring farms, were determined and compared. Total polyphenols in the whole fruit and in the peel were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total antioxidant activity was determined by three established methods, diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). Polyphenolic content for the whole fruit was in the range of 80,196 and for the peel 165,400 (mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight) for both types of agricultural practices. Antioxidant activities of fruit extracts were also relatively similar and well correlated to their polyphenolic content. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the most important polyphenolics (chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B1 and B2, cyaniding 3-galactoside, phloridzin, quercetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-arabinoside) also showed that concentrations do not differentiate significantly between the organic and conventional apples. Statistical significance of differences in antioxidant activities among the same cultivars was relatively small (flesh + peel or peel only) for both types of apples. These results indicate that organic apples do not present higher antioxidant or nutritional value compared with conventionally grown ones, as far as polyphenolic content and total antioxidant activities are concerned. [source]


    Antioxidant activities of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) pericarp and seed extracts

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2008
    Ki Hyeon Sim
    Summary In this study, we examined the antioxidant activities of red pepper (Capsicum annuum, L.) pericarp and red pepper seed extracts. The extracts were evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, [2,2,-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] (ABTS) radical scavenging, ferrous chelating activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reducing power, along with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity by the testing methods. The red pepper pericarp extract exhibited strong ferrous chelating activity and high scavenging activity against free radicals, including both the hydroxyl and DPPH radicals, but it exhibited weaker scavenging activity for the superoxide anion radical and for SOD. In contrast, the red pepper seed extract exhibited strong SOD activity and high scavenging activity against the superoxide anion radical, but showed weaker ferrous chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and DPPH radical scavenging. We observed that the reducing power level and ABTS radical scavenging activity of the red pepper seed were higher than those of the red pepper pericarp at the highest tested concentration. Most of the test results for the red pepper seed and red pepper pericarp extracts increased markedly with increasing concentration; however, the metal chelating, SOD and ABTS radical scavenging activities did not increase with the concentration. Highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were obtained from the red pepper pericarp extracts. Overall, the red pepper seed and red pepper pericarp extracts were highly effective for the antioxidant properties assayed, with the exceptions of ferrous chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging and SOD activity. [source]


    Effect of the side chain size of 1-alkyl-pyrroles on antioxidant activity and ,Laba' garlic greening

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2008
    Dan Wang
    Summary Previous studies showed that 1-alkyl-pyrroles not only occur in fresh food products postulated as a natural antioxidant but also might be involved in garlic greening. In the present study, a series of 1-alkyl-pyrroles with different side chain size were synthesised to study the relationship of structure and antioxidative activity and their effects on ,Laba' garlic greening. The antioxidative activity of these compounds was evaluated by the method of scavenging ABTS, and DPPH,. Results showed that increasing the size of R groups on the side chain, the antioxidative activity decreased gradually against the two radicals. The 1-alkyl-pyrroles generally exhibited stronger scavenging activities against ABTS, than DPPH,. In contrast, their corresponding amino acids except for tyrosine showed almost no antioxidative activities while pyrrole exhibited much weaker activity as compared with the 1-alkyl-pyrroles, suggesting that the 1-alkyl-pyrroles donate H-atom from pyrrole moiety rather than side chain to quench the two radicals. On the other hand, all 1-alkyl-pyrroles can turn newly harvested garlic green but to a different extent. All these results suggested that these pyrrole derivatives occurring in foodstuff played an important role in either protecting foodstuff from oxidation or acting on pigment precursors during ,Laba' garlic greening. [source]


    Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from different parts of Sclerocarya birrea

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Abdalbasit A. Mariod
    Summary The methanolic extracts from Sclerocarya birrea leaves (SCL), roots (SCR), barks (SCB), and kernel oil cake (SCK) were examined for radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. The total phenolics of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method using gallic acid as standard solution. The total phenolic compounds were found as 304.5, 367.5, 593, 148.0 and 258.0 mg g -1 of dry product, respectively. The extracts of SCL, SCR, SCB and SCK were markedly effective in inhibiting the oxidation of linoleic acid and subsequent bleaching of ,-carotene in comparison with the control. Based on oxidation of ,-carotene/linoleic acid, the SCK extract is the most effective followed by SCR, SCL and SCB extract. The antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-,-picrylhydrazyl) method revealed that the SCK extract had the highest antioxidant activity on DPPH free radicals followed by SCB, SCR and SCL extracts. The effect of different extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 70 C was tested in the dark and compared with BHA. The oil peroxide values (PVs) were generally lower with the addition of extract in comparison to a control. [source]


    Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from Diospyros mespiliformis (jackal berry), Flacourtia indica (Batoka plum), Uapaca kirkiana (wild loquat) and Ziziphus mauritiana (yellow berry) fruits

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Ashwell R. Ndhlala
    Summary Four wild fruits, Diospyros mespiliformis, Flacourtia indica, Uapaca kirkiana and Ziziphus mauritiana, were extracted with methanol and analysed for radical-scavenging effect of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, reducing power and anion radical effect on superoxide anion using colorimetric method. There was an increase in the radical-scavenging effect, reducing power and superoxide anion radical-scavenging effect as the concentration of sample increased. Diospyros mespiliformis had high DPPH radical-scavenging capacity. The peels of F. indica and U. kirkiana had higher DPPH radical-scavenging effects, reducing power and superoxide-scavenging effects compared with the pulp while the pulp of Z. mauritiana had high DPPH radical-scavenging effects, reducing power and superoxide-scavenging effects compared with the peel. [source]


    Characterization of blond and Star Ruby (red) Jaffa grapefruits using antioxidant and electrophoretic methods

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Shela Gorinstein
    Summary Antioxidant and electrophoretic methods were used to characterize the quality differences between blond and Star Ruby (red) grapefruits. Dietary fibre, minerals and trace elements, total polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic and ascorbic acids were also determined. The antioxidant potential of red grapefruit was significantly higher than that of the blond fruit (P < 0.05) and correlated well with the total polyphenols (R2 from 0.8456 to 0.9711). In both the cultivars studied, thirty-two electrophoretic bands were detected [sodium dodecyl-polyacrylamide gel eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)]. The main electrophoretic bands occurred between 20 and 43 kDa in both grapefruits with few minor differences between the varieties. Our findings indicate the following (i) red grapefruit is preferable: it has a higher concentration of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential than the blond; (ii) 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test is a more sensitive method for the determination of antioxidant potential; (iii) there are some minor differences in electrophoretic patterns; (iv) antioxidant and electrophoretic methods are a good combination for characterization of differences of the same citrus fruits. [source]


    Radical annihilation of ,-ray-irradiated contact lens blanks made of a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer at elevated temperatures

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Young-Shang Lin
    Abstract The annihilation of the radicals in irradiated 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer was analyzed by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The EPR spectra were deconvoluted into three radicals: a quartet (Ra), a triplet (Rb), and a broad singlet (Rc). Radical Ra was attributed to coupling with a methyl radical and/or a doublet or triplet with about the same hyperfine coupling due to a methylene radical. Radical Rb was due to a methylene radical produced by main-chain scission. Radical Rc was attributed to various free radicals without coupling to protons. By comparing the EPR spectra of radicals Ra, Rb, and Rc with the spectrum of a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) standard with a known spin number, we calculated the spin numbers of the radicals, which decreased with time in the temperature range 25,45C, regardless of the irradiation dose. The annealing of Ra and Rb and the annealing of Rc at longer times followed second-order kinetics; these were different from the kinetics for the color formation and defect-controlled hardening of polymers. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Free radical,scavenging activity and DNA damaging potential of auxins IAA and 2-methyl-IAA evaluated in human neutrophils by the alkaline comet assay

    JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Branka Salopek-Sondi
    Auxins, of which indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most widespread representative, are plant hormones. In addition to plants, IAA also naturally occurs in humans in micromolar concentrations. In the presence of peroxidase, indolic auxins are converted to cytotoxic oxidation products and have thus been proposed for use in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug tumor therapy. Since data on the genotoxicity of IAA and its derivatives are not consistent, here we investigate the early DNA damaging effects (2-h treatment) of the auxins, IAA, and 2-methyl-indole-3-acetic acid (2-Me-IAA) by the alkaline comet assay and compare them with their free radical,scavenging activity measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Human neutrophils are chosen as the test system since they possess inherent peroxidase activity. The results of the comet assay indicate an increase in DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.00 mM of both auxins. Generally, IAA applied in the same concentration had greater potential to damage DNA in human neutrophils than did 2-Me-IAA. The genotoxicities of the two examined auxins are negatively correlated with their antioxidant activities, as measured by the DPPH assay; 2-Me-IAA showed a higher antioxidant capacity than did IAA. We assume that differences in the molecular structure of the tested auxins contributed to differences in their metabolism, in particular, with respect to interactions with peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes in neutrophils. However, the exact mechanisms have to be elucidated in future studies. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 24:165,173, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.20323 [source]


