Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient (cronbach + alpha_coefficient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Measuring job satisfaction of UK pharmacists: a pilot study

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY PRACTICE, Issue 4 2007
Professor Karen Hassell chair in social pharmacy
Objective To review the UK published literature on pharmacy job satisfaction, in order to describe and assess the strengths of their methods and the findings and to validate an existing instrument to measure work satisfaction, with a sample of locum pharmacists. Method A literature review of relevant databases was used to identify UK studies exploring any aspect of job, role, career or work satisfaction. A search of the grey literature was also undertaken. A satisfaction scale, the Warr-Cook-Wall scale, previously used with general practitioners (GPs), was adapted and administered to a sample of locum pharmacists (n = 175, response rate = 75%). Validity and reliability analyses were undertaken in SPSS v13. Key findings Three articles, two reports, one thesis abstract and one conference abstract were identified through the search. The findings of the review indicate that the way in which pharmacist satisfaction has been measured to date renders it difficult to determine historical trends or make cross-sectoral comparisons. A Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.90 was obtained for the job satisfaction scale, indicating that the job satisfaction scale is a satisfactory and reliable tool for use with this group of pharmacists. In terms of substantive findings, these suggest that locum pharmacists in general derive high levels of job satisfaction and higher levels than those reported by GPs. Conclusion Limited evidence is available regarding pharmacists' job satisfaction in the UK. The review highlights the need for a universal, multifaceted measure of satisfaction. The findings of this study suggest that the Warr-Cook-Wall satisfaction scale has very high reliability and is suitable for use with pharmacists without any further amendments. Although the study suggests relatively high satisfaction scores in this group of pharmacists, it would be instructive to determine the applicability of the job satisfaction measure and to explore the satisfaction levels of pharmacists in a wide range of roles and sectors, to determine relative levels of satisfaction. [source]


Patients' satisfaction with outpatient psychiatric care

JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 2 2003
U. SIPONEN
The purpose of this study was to describe patient satisfaction with outpatient psychiatric care in two community care clinics in Finland. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 300 outpatients between February and March 2000. A total of 171 patients returned completed questionnaires (response rate 57%). The data analysis was based on descriptive statistics, chi-square test, the Mann,Whitney U -test and the Kruskal,Wallis test. Item homogeneity was analysed using Cronbach alpha coefficient. The results showed that patient satisfaction was highest in areas pertaining to staff and care discussions, and lowest in areas pertaining to information. Patients who considered the wait for treatment to be too long were more dissatisfied with staff, their chance of influencing their own care, and the help they received, compared with patients who considered the wait to be reasonable in length. We can conclude that although patients are quite satisfied with their outpatient treatment in general, the patient information process is not at a satisfactory level at outpatient psychiatric clinics. In the future, more emphasis should be put on developing more innovative methods to increase psychiatric patients' knowledge level regarding their own illness and treatment. [source]


The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Activities and Participation Questionnaire (CFS-APQ): An overview

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2005
Dr Jo Nijs
Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe fatigue and a reduction in activity levels. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of design, reliability, and validity of the CFS Activities and Participation Questionnaire (CFS-APQ). The CFS-APQ was constructed based on a retrospective analysis of the Karnofsky Performance Status Questionnaire and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (n = 141). In a reliability study of 34 participants the test-retest reliability coefficient of the CFS-APQ was 0.95. In two different studies, the Cronbach alpha coefficient for internal consistency varied between 0.87 (n = 88) and 0.94 (n = 47). The CFS-APQ was administered to 47 patients who listed 183 activities that had become difficult due to their chronic symptoms, and 157 (85.8%) answers matched the content of the CFS-APQ. The outcome of a cross-sectional study (n = 88) studying the correlations between the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 Health Status Survey subscale scores and the CFS-APQ supported the validity of the CFS-APQ. The CFS-APQ scores correlated with a behavioural assessment of the patients' performance of activities encompassed by the questionnaire (r = 0.29,0.55; n = 63), and correlated with exercise capacity parameters (r = 0.26,0.39; n = 77) obtained during a maximal exercise capacity stress test. Finally, the CFS-APQ correlated with visual analogue scales for pain (r = 0.51) and fatigue (r = 0.50; n = 47). It is concluded that the CFS-APQ generates reliable and valid data, and can be used as a clinical measure of disease severity in patients with CFS. Future studies should aim at examining the sensitivity of the CFS-APQ. Copyright © 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


