Common Bile Duct (common + bile_duct)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Common Bile Duct

  • lower common bile duct

  • Terms modified by Common Bile Duct

  • common bile duct ligation
  • common bile duct stone

  • Selected Abstracts


    Eric K. Ganguly
    Bile leak after cholecystectomy is well described, with the cystic duct remnant the site of the leak in the majority of cases. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with biliary stent placement has a high success rate in such cases. When ERCP fails, options include surgery, and percutaneous and endoscopic transcatheter occlusion of the site of bile leak. Here, we describe a case of endoscopic transcatheter occlusion of a persistent cystic duct bile leak after cholecystectomy using N -butyl cyanoacrylate glue. A 51-year-old man had persistent pain and bilious drainage following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile leak persisted after endoscopic placement of a biliary stent for a confirmed cystic duct leak. A repeat ERCP was carried out and the cystic duct was occluded with a combination of angiographic coils and N -butyl cyanoacrylate glue. The patient's pain and bilious drainage resolved. A follow-up cholangiogram confirmed complete resolution of the cystic duct leak and a patent common bile duct. [source]


    Kiyohito Tanaka
    In the screening of early pancreatic cancer and bile duct cancer, the first issue was ,what are the types of abnormality in laboratory data and symptoms in case of early pancreatic cancer and bile duct cancer?' Early cancer in the pancreaticobiliary region has almost no symptoms, however epigastralgia without abnormality in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a sign of early stage pancreaticobiliary cancer. Sudden onset and aggravation of diabetes mellitus is an important change in the case of pancreatic cancer. Extracorporeal ultrasonography is a very useful procedure of checking up changes of pancreatic and biliary lesions. As the role of endoscopy in screening, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most effective means of cancer detection of the pancreas, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is most useful of diagnosis tool for abnormalities of the common bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is an important modality as the procedure of sampling of diagnostic materials. Endoscopic ultrasonography-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has the role of histological diagnosis of pancreatic mass lesion also. Especially, in the case of pancreas cancer without evidence of cancer by pancreatic juice cytology and brushing cytology, EUS-FNA is essential. Intra ductal ultrasonography (IUDS) and perotral cholangioscopy (POCS) are useful for determination of mucosal extent in extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Further improvements of endoscopical technology, endoscopic procedures are expected to be more useful modalities in detection and diagnosis of early pancreatic and bile duct cancers. [source]


    Kiichi Tamada
    When performing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), the smooth introduction of the duodenoscope into the papilla of Vater, an appropriate view of the papilla of Vater, and deep cannulation of the bile duct are essential. The operator must know the difference between the side-viewing endoscope and the forward-viewing endoscope. The rotation of the body and the left arm of the operator, switching with the left wrist, and dialing of the endoscope are essential for appropriately viewing the papilla of Vater. When training operators to do ERCP, a model is useful for helping them understand basic handling. The approach to deep cannulation of the bile duct should be selected based on the type of papilla (slit type, onion type, tongue protrusion type, flat type, and tumor type). Cannulation is more difficult in patients with the tongue protrusion-type of papilla than with a slit type, onion type, or tumor type. According to previous reports, therapeutic ERCP requires the ability to cannulate the common bile duct deeply 80% of the time; 180 to 200 supervised ERCP are necessary to achieve this success rate. [source]