    PHENOLIC COMPOUND CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND RADICAL-SCAVENGING PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SEED COAT OF CERTAIN THAI TAMARIND CULTIVARS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2010
    MANEEWAN SUKSOMTIP
    Methanolic extracts from the seed coats of five major tamarinds (Srichomphu, Sithong-nak, Sithong-bao, Priao-yak and Khanti) cultivated in Thailand were investigated for their content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidative properties. Antioxidative properties were evaluated by various different methods: scavenging effect on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical, anti-lipid peroxidation and reducing power assay. The phenolic compound contents were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Extract of Priao-yak with the highest tannin content showed the strongest reducing power, while extract of Khanti with the highest proanthocyanidin content revealed high scavenging ability on both DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Stronger antioxidative activity measured by most assays was noted for the extract of Sithong-bao with a high content of total phenols, proanthocyanidin and tannins. The results suggest that specific phenolic constituents in the extract could be responsible for the different antioxidant properties observed in different cultivars. Furthermore, seed coat extract of Sithong-bao may be a potential source of natural antioxidant to be developed into nutraceuticals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Components of Tamarindus indica L., a tree indigenous to India and South-East Asia, have long been used as a spice, food component and traditional medicine. According To traditional medicine, the tamarind pulp is used as a digestive, carminative, laxative, expectorant and blood tonic; the seeds are used as an anthelmintic, antidiarrheal and emetic. In addition, the seed coat is used to treat burns and aid wound healing as well as as an antidysenteric. Recent studies have demonstrated polyphenolic constituents with more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. indica seed coat extract. Therefore, seed coat extracts of T. indica have economic potential for development into health promotion products as well as natural preservatives to increase the shelf life of food by preventing lipid peroxidation. [source]


    FREE RADICAL-SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT CHITIN OLIGOSACCHARIDES LEAD TO ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT IN LIVE CELLS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2010
    DAI-NGHIEP NGO
    ABSTRACT Chitin oligosaccharides (NA-COS) with low molecular weight distribution of 229.21,593.12 Da were produced from crab chitin by acid hydrolysis. They showed reducing power and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO), hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. It was observed that the radical-scavenging activity of NA-COS increased in a dose-dependent manner. Their IC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals were 0.8, 1.75 and 1.14 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, NA-COS exhibited the inhibitory effect on the oxidative damage of DNA from human lymphoma U937 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA) and the direct radical-scavenging effect in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) (American Type Culture Collection) in 2,,7,-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay (Molecular Probes Inc., Eugene, OR). The results suggest that NA-COS can exert antioxidant effect in live cells and have the potential to be applied to food supplements or nutraceuticals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Chitin oligosaccharides (NA-COS) are the hydrolyzed products of chitin (KEUMHO chemical products Co. Ltd., Gyeongbuk, Korea) of which derivatives have shown antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects. According to previous studies, NA-COS have beneficial biological activities similar to those of chitin. Furthermore, they are easily soluble in water because of their shorter chain length. Therefore, NA-COS are potentially applicable to improve food quality and human health. [source]


    ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT FLORAL ORIGIN HONEYS FROM TURKIYE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2010
    ESRA ULUSOY
    ABSTRACT The bioactivities of phenolic extracts of nine Turkish honeys from different floral sources were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were assessed by ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay. The total phenolic contents measured by Folin,Ciocalteau method varied from 66 to 223 mg/g extract as gallic acid equivalent. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ranged from 124.8 to 532 mol/g, those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 84 to 296 g/mL, and those determined with FRAP expressed as trolox equivalent were in 33,166 mol/g range. The antioxidant activities showed a marked correlation with total phenolics. In the antimicrobial tests using six bacteria and a yeast, Escherichia coli was moderately sensitive to each extract. There was no correlation between antimicrobial activity and total phenolic contents. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Honey has functional properties and promotes human health, and such properties depend largely on the floral source. Although studies on screening the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of raw honey samples have been done densely, studies on phenolic compounds of honey are very limited. The present study demonstrates that honey phenolic compounds are partially responsible for honey antioxidant activity, displaying the relevance of honey as both healthy foodstuff and source of antioxidant. [source]


    ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN PEEL AND PULP OF CHINESE JUJUBE (ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA MILL) FRUITS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2009
    ZIPING XUE
    ABSTRACT Total phenolic contents in peel and pulp of the fruits of three Chinese jujube cultivars (Ziziphus jujuba cv. mayazao, Z. jujuba cv. dongzao and Z. jujuba cv. yuanzao) were determined. The antioxidant activities in peel and pulp of the jujube fruits were measured by different methods, including 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). The total phenolic content in peel was five to six times higher than that in the pulp of all the three cultivars. The phenolics contents in the jujube were different with cultivars. The EC50 (Concentration of lyophilized samples needed to decrease the initial DPPH radical concentration by 50%), FRAP and TEAC values of the peel and pulp were remarkably correlated to their total phenolic contents (R = ,0.922, R = 0.985 and R = 0.997, respectively). The results indicated that the high capacity of antioxidant of Chinese jujube fruit could be attributed to the high phenolic contents in the fruit. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS There was an expanding quest surrounding the use of antioxidant because they have the capacity to protect from the damage because of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. However, the safety of synthetic antioxidant was challenged. Much attention has been focused on the use of natural antioxidant. Interest in food phenolics had increased greatly because of their antioxidant and possible promoting-health role in human health. In this study, total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities in vitro of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) peel and pulp were researched. The work would help to explore a natural antioxidant for possible application in food and dietary supplemental products for health promotion. [source]


    ESR SPECTROSCOPY INVESTIGATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PROTECTIVE EFFECT ON HYDROXYL RADICAL-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE OF ENZYMATIC EXTRACTS FROM PICRORRHIZA KURROA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2008
    SOUNG-HEE CHOI
    ABSTRACT The potential antioxidant activity of enzymatic extracts from Picrorrhiza kurroa was evaluated on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and alkyl radical-scavenging activities using an electron spin resonance spectrometer (JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). P. kurroa was enzymatically hydrolyzed by seven carbohydrases and five proteases to prepare water-soluble extracts. The DPPH radical-scavenging activities of the pancreatic trypsin and Amyloglucosidase (AMG) (artificial carbohydrase by Novozyme Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) extracts from P. kurroa were the highest among protease and carbohydrase extracts, and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were 35.58 and 29.03 g/mL, respectively. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of the Protamex and Viscozyme extracts from P. kurroa were the highest scavenging activities, and the IC50 values were 0.46 and 1.89 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Protamex and Maltogenase extracts from P. kurroa showed the highest alkyl radical-scavenging activities, and the IC50 values were 18.03 and 10.66 g/mL, respectively. The protective effect of the Protamex extracts from P. kurroa on DNA damage which was free radical-induced was 92% at 3 mg/mL. These results indicate that enzymatic extracts of P. kurroa show potent antioxidant activity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Picrorrhiza kurroa could be used to produce protein and carbohydrate extracts with antioxidative activity. Many industrial commercial enzymes such as Promozyme, Celluclast 1.5 L FG, Maltogenase L, Viscozyme L, Termamyl SC, Dextrozyme E, AMG 300 L, Protamex, Flavourzyme 500 MG, Neutrase 0.8 L, Pancreatic Trypsin and Alcalase 2.4 L could be also used to attain the extracts processing the high antioxidative activity. The extracts can be used as natural antioxidants. [source]


    CHRACTERIZATION AND 1,1-DIPHENYL-2-PICRYLHYDRAZYL RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF METHANOL AND SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTS FROM LEAVES OF ADINANDRA NITIDA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2008
    BENGUO LIU
    ABSTRACT Leaves of Adinandra nitida are consumed in southern China as health tea (Shiyacha) and as herbal medicine. In this study, the methanol and supercritical fluid extracts from leaves of A. nitida were obtained by traditional solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, respectively. Both the extracts showed high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. By using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV), infrared spectrometry (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography-ESI/MS, the main bioactive constituents in the methanol extract (ME) were identified as camellianin A, camellianin B, apigenin. By analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a total of 16 compounds accounting for 98.79% of the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) were identified as ,-sitosterol, vitamin E, ,-tocopherol and so on. These compounds found in ME and SFE could contribute to the DPPH radical scavenging performance of the extracts in this study. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Adinandra nitida is a kind of particular wild plant in South China. Few reports have been published about it in the world. In this study, the methanol and supercritical fluid extracts from leaves of A. nitida were respectively obtained by two kinds of industrially significant methods, traditional solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. By using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV), infrared spectrometry (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography-ESI/MS, gas chromatography-MS, the main bioactive constituents in the two extracts were identified as flavonoids and plant sterols. Both the extracts showed high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and this activity of the flavonoid-rich methanol extract was 10 times more than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. These results showed that leaves of A. nitida is a new kind of natural antioxidant-rich, flavonoid-rich plant source with great commercial interest in the food and phytopharmaceutical market. [source]