Poorly performing physicians: Does the script concordance test detect bad clinical reasoning?,

THE JOURNAL OF CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS, Issue 3 2010
François Goulet MD
Abstract Introduction Evaluation of poorly performing physicians is a worldwide concern for licensing bodies. The Collège des Médecins du Québec currently assesses the clinical competence of physicians previously identified with potential clinical competence difficulties through a day-long procedure called the Structured Oral Interview (SOI). Two peer physicians produce a qualitative report. In view of remediation activities and the potential for legal consequences, more information on the clinical reasoning process (CRP) and quantitative data on the quality of that process is needed. This study examines the Script Concordance Test (SCT), a tool that provides a standardized and objective measure of a specific dimension of CRP, clinical data interpretation (CDI), to determine whether it could be useful in that endeavor. Methods Over a 2-year period, 20 family physicians took, in addition to the SOI, a 1-hour paper-and-pencil SCT. Three evaluators, blind as to the purpose of the experiment, retrospectively reviewed SOI reports and were asked to estimate clinical reasoning quality. Subjects were classified into 2 groups (below and above median of the score distribution) for the 2 assessment methods. Agreement between classifications is estimated with the use of the Kappa coefficient. Results Intraclass correlation for SOI was 0.89. Cronbach alpha coefficient for the SCT was 0.90. Agreement between methods was found for 13 participants (Kappa: 0.30, P = 0.18), but 7 out of 20 participants were classified differently in both methods. All participants but 1 had SCT scores below 2 SD of panel mean, thus indicating serious deficiencies in CDI. Discussion The finding that the majority of the referred group did so poorly on CDI tasks has great interest for assessment as well as for remediation. In remediation of prescribing skills, adding SCT to SOI is useful for assessment of cognitive reasoning in poorly performing physicians. The structured oral interview should be improved with more precise reporting by those who assess the clinical reasoning process of examinees, and caution is recommended in interpreting SCT scores; they reflect only a part of the reasoning process. [source]


Psychometric data for teacher judgments regarding the learning behaviors of primary grade children

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 3 2002
Edward G. Crosby
The psychometric properties of the Classroom Performance Profile (CPP), a teacher rating scale, were investigated using primary grade children from economically at-risk families. Students were rated as they progressed from kindergarten through third grade. The CPP demonstrated high internal consistency yielding Cronbach alpha coefficients for the total score of at least .96. CPP ratings were correlated with scores from the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery,Revised: Tests of Achievement and the Social Skills Rating System,Teacher Form, Elementary Level. Results suggest that the CPP ratings were positively correlated with measures of academic achievement, academic competence, and social skills, and negatively correlated with problem behaviors. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Validity assessment of the Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Health Belief scale

CANCER, Issue 21 2009
Mfon Cyrus-David MBBS
Abstract BACKGROUND: Women at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) are not widely accepting of chemopreventive interventions, and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in related trials. Furthermore, there is no validated instrument to assess the health-seeking behavior of these women with respect to these interventions. METHODS: By using constructs from the Health Belief Model, the authors developed and refined, based on pilot data, the Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Health Belief (BCRRHB) scale using a population of 265 women at increased risk of BC who were largely medically underserved, of low socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnic minorities. Construct validity was assessed using principal components analysis with oblique rotation to extract factors, and generate and interpret summary scales. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach alpha coefficients. RESULTS: Test-retest reliability for the pilot and final data was calculated to be r = 0.85. Principal components analysis yielded 16 components that explained 64% of the total variance, with communalities ranging from 0.50-0.75. Cronbach alpha coefficients for the extracted factors ranged from 0.45-0.77. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that the BCRRHB yields reliable and valid data that allows for the identification of barriers and enhancing factors associated with use of breast cancer chemoprevention in the study population. These findings allow for tailoring treatment plans and intervention strategies to the individual. Future research is needed to validate the scale for use in other female populations. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]


The adult sense of coherence scale is applicable to 12-year-old schoolchildren,an additional tool in health promotion