    Daisuke Masuda
    Background:, Although endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage (ENGBD) for gallbladder disease is useful, the procedure is difficult and investigations involving many cases are lacking. Furthermore, reports on transpapillary intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) of the gallbladder using a miniature probe are rare. Methods:, A total of 150 patients (119 suspected of having gallbladder carcinoma, 24 with acute cholecystitis (AC), and seven with Mirizzi's syndrome (MS)) were the subject. (i) ENGBD: We attempted to put ENGBD tube into the GB. (ii) IDUS of the gallbladder: Using the previous ENGBD tube, we attempted to insert the miniature probe into the gallbladder and perform transpapillary IDUS of the gallbladder. In five patients, we attempted three-dimensional intraductal ultrasonography (3D-IDUS). Results:, (i) ENGBD: Overall success rate was 74.7% (112/150); the rate for the patients suspected of having gallbladder carcinoma was 75.6% (90/119), and was 71.0% (22/31) for the AC and MS patients. Inflammation and jaundice improved in 20/22 successful patients with AC and MS. Success rate was higher when cystic duct branching was from the lower and middle parts of the common bile duct than from the upper part, and was higher when branching was upwards than downwards. (ii) IDUS of the gallbladder: Success rate for miniature probe insertion into the gallbladder was 96.4% (54/56). Lesions could be visualized in 50/54 patients (92.6%). Of these, detailed evaluation of the locus could be performed in 41. In five patients attempted 3D-IDUS, the relationship between the lesion and its location was readily grasped. Conclusion:, IDUS of the gallbladder is superior for diagnosing minute images. Improvement on the device will further increase its usefulness. [source]

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: role of sphincterotomy

    Choichi Sugawa
    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is one of the causes of post-cholecystectomy syndrome and biliary pain and is a challenge from both the diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is typically diagnosed months to years after cholecystectomy. Continued biliary type pain after cholecystectomy may occur in as many as 10,20% of patients. Ten percent or more of these patients may eventually be shown to have SOD. The syndrome is often associated with a variety of other gastrointestinal disorders thought to be caused by dysmotility. According to the Milwaukee classification, patients with biliary pain can be divided into three types. Type I patients show all the objective signs suggestive of a disturbed bile outflow (i.e. elevated liver function tests, dilated common bile duct and delayed contrast drainage during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). Type II patients have biliary type pain along with one or two of the criteria from type I. Type III patients have biliary pain only, with no other abnormalities. The present paper will focus primarily on SOD syn-drome, papillary stenosis and the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, in particular endoscopic sphincterotomy. [source]

    Carcinoma of the gall-bladder associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis

    Mitsuru Seo
    A 64-year-old Japanese male was admitted to Fukuoka University Hospital to undergo further examination for an elevated ,-glutamyltransferase (,-GTP) level. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) showed dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct and stenosis of the proximal portion of the common bile duct. No abnormality was found in the gall-bladder. Since the fecal occult blood test was positive, sigmoidoscopy and a barium enema were performed. Sigmoidoscopy showed a hyperemic and hemorrhagic mucosa in the rectum, but a barium enema study did not show any abnormal findings in the entire colon. We diagnosed the patient to have primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative proctitis based on these radiological and endoscopic findings. Bloody stool and fever occurred 4 months after the first admission. The patient's colitis extended to the entire colon. Because of the failure of corticosteroid therapy, a subtotal colectomy was performed. Given that a mass was intraoperatively palpable in the gall-bladder, a cholecystectomy was simultaneously performed. In the whole resected colon, diffuse ulcerations and mucosal islands were found. Grossly, a flat polypoid lesion, measuring 2 cm in diameter, was found in the fundus of the resected gall-bladder. Sections of this lesion in the gall-bladder revealed cystic atypical glands and some atypical cell clusters invading the subserosa. The present case suggests that careful observations are needed for patients with ulcerative colitis who have an elevated ,-GTP level even if the colitis is limited to the distal colon and the serum alkaline phosphatase level is normal. [source]

