Adhesive Tape (adhesive + tape)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Examination of Writings Concealed by Black Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tape

Meenakshi Mahajan Ph.D.
Abstract:, Examination of concealed writing is often a challenge for forensic document examiners. Although the published literature describes many techniques, these are often only successful when the writing has been concealed by pencil, pen, or by spreading inks of different tint or by smearing of the writing with colored fluids. When black pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape is used, these procedures are ineffective. The present report describes the use of a straight chain hydrocarbon to remove the PSA tape and allow a comparison of the concealed writing with that of a suspect. The use of the solvent had no observable effect on either the writing or the substrate. The procedure is rapid and easy to use and is also effective with other colored PSA tapes. [source]

Infant Skin Microstructure Assessed In Vivo Differs from Adult Skin in Organization and at the Cellular Level

Georgios N. Stamatas Ph.D.
The purpose of this study was to examine infant skin microstructure in vivo and to compare it with that of adult skin. The lower thigh area of 20 healthy mothers (ages 25,43) and their biological children (ages 3,24 months) was examined using in vivo noninvasive methods including fluorescence spectroscopy, video microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Stratum corneum and supra-papillary epidermal thickness as well as cell size in the granular layer were assessed from the confocal images. Adhesive tapes were used to remove corneocytes from the outer-most layer of stratum corneum and their size was computed using image analysis. Surface features showed differences in glyph density and surface area. Infant stratum corneum was found to be 30% and infant epidermis 20% thinner than in adults. Infant corneocytes were found to be 20% and granular cells 10% smaller than adult corneocytes indicating a more rapid cell turnover in infants. This observation was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Dermal papillae density and size distribution also differed. Surprisingly, a distinct direct structural relationship between the stratum corneum morphology and the dermal papillae was observed exclusively in infant skin. A change in reflected signal intensity at ,100 ,m indicating the transition between papillary and reticular dermis was evident only in adult skin. We demonstrate in vivo qualitative and quantitative differences in morphology between infant and adult skin. These differences in skin microstructure may help explain some of the reported functional differences. [source]

Fast Mapping of Gunshot Residues by Batch Injection Analysis with Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Lead at the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode

Adriana De, Donato
Abstract The forensic analysis of lead in gunshot residues (GSR) sampled on the hands of potential shooters is rendered faster, simpler and less expensive by a new batch injection analysis (BIA) method, based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). A simple "J" shaped adaptor was designed to direct the flux of the analyte injected with a micropipettor onto the hanging mercury drop electrode of any commercial electrode stand. Sampling methods for GSR were compared and lifting with adhesive tape was elected for field use. The tapes are glued on polyethylene screens and stored in capped vials. Sampling with multiple strips provides coarse mapping of the distribution of lead on the shooter's hands. After a dissolution/extraction step with chloroform/aqueous 0.10,mol,L,1 HCl, 100,,L of the aqueous phase are injected during 25,s for accumulation of lead on the HMDE at ,0.60,V (vs. Ag/AgCl). A detection limit of 20,ng/mL of Pb(II), outreaching for GSR analysis, is reached without oxygen removal, at a frequency of 20 injections per hour. Results for sequences of shootings with a revolver and a pistol are presented. [source]

Direct Patterning of Organic-Thin-Film-Transistor Arrays via a "Dry-Taping" Approach

Shuhong Liu
Dry patterning of a variety of solution- and vapor-deposited small-molecule organic semiconductors using adhesive tape is demonstrated. This technique allows direct fabrication of large-area arrays of bottom-contact high-performance organic- thin-film field-effect transistors with self-aligned electrodes. These patterned devices exhibit significantly higher on/off ratios and lower parasitic leakage currents than control unpatterned devices of the same materials. [source]

In vitro evaluation of sun protection factors of sunscreen agents using a novel UV spectrophotometric technique