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 8 2006
Päivi-Leena Honkinen
Abstract Background: Two principal operationalizations of sense of coherence (SOC) for the study of adults have been developed, one consisting of 29 and another consisting of 13 items. According to these studies, SOC is associated with various aspects of perceived health. Also, a 16-item scale for determining SOC in young children (,10 y) is available. It is unclear from which age on SOC can be studied by using any of the scales for adults. Aim: To determine whether the 13-item SOC scale for adults is applicable to children 12 y of age. Methods: Comparable data of SOC had been collected by a mail survey directed to adults (mean age 36 y, n=706) in 1985. Twelve-year-old children filled in questionnaires in school class in 1997 (n=994). Results: SOC score range, mean, median and standard deviation (SD), and Cronbach alpha coefficients of the total SOC scale were almost identical in children and adults. Conclusion: The 13-item SOC scale aimed at adults is applicable to children of 12 y of age or older. The SOC scale could be a useful additional tool for identifying children with perceived health deficits potentially in need of supportive interventions. [source]


Reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 9 2008
Sverre Bergh
Abstract Objective The Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) is developed to test cognitive function in patients with dementia of moderate to severe degree. We have conducted a study to assess the inter-rater reliability and the validity of the Norwegian version of SIB. Methods The reliability study comprised 30 patients, and the validity study 59 patients in nursing homes. We assessed Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the scale and the inter-rater reliability for the total SIB score and its nine sub scores between two testers by means of the Spearman's correlation coefficients. In the validity study we compared the SIB scores with the scores on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. Results The mean SIB score was 72.10 (SD 25.37). The Cronbach's alpha was 0.97, and the inter-rater reliability of total SIB score was Spearman's rho 0.85, and ranged from 0.46 to 0.76 for the nine sub-scores. The mean SIB score for patients with a CDR score,<,2 was 84.2(13.4), whereas total scores for patients with CDR 2 and 3 were 74 (18.9) and 48.4 (33.3), respectively. A cut-off point of 80.5 points gave the highest accuracy in discriminating between patients with CDR 2 and CDR 3, while a cut-off point of 87.5 best discriminated between CDR,<,2 and CDR 3. Conclusion The study indicates that the Norwegian version of SIB is a reliable and valid test with which to evaluate the cognition in patients with dementia of moderate to severe degree. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Cigarette dependence questionnaire: development and psychometric testing with male smokers

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 10 2010
Chih-Ling Huang
huang c.-l., lin h.-h. & wang h.-h. (2010) Cigarette dependence questionnaire: development and psychometric testing with male smokers. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(10), 2341,2349. Abstract Aim., This paper is a report of a study conducted to develop and test a theoretically derived Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire for adult male smokers. Background., Fagerstrom questionnaires have been used worldwide to assess cigarette dependence. However, these assessments lack any theoretical perspective. A theory-based approach is needed to ensure valid assessment. Methods., In 2007, an initial pool of 103 Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire items was distributed to 109 adult smokers in Taiwan. Item analysis was conducted to select items for inclusion in the refined scale. The psychometric properties of the Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire were further evaluated 2007,08, when it was administered to 256 respondents and their saliva was collected and analysed for cotinine levels. Criterion validity was established through the Pearson correlation between the scale and saliva cotinine levels. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test construct validity. Reliability was determined with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and a 2-week test,retest coefficient. Results., The selection of 30 items for seven perspectives was based on item analysis. One factor accounting for 44·9% of the variance emerged from the factor analysis. The factor was named as cigarette dependence. Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire scores were statistically significantly correlated with saliva cotinine levels (r = 0·21, P = 0·01). Cronbach's alpha was 0·95 and test,retest reliability using an intra-class correlation was 0·92. Conclusion., The Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire showed sound reliability and validity and could be used by nurses to set up smoking cessation interventions based on assessment of cigarette dependence. [source]


Validity of an instrument to measure the impact of valve heart disease on the patient's daily life

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 7 2007
Kátia Melissa Padilha RN
Aim., This study was to verify the psychometric properties of the Heart Valve Disease Impact on daily life, an instrument for measuring the impact of illness in the daily life of the heart valve disease patient, related to its construct validity, criterion-related validity and reliability. Methods., One hundred and twenty heart valve disease outpatients were enrolled. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis, factor analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results., The factor analysis generated four factors that explained 58% of the variance in response to the Heart Valve Disease Impact on daily life. Weak to moderate correlation was measured between the Heart Valve Disease Impact on daily life total score and two of its factors and the General Measure of Impact of illness, indicating criterion-related validity. A Cronbach's alpha of 0·74 was measured. Conclusion., The results of the current study confirm both the construct and criterion validity and the internal consistency of the Heart Valve Disease Impact on daily life. Future studies are necessary to confirm its reliability and provide a better understanding of the meaning of the Heart Valve Disease Impact on daily life dimensions, as well as to evaluate its response to health interventions. Relevance to clinical practice., The Heart Valve Disease Impact on daily life could be a useful instrument to measure the impact of heart valve disease and to evaluate the response to health interventions. [source]