    Altered membrane glycoprotein targeting in cholestatic hepatocytes

    Giuseppa Esterina Liquori
    Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (5): 393,400 Abstract Background, Hepatocytes are polarized epithelial cells with three morphologically and functionally distinct membrane surfaces: the sinusoidal, lateral and canalicular surface domains. These domains differ from each other in the expression of integral proteins, which concur to their polarized functions. We hypothesize that the cholestasis-induced alterations led to partial loss of hepatocyte polarity. An altered expression of membrane proteins may be indicative of functional disorders. Alkaline liver phosphatase (ALP), one of the most representative plasma membrane glycoproteins in hepatocytes, is expressed at the apical (canalicular) pole of the cell. Because the release of ALP protein in the bloodstream is significantly increased in cholestasis, the enzymatic levels of plasma ALP have major relevance in the diagnosis of cholestatic diseases. Here we assess the cholestasis-induced redistribution of membrane glycoproteins to investigate the ALP release. Materials and methods, We performed enzymatic histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, lectin histochemistry, immunogold and lectin-and immunoblotting studies. Experimental cholestasis was induced in rats by ligation of common bile duct (BDL). Results, The BDL led to altered membrane sialoglycoprotein targeting as well as to ultrastructural and functional disorders. Disarrangement of the microtubular system, thickening of the microfilamentous pericanalicular ectoplasm and disturbance of the vectorial trafficking of membrane glycoprotein containing vesicles were found. Conclusions, Altogether, results indicate that the cholestasis-induced partial loss of hepatocyte cell polarity leads to mistranslocation of ALP to the sinusoidal plasma membrane from where the enzyme is then massively released into the bloodstream. [source]

    Electrical activation of common bile duct nerves modulates sphincter of Oddi motility in the Australian possum

    HPB, Issue 4 2005
    Y. Sonoda
    Abstract Background: Sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility is regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic nerves. The existence of neural circuits between the SO and the proximal extrahepatic biliary tree has been reported, but they are poorly understood. Using electrical field stimulation (EFS), we determined if a neural circuit exists between the common bile duct (CBD) and the SO in anaesthetized Australian brush-tailed possums. Methods: The gallbladder, cystic duct or CBD were subjected to EFS with a stimulating electrode. Spontaneous SO phasic waves were measured by manometry. Results: EFS at sites on the distal CBD (12,20 mm proximal to the SO), but less commonly at more proximal CBD, evoked a variety of responses consisting of an excitatory and/or inhibitory phase. Bi-phasic responses consisting of an excitation followed by inhibition were the most common. Tri-phasic responses were also observed as well as excitation or inhibition only. These evoked responses were blocked by topical application of local anaesthetic to the distal CBD or transection of the CBD. EFS at sites on the gallbladder body, neck or cystic duct did not consistently evoke an SO response. Pretreatment with atropine or guanethidine reduced the magnitude of the evoked response by about 50% (p<0.05), pretreatment with hexamethonium had no consistent effect and pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor increased the response. Discussion: A neural circuit(s) between the SO and the distal CBD modulates SO motility. Damage to this area of the CBD during bile duct exploration surgery could adversely affect SO motility. [source]

    Recurrent bile duct stones after transduodenal sphincteroplasty

    HPB, Issue 2 2002
    SMG Kibria
    Background Transduodenal sphincteroplasty (TDS) offers permanent prophylaxis against further stones in the common bile duct (CBD) by allowing continuous free efflux of bile from the papilla. Patients and resultsIn a personal series of 267 consecutive operations, four patients underwent further treatment for recurrent CBD stones during a median follow-up of 12 years. Three of them received Roux-en-Y biliary diversion and had no further symptoms; the fourth patient remains well four years after endoscopic extraction of stones. Discussion Recurrent stone formation is rare after an adequate TDS and probably reflects retained food debris within the CBD. Initial treatment may be endoscopic, but biliary diversion is needed for those with recurrent symptoms. [source]