M. D. Bleasel
Synopsis A method for the in vitro determination of low- and high-value sun protection factors (SPF) of sunscreens using artificial substrates and a novel pseudo double beam (PDB) mode of operation of a standard double beam UV spectrophotometer is described. The method allows transmittance to be calculated from detector responses of reference and sample beams measured at different gain levels and facilitates the accurate quantification of low levels of electromagnetic radiation transmitted through highly absorbing samples. The spectrophotometer was modified to hold quartz diffusing plates on which a substrate [TransporeÔ adhesive tape or human stratum corneum obtained from a skin surface biopsy (SSB)] and the sunscreens to be tested were applied. The PDB mode of operation increased the effective linear range of the detector response of the spectrophotometer by a factor of approximately 20000-fold, enabling the in vitro SPF determination technique to be applied to both high and low SPF value sunscreens. Eight commercial sunscreens with known SPF values ranging from 4 to 77, previously determined by in vivo methods, were tested in vitro using both test substrates and correlations between the in vivo and in vitro values were determined. SPF values determined using the in vitro method correlated well with the known in vivo results (TransporeÔ tape, R2 = 0.611; SSB, R2 = 0.7928). The in vitro SPF obtained for one of the tested products differed substantially from the cited in vivo SPF value. Independent in vitro and in vivo re-evaluation of the SPF of this product matched the value predicted by the present method much more closely than the originally cited in vivo value. All determined SPFs were ordered correctly in comparison to in vivo ranking and the technique appeared to correctly identify a sunscreen that had a labelled SPF value that was significantly higher than its true SPF. Résumé Une méthode destinée à déterminer in vitro les facteurs de protection solaire (SPF) d'écrans solaires de faible et haut indice est décrite. Elle met en ,uvre des substrats artificiels et un nouveau mode opératoire reposant sur l'utilisation du pseudo double faisceau (PDB) d'un spectrophotomètre UV double faisceau standard. La méthode permet le calcul de la transmittence à partir des réponses du détecteur de référence et la mesure en simple faisceau à différents niveaux de gain facilitant ainsi la quantification précise des faibles niveaux de radiation électromagnétique (EMR) transmis à travers des échantillons hautement absorbants. Le spectrophotomètre a été modifié de façon à fixer des plaques diffusantes en quartz sur lesquelles un substrat (ruban adhésif Transport TM ou du stratum corneum humain obtenu à partir de biopsie de surface de peau (SSB) et les écrans solaires testés ont été appliqués. Le mode opératoire PTB augmente la gamme linéaire effective de la réponse du détecteur du spectrophotomètre d'un facteur approximatif 20.000 permettant, à cette technique de détermination des SPF in vitro, d'être appliquée à la fois sur les écrans solaires de haut et bas SPF. Huit écrans solaires commerciaux de SPF connus allant de 4 à 77, préalablement déterminés par des méthodes in vivo, ont été testés in vitro en utilisant les deux substrats, et les corrélations entre les valeurs in vivo et in vitro ont été déterminées. Les valeurs SPF déterminées en utilisant la méthode in vitro est bien corrélée avec les résultats in vivo connus (ruban transport, R2 = 0.611; SSB, R2 = .7928). Le SPF in vitro pour l'un des produits testés diffère fortement des valeurs SPF citées in vivo. Une réévaluation indépendante des SPF in vitro et in vivo de ce produit ajuste la valeur prédite par la présente méthode de façon beaucoup plus proche que la valeur originale citée in vivo. Tous les SPF ainsi déterminés sont ordonnés correctement en comparaison au classement in vivo et la technique semble identifier correctement un écran solaire qui possède un SPF libellé significativement plus haut que son vrai SPF. [source]

Application of siphon principle to fluid drainage in transurethral surgery

Abstract, Transurethral resection is usually performed using an all-in-one drape with a fluid collection pouch, drainage port and hose. Gravity drainage of irrigation fluid through the hose is often hampered, resulting in fluid retention in the pouch. We applied a siphon principle to facilitate fluid drainage by making a U-shaped bend near the distal end of the hose, using an adhesive tape, and hooking the distal end of inverted U shape on the edge of bucket placed on the floor. When the hose is filled with irrigation fluid up to the crest of the siphon, fluid flow driven by atmospheric pressure continues until the pouch is evacuated. Repriming and restarting occur automatically throughout the operation. This simple device has virtually eliminated fluid retention in the pouch and proved to be especially useful in transurethral prostatectomy, which requires a large amount of irrigation fluid. [source]

Three-Dimensional Lipid Distribution of a Brown Rice Kernel

Y. Ogawa
ABSTRACT: Lipid distribution was successfully observed in a brown rice kernel (Oryza sativa L.) 3-dimension-ally (3D) by means of a virtual 3D visualizing model. Sections of an untreated rice kernel were collected on an adhesive tape with preservation of its shape. The actual distribution of lipid was visualized by staining. A virtual 3D visualizing model of the lipid distribution was produced from the stained sequential sections of the rice kernel. Lipid is not only located at the outer layer of the rice kernel but also in lower tissues beneath the seed coat and around the embryo. Lipid distribution at dorsal and ventral sides could also be visualized. [source]

Transdermal Delivery of the Potent Analgesic Dihydroetorphine: Kinetic Analysis of Skin Permeation and Analgesic Effect in the Hairless Rat

Dihydroetorphine is an extraordinarily strong opioid analgesic. To assess its effectiveness after topical application in hairless rats we have examined the kinetic analysis of skin permeation through excised skin and the in-vitro reservoir effect of skin, and have investigated the predictability of plasma concentration and analgesic effect following in-vivo transdermal application. Dihydroetorphine was moderately permeable from an aqueous suspension through excised hairless rat skin. Dihydroetorphine flux from drug-dispersed pressure-sensitive adhesive tape was threefold that from the applied aqueous suspension. The fluxes through the abdominal and the dorsal skin during tape application fitted the Fickian diffusion equation well after the tape was removed peeling off the outer layer of the stratum corneum. The relationship between the plasma concentration and the analgesic effect was examined for four different rates of infusion of dihydroetorphine. A non-linear pharmacokinetic disposition was observed. Following abdominal (0.28 cm2, 20,g) and dorsal (0.50 cm2, 35,g) applications of the dihydroetorphine tape, plasma concentration (0.2-0.8 ng mL,1) and analgesic effect were maintained at a suitable level, for more than 8h, until removal of the tape. These profiles were predictable using the combined equation for percutaneous absorption, disposition and the analgesic effect, but the analgesic effect was slightly lower than the predicted value. The results show that it was possible to control the plasma concentration and the analgesic effect of dihydroetorphine by topical application of the analgesic using pressure-sensitive adhesive tape in the hairless rat. It was possible to predict the result using mathematical modelling. [source]

