Curriculum Design (curriculum + design)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Practicing Change: Curriculum Adaptation and Teacher Narrative in the Context of Mathematics Education Reform

ABSTRACT The use of reform-based curricula is one possible avenue for the widespread implementation of mathematics education reform. In this article, we present two urban elementary teachers' models of curriculum use that describe how each teacher used a reform-oriented mathematics curriculum. In particular, we examine when and how the teachers made adaptations to the curriculum. We find that each teacher had a distinctive pattern of adaptation when using the curriculum. Furthermore, these patterns were related to three key aspects of the teachers' own experiences with mathematics: their early memories of learning mathematics, their current perceptions of themselves as mathematics learners, and their mathematical interactions with family members. Implications for curriculum design and implementation are discussed. [source]

Complexity and the Culture of Curriculum

William E. Doll
Abstract This paper has two main foci: (1) the history of curriculum design, and (2) implications from the new sciences of chaos and complexity for the development of new forms of curriculum design and teaching implementation. Regarding the first focus, the paper posits that there exist,to use Wittgenstein's phrase,,family resemblances' between Peter Ramus' 16th century curriculum design and that of Ralph Tyler in the 20th century. While this 400-year linkage is by no means linear, there are overlapping strands from Ramus to Comenius to the Puritans to colonial New England to Horace Mann to Ralph Tyler. What unites these strands, all belonging to the Protestant Methodization movement that swept across northern Europe into colonial America and the USA, is the concept of Method. Taylor's ,time and motion' studies set the stage for Tyler's Basic Principles of curriculum design,those starting with set goals and concluding with measured assessment. The second focus draws on the new sciences of chaos and complexity to develop a different sense of curriculum and instruction,open, dynamic, relational, creative, and systems oriented. The paper concludes with an integration of the rational/scientific with the aesthetic/spiritual into a view of education and curriculum informed by complexity. [source]

Managing the curriculum , for a change

M. Manogue
Abstract:, This article reports the model used to design a new dental curriculum, the design process used and its underlying rationale. The evidence base for the process is reviewed and discussed. Some suggestions are offered for those engaged in developing new curricula. The main conclusions drawn are that the design process needs to be managed openly and democratically; the alignment model is the most appropriate for designing dental curricula; the process of curriculum design is inextricably linked to organisational development; and the concepts of learning organisations, communities of practice and culture all have their part to play in the process of introducing deep innovations, such as new curricula'. [source]

Advanced Heritage Learners of Spanish: A Sociolinguistic Profile for Pedagogical Purposes

Irma Alarcón
Abstract: This article reports on an extensive survey administered to advanced heritage language (HL) learners to examine their language behaviors, attitudes, and backgrounds. To date, there have been no detailed categorizations of advanced HL learners to guide classroom instruction and curriculum design. Thus the present study is a first attempt to fill this gap by providing a sociolinguistic profile of these speakers, including their identifying characteristics, linguistic needs, and similarities and differences with lower-proficiency speakers. Survey responses indicate that advanced HL learners possess both productive and receptive skills in the HL, always use Spanish at home, are fluent speakers of a standard variety, already have basic academic skills in Spanish, and are therefore primarily interested in perfecting their academic writing skills. [source]

Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure: psychometric testing with Chinese nursing students

Jian Wang
Abstract Title.,Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure: psychometric testing with Chinese nursing students. Aim., This paper is a report of the psychometric testing of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure with Chinese nursing students. Background., Although the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure has been widely used to measure educational environments in the healthcare professions, no psychometric evaluation of the measure with Chinese nursing students has been reported. Method., Data from 214 nursing students were collected during a 2-month period between December, 2004 and January, 2005. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability and Cronbach's alpha were examined. Results., Five factors were found by principal components analysis with Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization rotation. The original factor names were maintained, but items in each factor changed. These five factors all achieved eigenvalues >1, and in total accounted for 52·186% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0·623 to 0·9 across factors, with an overall alpha of 0·949. Conclusion., The Chinese version of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure could be a valuable measurement for nursing educators in professional development programmes and nursing curriculum design. Further studies need in different Chinese nursing schools and larger sample sizes to be conducted to validate its stability and factor structure. [source]

Transversal traits in science education research relevant for teaching and research: A meta-interpretative study

J. Bernardino Lopes
Abstract This study is a meta-interpretative analysis that focuses on research conducted and published by other researchers. Concepts central to this study include global practical relevance, curriculum design, and formative situation. We analyzed 35 studies selected from 374 published studies in the years 2000 and 2001 in three journals referenced in the International Scientific Index. Using a replicable methodology developed specifically for this research, we found evidence of s clusters of variables that suggest the existence of transversal traits in the 35 science education research studies. These results form a reference framework of theoretical and practical knowledge relevant for research and practice pertaining to teaching and learning science. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 45: 574,599, 2008 [source]