Psychometric testing of the Leadership and Management Inventory: a tool to measure the skills and abilities of first-line nurse managers

JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 7 2008
BERNICE SKYTT MSc
Aim, To estimate the validity and reliability of the Leadership and Management Inventory, a tool to measure the skills and abilities of first-line nurse managers. Background, The decision to develop an inventory reflects the need for an instrument that can measure the various skills and abilities first-line nurse managers should possess. Method, Factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency initially estimated on data from 149 registered nurses; a second sample of 197 health care personnel was used to test these results. Results, Principal component analysis of the first sample resulted in a preferred three-factor solution that explained 65.8% of the variance; Cronbach's alpha coefficient varied between 0.90 and 0.95. Analysis of the second sample also resulted in a three-factor solution that explained 64.2% of the variance; Cronbach's alpha coefficient varied from 0.88 to 0.96. For both samples, the factors were labelled ,interpersonal skills and group management', ,achievement orientation' and ,overall organizational view and political savvy'. Conclusion, Results indicate that estimates of validity and reliability for the Leadership and Management Inventory can be considered acceptable. Implications for nursing management, The Leadership and Management Inventory can be used when first-line nurse managers' leadership and management skills and abilities are to be measured. [source]


Measuring Nursing Power Within Organizations

JOURNAL OF NURSING SCHOLARSHIP, Issue 2 2003
Christina L. Sieloff
Purpose: To describe the Sieloff-King Assessment of Departmental Power (SKADP) instrument and the psychometric evaluation of both the SKADP and its revision: the Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations (SKAGPO) instrument. Design: A survey of 357 chief nurse executives in the United States to psychometrically evaluate the SKAGPO. Methods: Psychometric evaluation of the SKAGPO included: (a) internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, split-half with the equal-length Spearman Brown Correction Formula, and item analysis; (b) concurrent criterion-related validity; and (c) factor analysis. Findings: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the SKAGPO was.92. Subscales' alphas ranged from.63 to.88. Item-total correlations ranged from.24 to.68, with an average item-total correlation of.48 (n = 334). Concurrent criterion-related validity was supported. Conclusions: The SKAGPO and the related subscales showed initial reliability and validity. [source]


The 14-item Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test: translation and validation study of the Malaysian version

PRACTICAL DIABETES INTERNATIONAL (INCORPORATING CARDIABETES), Issue 6 2010
HK Al-Qazaz MSc
Abstract The aims of this study were to translate the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (MDKT) into the Malaysian language, and to examine the psychometric properties of the Malaysian version. A standard translation procedure was used to create the Malaysian version of the MDKT from the original English version. A convenience sample of 307 outpatients with type 2 diabetes was identified between May and October 2009. All data were collected from the Penang General Hospital, Penang, Malaysia. Instruments consisted of the Malaysian version of the MDKT and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Medical records were reviewed for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and other clinical data. Reliability was tested for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Employing the recommended scoring method, the mean±SD of MDKT scores was 7.88±3.01. Good internal consistency was found (Cronbach's alpha = 0.702); the test-retest reliability value was 0.894 (p<0.001). For known group validity, a significant relationship between MDKT categories and HbA1c categories (chi-square = 21.626; p,0.001) was found. The findings of this validation study indicate that the Malaysian version of the MDKT is a reliable and valid measure of diabetes knowledge which can now be used in clinical and research practice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. [source]


Illusions in advanced cancer: The effect of belief systems and attitudes on quality of life

PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
G.F. Beadle
Patients with advanced cancer frequently express positive attitudes and can be unduly optimistic about the potential benefits of treatment. In order to evaluate an illusory domain in the context of advanced cancer, we developed a scale of will to live and characterized the beliefs that patients held about the curability of their cancer, and how committed they were to using alternative treatments. A measure of quality of life was used as the dependent variable in order to assess the association between these attributes. After a preliminary exploration confirmed the presence of an illusory domain, these concepts were prospectively tested in 149 ambulant patients with advanced cancer who attended for palliative systemic treatment, radiation treatment or supportive care. The scale of global quality of life was reliable (Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.72). The distribution of the scores of will to live was skewed, with no respondent scoring poorly, and the scale was reliable (Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.82). The scale of belief in curability showed diverse beliefs. In some cases, there was a discrepancy between respondents' beliefs in curability and what they believed to be the report by their doctors. There was also an association between a committed use of alternative treatments and a belief in the curability of the cancer (p<0.001). In a multiple regression analysis, both will to live and performance status remained associated with better quality of life scores after adjustment for other relevant variables (p<0.05 and <0.001, respectively). These results suggest that positive illusory beliefs can be measured and are an important component of adaption for some patients with advanced cancer. Furthermore, this illusory domain may influence the perception and measurement of quality of life. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Development and validation of the psychosomatic scale for atopic dermatitis in adults