Impact of modified acidic soft drinks on enamel erosion

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 1 2005
T Attin
Objective:, To evaluate the enamel erosive potential of modified acidic soft drinks under controlled conditions in an artificial mouth. Materials and methods:, From each of 144 bovine incisors one enamel sample was prepared. Labial surfaces of the samples were ground flat, polished and covered with adhesive tape, leaving an exposed area. The samples were distributed among four (A,D) groups for treatment with A: Coca-Cola, B: Sprite; C: Sprite light, D: orange juice. Either 1.0 mmol l,1 calcium (Ca) or a combination (comb.) of 0.5 mmol l,1 calcium plus 0.5 mmol l,1 phosphate plus 0.031 mmol l,1 fluoride was added to the beverages. Samples of each group were subdivided into three subgroups (-original; -Ca and -comb.) for treatment with original and modified drinks. De- and remineralization cycles were based on a standard protocol described earlier. Surface loss of the specimens was determined using profilometry after test procedure. Results:, In all subgroups, loss of enamel was observed. The enamel loss recorded for the samples rinsed with original Sprite and original orange juice was significantly higher compared with all other solutions (P = 0.001). Lowest enamel loss was recorded for the original Coca-Cola group (P = 0.001). With the exception of Coca-Cola, demineralization with the modified beverages led to significantly lower losses compared with the respective original solutions. Conclusion:, Modification of the test soft drinks with low concentrations of calcium or a combination of calcium, phosphate and fluoride may exert a significant protective potential with respect to dental erosion. [source]

Cover Picture: Plasma Process.

Cover: The combination of atmospheric pressure glow plasma fluorination and surface roughening is effective in the formation of highly releasing surfaces. A 180° peel test with an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive tape presents this evidence. Further details can be found in the article by Y. Masutani,* N. Nagai, S. Fujita, M. Hayashi, M. Kogoma, and K. Tanaka on page 41. [source]

Use of adhesive surgical tape with the absorbable continuous subcuticular suture

Jeremy D. Kolt
Background: The absorbable continuous subcuticular suture is frequently used to close surgical incisions where the aim is healing by primary intention. A form of adhesive surgical tape is commonly also placed over the wound but this combination closure seems to have its development based on anecdotal, rather than experimental evidence. The present study reviews the scientific literature on the development of sutureless wound closure and presents the current evidence for the use of combination wound closure. Methods: Review was undertaken of the medical literature using the PubMed Internet database and cross-referencing major ­articles on the subject. The following combinations of key words were searched: skin closure, wound closure, suture technique, sutureless, adhesive tape, op-site, staples, subcuticular suture, complication, infection and scars. Results: Taped closure alone has advantages of lower wound infection rates and greater wound tensile strength, but disadvantages of epidermal reaction, skin edge inversion, doubtful safety and time required for meticulous surgical technique. The use of the continuous absorbable subcuticular suture allows accurate skin edge approximation, which increases the safety margin. The combination closure has a slightly superior cosmetic result to sutureless techniques but no study has been performed to compare the results of combination subcuticular suture and tape, with tape or subcuticular suture alone. Conclusions: There is no evidence in the scientific literature to justify or support the practice of closing a surgical wound with both subcuticular suture and adhesive surgical tape. [source]

Effect of a water-based no-sting, protective barrier formulation and a solvent-containing similar formulation on skin protection from medical adhesive trauma

Ronald J Shannon
Abstract Trauma to the skin from repeated removal of adhesive-based medical products can cause pain, anxiety, risk of secondary infections and additional health care costs. Skin barrier formulations are used to protect the integrity from such trauma. However, not all formulations are equally protective. We report the results of a randomised controlled study comparing a solvent-free (SF) formulation and a solvent-containing (SC) formulation to the skin of 12 healthy volunteers aged 18,55 years. Treatments were applied at baseline to two of the four test sites on the back of each subject and repeated for 5 days. Measurements of pain, discomfort, erythema and skin water loss were taken 24 hours after each application. The SF formulation is associated with lower mean scores for erythema (day 5, P < 0·05) and lower values for transepidermal water loss (day 5, P < 0·05) and redness (days 4 and 5, P < 0·05) when compared with either no treatment or daily treatment with a SC formulation. There were no significant differences between subject responses when pain on application of the test formulation or discomfort associated with removal of the medical adhesive tapes were rated. We conclude that a SF formulation provides better security against adhesive-derived skin trauma than a SC formulation. [source]