Towards valid measures of self-directed clinical learning

Tim Dornan
Aim, To compare the validity of different measures of self-directed clinical learning. Methods, We used a quasi-experimental study design. The measures were: (1) a 23-item quantitative instrument measuring satisfaction with the learning process and environment; (2) free text responses to 2 open questions about the quality of students' learning experiences; (3) a quantitative, self-report measure of real patient learning, and (4) objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and progress test results. Thirty-three students attached to a single firm during 1 curriculum year in Phase 2 of a problem-based medical curriculum formed an experimental group. Thirty-one students attached to the same firm in the previous year served as historical controls and 33 students attached to other firms within the same module served as contemporary controls. After the historical control period, experimental group students were exposed to a complex curriculum intervention that set out to maximise appropriate real patient learning through increased use of the outpatient setting, briefing and supported, reflective debriefing. Results, The quantitative satisfaction instrument was insensitive to the intervention. In contrast, the qualitative measure recorded a significantly increased number of positive statements about the appropriateness of real patient learning. Moreover, the quantitative self-report measure of real patient learning found high levels of appropriate learning activity. Regarding outpatient learning, the qualitative and quantitative real patient learning instruments were again concordant and changed in the expected direction, whereas the satisfaction measure did not. An incidental finding was that, despite all attempts to achieve horizontal integration through simultaneously providing community attachments and opening up the hospital for self-directed clinical learning, real patient learning was strongly bounded by the specialty interest of the hospital firm to which students were attached. Assessment results did not correlate with real patient learning. Conclusions, Both free text responses and students' quantitative self-reports of real patient learning were more valid than a satisfaction instrument. One explanation is that students had no benchmark against which to rate their satisfaction and curriculum change altered their tacit benchmarks. Perhaps the stronger emphasis on self-directed learning demanded more of students and dissatisfied those who were less self-directed. Results of objective, standardised assessments were not sensitive to the level of self-directed, real patient learning. Despite an integrated curriculum design that set out to override disciplinary boundaries, students' learning remained strongly influenced by the specialty of their hospital firm. [source]

This Isn't Kansas Anymore, Toto: Team Teaching Online

Gabriele Strohschen
Collaborative teaching in an online environment offers unique opportunities and challenges for creative curriculum design and student learning. [source]

Seven issues to consider when designing training curricula

Jennie Phillips MA
Most organizations focus on one-off training solutions to address a single workplace learning need at a single time rather than integrating learning and nonlearning interventions to help staff develop increasingly complex levels of expertise specific to their jobs. Curriculum is a long-term, integrated approach to training in which workers take several related courses over a period of time. This article presents seven design issues that distinguish curriculum design from course design. [source]

New horizons in simulation training for endoscopic surgery

D. King
Abstract In recent years there has been both a paradigm shift in the way surgery is carried out and also in the way in which we train health professionals undertaking interventional procedures. Endoscopic procedures have replaced many traditional operations and the benefits of such an approach to patient care are well documented. However, evidence exists of higher patient complications during a surgeon's learning curve in endoscopic surgery, and it is now considered essential that endoscopic skills are learned in training laboratories rather than on patients. A new model of structured education, where surgical skills are practiced on models and virtual reality simulators, is set to replace the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Simulation is a rapidly evolving field that can provide a safe and increasingly realistic learning environment for trainees to practice in. This paper explores the current role of simulation in endoscopic training and provides a review of the developments in the field, including advances in simulation technology, progress in curriculum design and the use of simulation in nontechnical skills training. [source]

Contemporary issues in dental education in Australia

TJ Freer
Abstract Australia has witnessed a proliferation of dental workforce training opportunities over the last 15 years, including dentists, dental therapists, dental hygienists and prosthetists. The reasons for this have not been examined critically. Universities have welcomed the opportunities to increase the student base but do not seem to have examined the advisability of continued expansion or its impact on the delivery and costs of health services. Nor have they enquired expressly whether they have any responsibility in these matters. Public health benefits should constitute a significant element of curriculum design. There seems to have been a general acceptance of the premise that more is necessarily better. Ironically, these developments have occurred in the face of significant recurrent cost increments and serious academic staff shortages. The schools have responded with alterations to curriculum content. Student cohort composition, course structures, educational focus, postgraduate training and research have been affected. The primary purpose of this review is to highlight the issues which currently drive workforce training and curriculum content and to suggest that some current practices should be re-examined as a starting point for setting defined common objectives within the Australian dental educational spectrum. Salient issues which require examination include course standards and accreditation, workforce mix, dental health demands, public service obligations and staffing profiles. [source]