THE JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
Tetsuya ANDO
ABSTRACT Psychosocial factors play an important role in the course of adult atopic dermatitis (AD). Nevertheless, AD patients are rarely treated for their psychosomatic concerns. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a brief self-rating scale for adult AD in order to aid dermatologists in evaluating psychosocial factors during the course of AD. A preliminary scale assessing stress-induced exacerbation, the secondary psychosocial burden, and attitude toward treatment was developed and administered to 187 AD patients (82 male, 105 female, aged 28.4 ± 7.8, 13,61). Severity of skin lesions and improvement with standard dermatological treatment were assessed by both the dermatologist and the participant. Measures of anxiety and depression were also determined. In addition, psychosomatic evaluations were made according to the Psychosomatic Diagnostic Criteria for AD. Factor analysis resulted in the development of a 12-item scale (The Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis; PSS-AD) consisting of three factors: (i) exacerbation triggered by stress; (ii) disturbances due to AD; and (iii) ineffective control. Internal consistency indicated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.86 for the entire measure, 0.82 for (i), 0.81 for (ii), and 0.77 for (iii), verifying the acceptable reliability of PSS-AD. Patients with psychosomatic problems had higher PSS-AD scores than those without. PSS-AD scores were positively associated with the severity of the skin lesions, anxiety and depression. The scores were negatively associated with improvement during dermatological treatments. In conclusion, PSS-AD is a simple and reliable measure of the psychosomatic pathology of adult AD patients. It may be useful in dermatological practice for screening patients who would benefit from psychological or psychiatric interventions. [source]


Methodological considerations of measuring disability in bipolar disorder: validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning

BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 1-2 2007
Stefanie Berns
Objective:, Recent studies have highlighted the prevalence, severity and persistence of the disability associated with bipolar disorder (BPD). Reliable instruments are needed to support research into the factors associated with disability and treatment response. Contextual factors (e.g., availability of supported employment programs) can affect functionality, posing a challenge to such investigations. We present preliminary findings regarding the validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning (MSIF) in BPD. The MSIF provides discrete ratings of support separate from both role responsibility and performance quality in work, residential and educational environments. These distinctions allow the ,correction' for variability explained by contextual factors that allows the comparison of studies conducted in different environments and time. Methods:, Participants with BPD were administered the MSIF, the Social Adjustment Scale II (SAS-II) and an interview recording objective data regarding work, school and residential activities as part of an ongoing longitudinal study of BPD disability. Results:, Construct validity estimated using standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.76 (n = 58). MSIF global ratings were significantly lower (reflecting higher functionality) for subjects engaged in productive activity compared with participants who were not active (t = ,3.6, p = 0.001) demonstrating external validity. Inter-rater reliability estimates ranged from 0.86 to 0.99 (n = 49). Significant, high correlations were demonstrated between comparable MSIF and SAS-II global ratings (criterion validity = 0.70,0.79) and low correlations were found between non-comparable ratings (discriminant validity = ,0.07 to ,0.35) (n = 14). Conclusion:, We conclude that the MSIF is a valid and reliable instrument optimally designed for studying determinants of disability and treatment response in BPD. [source]


Validity and reliability study for the NEI-VFO-39 scale in chronic ophthalmic diseases , Turkish version

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
Emine Iyigun
Abstract. Purpose:, To test the reliability and validity of National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-39) in patients with glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Methods:, The study was carried out on 210 patients and 51 control subjects. The data were collected by using a data collection form and NEI-VFQ-39. Statistical analyses were performed with spss for Windows version 15.0. Results:, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.96 for the whole group. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was between 0.97 and 0.56 for the subscales. There was a strong relationship (r > 0.80) in 12.8% with dual correlation in NEI-VFQ-39 global scales and subscales and their correlations in all participant groups. There was a statistically significant difference for the NEI-VFn global and subscale scores between the control and patient groups except for general health and ocular pain. Conclusions:, We found that the NEI-VFQ-39 was a valid and reliable scale to determine the quality of life in Turkish patients with chronic ophthalmic disease. [source]