    Preoperative determinants of common bile duct stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    A. J. Sheen
    Summary Introduction:, The aim of this study is to determine whether there are any clinical or biochemical predictors of common bile duct (CBD) stones in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods:, A prospective database of nearly 1000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed under the care of a single surgeon with a standardised technique between 1999 and 2006, was analysed. Clinical presentation, ultrasound and immediate preoperative biochemical results as well as the operative cholangiogram findings were reviewed. Routine cholangiography was attempted in most patients and the primary outcome variable was the detection of bile duct stones. The data was analysed using chi-squared test for categorical variables. The significant variables on univariate analysis were further characterised to identify the independent predictors of bile duct stones using a logistic regression model (significance p < 0.05). Results:, A total of 757 of 988 patients (77%) underwent cholangiography. Male-to-female ratio was 1 : 3 with a median age of 54 years (range: 17,93). Ten per cent of patients had bile duct stones identified on cholangiography. On univariate analysis, jaundice (p = 0.019), cholangitis (p < 0.001), alanine transaminase > 100 (p = 0.024), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) > 350 (p < 0.001) and CBD > 10 mm (p = 0.01) were significant markers for predicting bile duct stones. Bilirubin > 30 (×2 normal) was found not to be significant (p = 0.145). On a logistic regression model, ALP > 350 and/or cholangitis were found to be independent predictive factors of CBD stones (odds ratio 6.1). Conclusions:, If a policy of routine intra-operative cholangiography is not adopted, a history of cholangitis or a raised ALP immediately preoperatively should lead to a high suspicion of CBD stones. [source]

    Anatomy of the cystic artery arising from the gastroduodenal artery and its choledochal branch,a case report

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 3 2000
    A. K. SARKAR
    Variations in the branching pattern of the common hepatic artery often occur and may be encountered during cholecystectomy. Variants of the cystic artery, its branches and relations with the biliary structures and blood vessels emphasise the importance of arterial dissection in biliary surgery. In this study, a rare variant of the cystic artery and its choledochal branch is described. The cystic artery arose from the gastroduodenal artery, passed anterior to structures in the free margin of lesser omentum and travelled a long distance before supplying the gall bladder. A long choledochal branch was noted accompanying the common bile duct. Surgical implications of this variation of the cystic and choledochal arteries are discussed. [source]

    Tissue harmonic sonography in the diagnosis of common bile duct stones: A comparison with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    Tomás Ripollés MD
    Abstract Purpose To revisit the diagnostic accuracy of sonography in the detection of choledocholithiasis using modern equipment with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy as the gold standard. Methods A total of 107 patients with clinically suspected choledocholithiasis were examined with THI before undergoing ERCP. The sonographic findings that were prospectively evaluated included the presence of choledocholithiasis, size of common bile duct, sonographic view and patient position that best visualized the stone(s), visualization of the distal common duct, and duration of examination. The accuracy of sonography compared with ERCP and sphincterotomy was calculated. Results Sonography correctly detected stones in 65 of 76 patients (sensitivity of 86%). The specificity and the overall accuracy were 87% and 86%, respectively. The sensitivity of sonography was higher with dilated extrahepatic duct (44% in patients with common bile duct measuring less than 6 mm in diameter, 82% between 6 and 10 mm, and 100% with common bile duct larger than 10 mm). The lateral approach with the patient in left lateral decubitus position of the patient was the most effective in 47% of the cases. Conclusion Sonography with THI is an accurate technique for the detection of choledocholithiasis that may be used as the first-choice technique to avoid unnecessary procedures in a high percentage of patients, especially those with dilated biliary tree. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2009 [source]

    Evaluation of preoperative sonography in acute cholecystitis to predict technical difficulties during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Kyung Soo Cho MD
    Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of preoperative sonography in predicting technical difficulties during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis. Methods Sonographic assessment of 14 parameters was performed in 55 patients during a 9-month period: volume of gallbladder (GB), thickness of GB wall, pattern of GB wall thickening, size of largest gallstone, gallstone mobility, adhesion of GB to its bed, fat plane between GB and hepatoduodenal ligament, free fluid in GB fossa, common bile duct (CBD) dilatation, CBD stone(s), color and power Doppler signals in GB wall, and increased color and power Doppler signals in adjacent liver. Each of the 5 operative steps of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was scored as being difficult (1) or not (0). The scores for each step were added to obtain the overall difficulty score (0,5). We evaluated prospectively whether there were significant associations among the preoperative sonographic findings and the overall difficulty score, scores for each of the 5 operative steps, and operation time. Results The overall difficulty score was significantly associated with a GB volume of 50 cm3 or more, GB wall thickness of 3 mm or more, and presence of color Doppler signals in the GB wall. Increased GB volume also made dissection of adhesions from the GB and dissection of Calot's triangle more difficult. Extraction of the GB from the abdomen was more difficult with a thickened GB wall or adhesion of the GB to its bed. The presence of a CBD stone, dilatation of the CBD (, 8 mm), color Doppler signals in the GB wall, and increased power Doppler signals in the adjacent liver were significantly associated with increased operation time. Conclusions Based on our experience, preoperative determination of GB volume, GB wall thickness, and presence of color Doppler signals in the GB wall in patients with acute cholecystitis helps predict technical difficulties during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 32:115,122, 2004 [source]