From rural beginnings to statewide roll-out: Evaluation of facilitator training for a group-based diabetes prevention program

Clare Vaughan
Abstract Objective:,To evaluate the approach used to train facilitators for a large-scale group-based diabetes prevention program developed from a rural implementation research project. Participants:,Orientation day was attended by 224 health professionals; 188 submitted the self-learning task; 175 achieved the satisfactory standard for the self-learning task and attended the workshop; 156 completed the pre- and post-training questionnaires. Main outcome measures:,Two pre- and post-training scales were developed to assess knowledge and confidence in group-based diabetes prevention program facilitation. Principal component analysis found four factors for measuring training effectiveness: knowledge of diabetes prevention, knowledge of group facilitation, confidence to facilitate a group to improve health literacy and confidence in diabetes prevention program facilitation. Self-learning task scores, training discontinuation rates and satisfaction scores were also assessed. Results:,There was significant improvement in all four knowledge and confidence factors from pre- to post-training (P < 0.001). The self-learning task mean test score was 88.7/100 (SD = 7.7), and mean assignment score was 72.8/100 (SD = 16.1). Satisfaction with training scores were positive and ,previous training' interacted with ,change in knowledge of diabetes prevention program facilitation' but not with change in ,confidence to facilitate.' Conclusions:,The training program was effective when analysed by change in facilitator knowledge and confidence and the positive mean satisfaction score. Learning task scores suggest tasks were manageable and the requirement contributed to facilitator self-selection. Improvement in confidence scores in facilitating a group-based diabetes prevention program, irrespective of previous training and experience, show that program-specific skill development activities are necessary in curriculum design. [source]

Aligning learning, teaching and assessment using the web: an evaluation of pedagogic approaches

Richard Hall
Biggs has argued that teaching is most effective when it supports those activities appropriate to understanding the curriculum objectives. This paper uses Biggs' argument to analyse how a UK higher education initiative, the Chic project, has promoted learning and teaching innovation that supports collaborative, inclusive learning by integrating on-line and face-to-face delivery. Methods by which assessments, teaching processes and learning objectives can be aligned are discussed. The author identifies two project approaches to the utilisation of on-line materials within curriculum design. Staff and student questionnaires and interviews are evaluated in order to assess whether these processes promote a reflexive approach to learning. Such reflexivity depends upon stimulating the learner's emotional involvement and active engagement in undertaking achievable tasks. The paper argues that an integrated approach to on-line learning and teaching can be used to promote students' critical use, understanding and application of materials. Moreover, it is argued that this can be liberating for staff and students as long as there is a shared vision and experience upon which to act. Promoting motivation within a supportive and meaningful context is fundamental. [source]

Drifters and the Dancing Mad: The Public School Music Curriculum and the Fabrication of Boundaries for Participation

ABSTRACT Recent reforms in the general music curriculum have, for the most part, failed to lessen the attrition rates of African Americans from public school music programs. In this article I assert that an embodied ideal of cultural nobility, exemplified by Auguste Rodin's famous statue, The Thinker, has unconsciously operated as a template for participation. As a model comportment in the Western musical tradition, The Thinker has a broader relevance insofar as other school subjects emerged from similar cultural ideals. Beginning with the early period of public music instruction up to the present, I examine the construction of racial boundaries by linking a specific body comportment hailed as worthy by the music curriculum to historically constructed notions of Whiteness. This issue has been underexplored in research in both music and general education. For that reason, this article examines overlapping systems of reasoning about music, comportment, class, religion, language, nationality, and race in professional and popular texts from the early 1800s to the present. This positions public music instruction as authored, not by pedagogical insight alone, but through changes in musical taste, social practices, strategies of governing populations, and definitions of worthy citizenship. There are three levels of analysis. The first is a personal account of the early manifestations of attrition of African Americans from school music programs. The second level of analysis brings the problem of equity into proximity with the tradition of genteel comportment that permeated the training of the good ear or listener and the fabrication of the bona fide citizen. These, I argue are congruent with the historical construction of Whiteness as a standard mark of worthiness. At the third level of analysis, I take up present-day curriculum designs. This section discusses how the language of the music curriculum continues to draw boundaries for participation through protocols that regulate musical response. Here, I argue that the exclusion of popular genres such as hip-hop should be rethought in light of the evidence that shifting historical definitions for music fabricated an overly restrictive template for comportment, recognizing the prototype of Whiteness as the sole embodiment of merit. [source]