Nurses' perceptions of individualized care

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 5 2010
Riitta Suhonen
suhonen r., gustafsson m.-l., katajisto j., välimäki m. & leino-kilpi h. (2010) Nurses' perceptions of individualized care. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(5), 1035,1046. Abstract Title.,Nurses' perceptions of individualized care. Aim., This paper is a report of a study of nurses' perceptions of individualized care, the factors associated with these perceptions, and nurses' perceptions of the provision of individualized care in different types of healthcare organization. Background., Although individualized care has been an internationally-challenging and long-standing research topic in nursing, the current literature on individualized care from the perspective of nurses is limited. Methods., A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory design using a questionnaire (Individualised Care Scale,Nurse) was employed to survey a stratified sample of 544 nurses (response rate 59%) working as Registered or Enrolled Nurses in one hospital district in Finland in 2008. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (General Linear Model, one-way analysis of variance) and Cronbach's alpha coefficients for reliability analysis. Results., Nurses perceived that they supported patient individuality well and that the care they provided took into account patient individuality. Based on the General Linear Model, nurses' background variables were not associated with their perceptions of individualized care delivery. However, between-organization differences were found in all study variables: mental health ward nurses had the most positive perceptions, and nurses working in primary health centre long-term care wards the lowest. Conclusion., Healthcare organizations and work environments need to be evaluated as they may have an influence on individualized care provision. The Individualised Care Nurse instrument is sensitive to healthcare working environments and can be used in evaluating nurses' perceptions of individualized care. [source]


The Norwegian version of the American pain society patient outcome questionnaire: reliability and validity of three subscales

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 15 2008
Alfhild Dihle MSc
Aims and objectives., To examine some psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the American Pain Society's Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-N). Background., This study is part of an investigation of Norwegian orthopaedic surgical patients, where the overall aim is to evaluate the quality of postoperative pain management. Therefore, an adequate questionnaire on the quality of postoperative pain management was needed. Methods., The sample included 114 orthopaedic postoperative patients. The instrument consists of three main subscales, namely the modified Brief Pain Inventory (modified BPI subscale), the subscale on satisfaction with pain management (Satisfaction subscale) and the subscale on beliefs about pain management (Beliefs subscale), together with six single items about pain management. The reliability of these three main subscales was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients and the construct validity was evaluated using principal-axis factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results., Face and content validity of the APS-POQ-N were satisfactory, while the modified BPI and the Beliefs subscales showed acceptable internal consistency but the Satisfaction subscale did not. Factor analyses yielded a three-factor solution for the modified BPI, a one-factor solution for the Satisfaction subscale and a two-factor solution for the Beliefs subscale. Conclusions., The APS-POQ-N appears, in general, to be an acceptable method of evaluating postoperative pain management in orthopaedic postoperative patients. However, the alpha value of the Satisfaction subscale was low, and thus the subscale is not recommended for this purpose. Relevance to clinical practice., Reliable and valid instruments are important when performing clinical research. This instrument is applicable as an indicator of quality of postoperative pain management in clinical practice and research. [source]


Psychometric Analysis of the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM)

JOURNAL OF NURSING SCHOLARSHIP, Issue 1 2010
Anndrea Flint RN, MHSc(HSM)
Abstract Purpose: To undertake rigorous psychometric testing of the newly developed contemporary work environment measure (the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure [B-PEM]) using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Methods: Content validity of the 33-item measure was established by a panel of experts. Initial testing involved 195 nursing staff using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation (orthogonal) and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using data from a further 983 nursing staff. Results: Principal component factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution with eigenvalues greater than 1 that explained 52.53% of the variance. These factors were then verified using confirmatory factor analysis. Goodness-of-fit indices showed an acceptable fit overall with the full model, explaining 21% to 73% of the variance. Deletion of items took place throughout the evolution of the instrument, resulting in a 26-item, four-factor measure called the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure-Tested. Conclusions: The B-PEM has undergone rigorous psychometric testing, providing evidence of internal consistency and goodness-of-fit indices within acceptable ranges. The measure can be utilised as a subscale or total score reflective of a contemporary nursing work environment. Clinical Relevance: An up-to-date instrument to measure practice environment may be useful for nursing leaders to monitor the workplace and to assist in identifying areas for improvement, facilitating greater job satisfaction and retention. [source]


Is the Full Version of the AUDIT Really Necessary?