    Guidewire cannulation increases the success rate of needle-knife fistulotomy for difficult bile duct access

    Kyoung W Yoon
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Selective bile duct cannulation is a prerequisite for performing therapeutic endoscopic biliary intervention. This study aimed to evaluate if using a soft-tipped guidewire to cannulate the bile duct would increase the success rate of needle-knife fistulotomy for difficult bile duct access. Methods:, We reviewed sixty 60 patients with difficult bile duct access who underwent conventional cannulation with radiocontrast dye (29) or guidewire cannulation (31) after needle-knife fistulotomy. Results:, There were no significant differences in the demographic data between the two groups. The initial success rate of selective bile duct cannulation was significantly higher in the guidewire cannulation group compared with the conventional cannulation group: 100% versus 79.3%, P = 0.009. The success rate of selective biliary cannulation in the patients with non-dilated common bile duct (< 8 mm) was significantly higher in the guidewire cannulation group compared with the conventional cannulation group: 100% versus 68.4%, P = 0.003. The incidence of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis was not significantly different between the two groups. No serious complications occurred in either group. Conclusions:, In this retrospective and small case series, guidewire cannulation after needle-knife fistulotomy increased the success rate of selective bile duct cannulation in patients with difficult bile duct access. [source]

    Effects of simvastatin on hepatic cholesterol metabolism, bile lithogenicity and bile acid hydrophobicity in patients with gallstones

    Jeffery L Smith
    Abstract Background and Aims: There is limited information available on the effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on hepatic and biliary cholesterol metabolism in patients with gallstones. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of simvastatin on the regulatory elements of cholesterol metabolism that determine the concentrations of cholesterol in plasma and bile. Methods: Thirty-one gallstone patients were enrolled in the study; 17 were treated with 20 mg simvastatin daily for 3 weeks prior to cholecystectomy and 14 served as controls. Samples of blood, liver, gall-bladder bile and bile from the common bile duct (CBD) were collected and analysed. Results: The plasma cholesterol (,30%), triacylglycerol (,23%) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (,42%) concentrations were significantly lowered by simvastatin treatment, as was the plasma lathosterol : cholesterol (,70%), which reflects whole-body cholesterol synthesis. Despite these changes, the hepatic LDL receptor protein and LDL receptor activity in circulating mononuclear cells were similar in both groups. There were no differences in the plasma phytosterol : cholesterol, which reflects the intestinal cholesterol absorption capacity or in the activity of hepatic acyl-coenzyme A : cholesterol acyltransferase. There were however, lower cholesterol concentrations in CBD (,68%) and gall bladder (,41%) bile, and decreased lithogenic (,47%) and bile acid hydrophobicity (,22%) indices of CBD bile in the simvastatin group. Conclusions: These data indicate that simvastatin reduced plasma and biliary cholesterol levels primarily by reducing cholesterol synthesis. The reduction in CBD bile lithogenicity and bile acid hydrophobicity by simvastatin suggests that this agent may be useful for people who have early stages of cholesterol gallstone development and in whom a choleretic effect is required. [source]

    A case of choledochocele mimicking choledocholithiasis on MR cholangiography: A new differential diagnosis of pseudo-filling defect