    EFFECT OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE ON NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TOMATO FRUIT (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICON L.) DURING STORAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2 2010
    MENG WANG
    ABSTRACT The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on postharvest quality and nutritional compounds in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon Mill.) fruit during storage was determined. The green mature tomato was exposed to 1 L/L 1-MCP for 24 h. Thereafter, the fruit were stored at 20C and 85,95% relative humidity for 20 days. The results indicated that 1-MCP treatment significantly delayed the decrease of firmness, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity, inhibited the increase of weight loss, and suppressed the rise in respiration rate and ethylene production. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment also inhibited the lycopene accumulation and chlorophyll degradation. Ascorbic acid and soluble phenolic contents in 1-MCP-treated fruit were significantly higher than those in the control fruit. 1-MCP treatment enhanced the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. These results suggested that 1-MCP can be used as a commercial technology due to its ability to improve nutritional value of tomato fruit as well as to delay fruit ripening. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Tomato fruit are often harvested at mature green stage to minimize damage during transport to market, and then allowed to ripen before or during presentation in retail outlets. A limitation to marketing of tomato fruit is the time that ripe fruit remain in an acceptable condition for consumers. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can extend the storage life and improve postharvest quality of tomato fruit. Recently, nutritional quality is of increasing interest to the consumers because of their potential health benefits in protecting against various diseases. However, the effects of 1-MCP on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruit are still unclear and need to be more precisely determined. This study can provide information on the effect of 1-MCP treatment on postharvest quality and nutritional compounds in tomato fruit during storage. The results could be applicable to improve the quality and nutritional value of tomato fruit for commercial purpose. [source]


    EFFECT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON THE BIOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF STORED LONGAN FRUIT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2009
    G. CHENG
    ABSTRACT Longan fruits were stored for 6 days in atmosphere of 5, 21 (air) or 60% O2 (balance N2) at 28C and 90,95% relative humidity to examine effects of low and high O2 concentration on enzymatic browning and quality attributes of the fruit. Changes in pericarp browning, pulp breakdown, disease development, total phenol content, activities of phenol metabolism-associated enzymes, relative leakage rate, ,,, -diphenyl- , -picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and contents of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were evaluated. Storage of fruit in a 5% O2 atmosphere markedly delayed pericarp browning in association with maintenance of high total phenolic content and reduced activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase. Moreover, the fruit stored in a 5% O2 atmosphere exhibited a lower relative leakage rate and higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than fruit stored in air. This presumably was beneficial in maintaining compartmentation of enzymes and substrates, and thus, reducing pericarp browning. Pulp breakdown and disease development were also reduced by exposure to a 5% oxygenatmosphere. On the contrary, exposure of longan fruit to a 60% O2 atmosphere accelerated pericarp browning, pulp breakdown and decay development. PPO and POD activities and relative leakage rate were similar for control and 60% O2 -treated fruit after 4 and 6 days of storage. Furthermore, treatment with 60% O2 significantly decreased the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity of fruit. In addition, exposure to 5 or 60% O2 resulted in a higher level of total soluble solids, but a lower level of ascorbic acid of longan fruit flesh. In conclusion, exposure to a 5% O2 atmosphere showed great potential to reduce pericarp browning and extend shelf life of longan fruit. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Pericarp browning and pulp breakdown are the major causes of deterioration in postharvest longan. Conventional controlled atmosphere with low O2 and high CO2 is effective in maintaining quality and extending shelf life of fruits and vegetables, including inhibition of tissue browning. In this study, 5%-controlled atmosphere reduced significantly pericarp browning, pulp breakdown and rot development. It could potentially be useful as a postharvest technology of longan fruit for reducing or replacing the use of chemicals such as SO2 and fungicides, but it requires further investigation. [source]


    In Vitro,Potential of,Ascophyllum nodosum,Phenolic Antioxidant-Mediated ,-Glucosidase and ,-Amylase Inhibition