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
Internal Construct of Its Abbreviated Versions, Study of the Validity
Background:, This study was aimed at assessing the psychometric qualities of the abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-3, AUDIT-4, AUDIT-C, AUDIT-PC, AUDIT-QF, FAST, and Five-Shot) and at comparing them to the 10-item AUDIT and the CAGE in 2 samples of Brazilian adults. Methods:, The validity and internal consistency of the scales were assessed in a sample of 530 subjects attended at an emergency department and at a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used as the diagnostic comparative measure for the predictive validity assessment. The concurrent validity between the scales was analyzed by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results:, The assessment of the predictive validity of the abbreviated versions showed high sensitivity (of 0.78 to 0.96) and specificity (of 0.74 to 0.94) indices, with areas under the curve as elevated as those of the AUDIT (0.89 and 0.92 to screen for abuse and 0.93 and 0.95 in the screening of dependence). The CAGE presented lower indices: 0.81 for abuse and 0.87 for dependence. The analysis of the internal consistency of the AUDIT and its versions exhibited Cronbach's alpha coefficients between 0.83 and 0.94, while the coefficient for the CAGE was 0.78. Significant correlations were found between the 10-item AUDIT and its versions, ranging from 0.91 to 0.99. Again, the results for the CAGE were satisfactory (0.77), although inferior to the other instruments. Conclusions:, The results obtained in this study confirm the validity of the abbreviated versions of the AUDIT for the screening of alcohol use disorders and show that their psychometric properties are as satisfactory as those of the 10-item AUDIT and the CAGE. [source]


Quality of life of patients with ovarian cancer in Taiwan: validation and application of the Taiwan Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-OV28

PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
Wei-Chu Chie
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Taiwan Chinese Version of the EORTC QLQ-OV28. Methods: The authors translated the questionnaire according to the guideline of the EORTC. A total of 96 patients with ovarian cancer in National Taiwan University Hospital were interviewed with the questionnaire and the EORTC QLQ-C30 between September 2004 and September 2007. Answer distribution and psychometric properties of the EORTC QLQ-OV28 were examined. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54 (standard deviation 12 years). Most of the patients were in FIGO stages III or IV. Two thirds were on-treatment (chemotherapy). Items for gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, menopausal symptoms, and sexuality showed more flooring effects than others. Missing values were frequent in further questions about sexual activity. After excluding conditional questions, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients of most scales were satisfactory (0.74,0.89), except other chemotherapy side effects (0.63) and menopausal symptoms (0.39). The item-to-own and item-to-other scales correlation showed satisfactory results. Patients who were on-treatment had significantly poorer quality of life (QoL) scores in most symptom scales. Conclusions: The EORTC QLQ-OV28 is a valid instrument to assess QoL issues of patients with ovarian cancer in Taiwan, a country of a different culture. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Development and validation of a questionnaire measuring quality of life in primary caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis (QPCAD)

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
K. Kondo-Endo
Summary Background, Disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments for primary caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis are useful in evaluating the efficacy of treatment in clinical practice and study. However, no such scale has been available in Japan. Objectives, To develop and validate a self-administered instrument specifically designed to measure quality of life in primary caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis (QPCAD). Methods, This study consisted of three successive phases: the item generation phase, pilot test phase and validation phase. In the item generation phase, questionnaire items were derived from 33 qualitative interviews with primary caregivers. In the pilot test phase, the face and content validity of the preliminary scale were assessed (n = 33). In the validation phase, the questionnaire was finalized and assessed in terms of statistical performance (n = 416). Results, The QPCAD included 19 items in the following categories: ,exhaustion', ,worry about atopic dermatitis', ,family cooperation' and ,achievement'. The reliability of internal consistency was fair (Cronbach's alpha coefficients 0·66,0·87). The QPCAD subscales and total score were significantly correlated with psychological health, physical health, anxiety, depression and severity score, with mild to moderate correlation coefficients. Test,retest reliability and responsiveness to change in severity were also satisfactory. Conclusions, The QPCAD is an appropriate tool for assessing HRQoL of primary caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis in clinical practice and clinical trials. [source]