    Masashi Izumiya MD
    Abstract We present the case of a 79-year-old female with acute cholangitis and cholecystitis who presented with right upper quadrant pain. Thin-collimation MR cholangiogram showed a filling defect measuring 1 cm, which was less prominent on single-slab images. Endoscopy showed dynamic ballooning and collapsing of the ampulla of Vater, and a cholangiogram showed characteristic bulging at the distal common bile duct, which led to the diagnosis of choledochocele. It is important to differentiate choledochocele as a cause of filling defect of the lower common bile duct on the MR cholangiogram. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007;26:1097,1100. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Interactive magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) with adaptive averaging,

    Martin J. Graves MSc
    Abstract Purpose To implement and evaluate a technique for adaptively averaging 2D magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) images obtained using an interactive imaging system with a view to improving image quality at reduced fields of view (FOVs). Materials and Methods Images were obtained using an interactive implementation of a single-shot half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) technique. Software was developed for adaptively averaging images, and an evaluation was performed in a phantom and a cohort of 10 patients referred for standard MRC. Adaptively averaged and standard single-shot MRC images were evaluated with respect to their ability to demonstrate the common bile duct and main left and right intrahepatic duct branches. Results In all patient studies there was no difference in the ability of either the adaptive technique or the standard single-shot method to demonstrate the common bile duct and the main left and right intrahepatic duct branches. However, in seven of the 10 patient studies the adaptive technique provided better visualization of the peripheral bile duct system (P = 0.035; sign test). There was no difference in the diagnostic confidence of the two techniques (P = 0.32, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Conclusion Adaptive averaging of MRC images obtained using an interactive imaging paradigm significantly improves visualization of peripheral intrahepatic ducts. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pathogenesis and outcome of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in cats

    P. D. Mayhew
    Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) was confirmed at surgery or necropsy in 22 cats. Biliary or pancreatic adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by histopathology in six cats and one cat had an undiagnosed mass in the common bile duct. The remaining 15 cats had at least one of a complex of inflammatory diseases including pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. The most common clinical signs were jaundice, anorexia, lethargy, weight loss and vomiting. Hyperbilirubinaemia was present in all cases. Distension of the common bile duct and gall bladder was the most commonly observed finding on abdominal ultrasound. Nineteen cats underwent exploratory laparotomy for biliary decompression and diversion. Mortality in cats with underlying neoplasia was 100 per cent and, in those with non-neoplastic lesions, was 40 per cent. Long-term complications, in those that survived, included recurrence of cholangiohepatitis, chronic weight loss and recurrence of obstruction. Based on these findings, the prognosis for EHBO in cats must be considered guarded. [source]

    Safety and efficacy of curative intent surgery for peri-ampullary liver metastasis

    Mechteld C. de Jong MD
    Abstract Introduction The management of patients with peri-ampullary liver metastasis remains controversial. We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of curative intent surgery for peri-ampullary liver metastasis. Methods Between 1993 and 2009, 40 patients underwent curative intent surgery (resection and/or radiofrequency ablation (RFA)) for peri-ampullary liver metastasis. Clinicopathologic and outcome data were collected and analyzed. Results Location of the primary tumor was pancreas head (n,=,20), ampulla of Vater (n,=,10), distal bile duct (n,=,5), or duodenum (n,=,5). Most patients (n,=,27) presented with synchronous disease, while 13 patients presented with metachronous disease following a median disease-free interval of 22 months. Most patients (n,=,25) presented with hepatic metastasis from pancreaticobiliary origin (pancreatic or distal common bile duct) compared with 15 patients who had metastasis from an intestinal-type primary (ampullary or duodenal). There were no differences in metastatic tumor number or size between these groups (P,>,0.05). Post-operative morbidity and mortality was 30% and 5% respectively. Overall 1- and 3-year survival was 55% and 18%. Patients who underwent resection of liver metastasis from intestinal-type tumors experienced a longer survival compared with patients who had pancreaticobiliary lesions (median: 13 months vs. 23 months; P,=,0.05). Conclusion Curative intent surgery for peri-ampullary liver metastasis was associated with post-operative morbidity and a 5% mortality rate. Although the overall survival benefit was modest, patients with liver metastasis from intestinal-type tumors experienced improved survival following resection of liver metastasis compared with pancreaticobiliary lesions. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:256,263. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Liver test patterns in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis and/or choledocholithiasis