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
    E. Apostolidis
    ABSTRACT:,Ascophyllum nodosum,is a brown seaweed that grows abundantly in the Northeast coastal region. In this study, the potential of,A. nodosum,for type 2 diabetes management through antioxidant-mediated ,-glucosidase and ,-amylase inhibition was investigated. After the initial screening of 4 locally harvested seaweeds,,A. nodosum,was chosen for its highest phenolic content and was subjected to water extraction. Among extraction ratios of 50 g to 100 to 1000 mL at room temperature, 50 g/400 mL yielded the highest phenolic content of 4.5 mg/g wet weight. For evaluation of extraction temperature ranging from 20 to 80 C, 50 g/400 mL was chosen as a minimum amount of extractant. Among temperatures studied, extraction at 80 C resulted in the highest total phenolic contents (4.2 mg/g wet weight). All extracts had similar levels of antioxidant activity in the range of 60% to 70% in terms of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. The 80 C extract had the highest ,-glucosidase and ,-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.24 and 1.34 ,g phenolics, respectively, compared to the IC50 of acarbose, reference inhibitor, being 0.37 and 0.68 ,g. The results show that fresh,A. nodosum,has strong ,-glucosidase and mild ,-amylase inhibitory activities that correlated with phenolic contents. This study suggests a nutraceutical potential of,A. nodosum,based on phytochemical antioxidant and antihyperglycemia activities. [source]


    The Potential Antioxidant Capacity and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Monascus -Fermented Soybean Extracts: Evaluation of Monascus -Fermented Soybean Extracts as Multifunctional Food Additives

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
    Y.-H. Pyo
    ABSTRACT:, The potential antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of Monascus -fermented soybean extracts (MFSE) were investigated. The average antioxidant capacities of 70% ethanol extracts from soybean after fermenting for 15 d at 30 C were increased by a 5.2 to 7.4-fold (0.26 mM trolox equivalent/g dry weight, 91.7% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] radical scavenging effect at 3 mg/mL) when compared with those of the unfermented soybean extracts (P < 0.01). The potentially significant antioxidant properties of MFSE are associated with its content of bioactive mevinolins (r= 0.85) and isoflavone aglycones (r= 0.98), which were derived from the soybean during Monascus -fermentation. It was also found that the water extract having a molecular mass 1 to 3 kDa showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (65.3%), which was remarkably greater (6.5 times) than the control. [source]


    Changes in Radical-scavenging Activity and Components of Mulberry Fruit During Maturation

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2006
    Tomoyuki Oki
    ABSTRACT Extracts of mulberry fruits (Morus sp.) were prepared from 8 cultivars harvested at 4 stages of maturity, and their radicalscavenging activity, anthocyanin content, and total phenolic content were measured. The radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by a spectrophotometric assay using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in a 96-well microplate. Mulberry fruit extracts exhibited the DPPH-scavenging activities, ranging from 2.5 to 20.3 ,mol-Trolox equiv/g-FW. Their activities were variable during maturation, and the highest activity was observed in the fully mature mulberry fruit in all cultivars. Anthocyanin was scarcely present in the immature mulberry fruits; however, its content increased as the fruit matured in all cultivars. On the other hand, all immature mulberry fruits contained non-anthocyanin phenolic compound. An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection of DPPH-scavenging compounds revealed the difference in predominant radical scavengers between the immature and fully mature stages in the Miran 5 cultivar. Four major radical scavengers in the Miran 5 cultivar were assigned to 2 caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid and its isomer) and 2 anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside) in the immature and fully mature stages, respectively, by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The change in the content of 4 compounds in mulberry fruits during maturation demonstrated that the most likely contributors to the DPPH-scavenging activity were caffeoylquinic acids in the immature mulberry and anthocyanins in the mature and fully mature mulberry. [source]


    Antioxidative Activity and Safety of 50% Ethanolic Red Bean Extract (Phaseolus radiatus L. var. Aurea)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
    S.-T. Chou
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the antioxidative activities of 50% ethanolic extract from red bean (Phaseolus radiatus L. var. Aurea). The antioxidative activities, including ,,,-diphenyl-,-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging effects, Fe2+ -chelating ability, and reducing power, were studied in vitro. The antioxidative activity was found to increase with the concentration of the extract to a certain extent and then level off as the concentration further increased. Compared with commercial antioxidants, the red bean extract showed less scavenging effect on the DPPH radical and less reducing power than ,-Tocopherol and BHT, but better Fe2+ -chelating ability. No mutagenic effect toward any tester strains was found in the 50% ethanolic extract of red bean. [source]