    M. S. PADDA
    Summary Background, Liver tests are utilized to determine the presence of biliary obstruction. Aim, To examine our hypothesis that liver tests aid in elucidating whether patients have simple calculous cholecystitis (ACC) or choledocholithiasis (CDL). Methods, We performed a retrospective study of patients admitted to two University of Texas Southwestern teaching hospitals with a clinical picture consistent with ,acute gallstone disease', i.e. cholecystitis ± choledocolithiasis. The presence of ACC and CDL was based on defined clinical criteria. Results, The cohort consisted of 154 patients meeting specific entry criteria, primarily with right upper quadrant pain; 62 ACC, 79 both ACC and CDL and 13 CDL alone. Approximately 30% of patients with ACC had abnormal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and/or bilirubin level and approximately 50% had abnormal aminotransferase levels. Among patients with ACC/CDL, 77% had abnormal ALP, 60% had abnormal bilirubin and 90% had abnormal aminotransferase levels. By multivariate analysis, increasing common bile duct size and an abnormal ALP and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were excellent predictors of having ACC with CDL. Conclusions, Liver test patterns can aid in elucidating CDL, including in ACC patients. Fundamentally, patients with CDL were more likely to have more abnormal liver tests, whether they had CDL only, or CDL and ACC. A dilated CBD, and abnormal ALP and ALT had modest sensitivity and high specificity for identification of patients with ACC and CDL. [source]

    Hemorrhagic bile pleuritis and peritonitis secondary to traumatic common bile duct rupture, diaphragmatic tear, and rupture of the spleen in a dog

    Gordon D. Peddle VMD
    Abstract Objective, To describe the diagnosis and successful treatment of bile pleuritis and peritonitis secondary to traumatic rupture of the common bile duct and a diaphragmatic tear in a young dog. Case Summary, A 1-year-old German Shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of vomiting and icterus 4 days after being hit by a car. Thoracic radiographs, thoracic and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations, thoraco- and abdominocentesis, and positive contrast celiogram indicated hemorrhagic pleuritis and peritonitis, left dorsal diaphragmatic tear, and rupture and infarct of the spleen. Surgical exploration of the abdomen confirmed these findings in addition to a circumferential tear of the common bile duct, leading to a diagnosis of hemorrhagic bile pleuritis and peritonitis. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture of the abdominal fluid yielded no growth. Surgical correction of the traumatic injuries was achieved via common bile duct anastomosis, cholecystojejunostomy, repair of the diaphragm, and splenectomy. The dog developed postoperative signs consistent with aspiration pneumonia but was successfully treated and discharged from the hospital. Clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities resolved and the dog was alive and healthy 8 months after discharge. New or Unique Information Provided, Bile pleuritis is rare in dogs and cats and is usually associated with penetrating, not blunt, abdominal trauma. Multiple organ injury in cases of traumatic bile duct rupture is uncommon; in this dog, rupture of the common bile duct was accompanied by rupture of the diaphragm and spleen. [source]

    Structural and mechanical remodelling of the common bile duct after obstruction

    B. U. DUCH
    Biliary obstruction in man, most often caused by cholelithiasis, induces remodelling of the bile ducts. Obstruction-induced structural remodelling of the common bile duct (CBD) has been previously described. The mechanical changes that accompany the structural remodelling, however, have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study is to quantify the structural and mechanical changes in the CBD at different time intervals after acute obstruction. The CBD was ligated in the pig, near the duodenum, and studied after 3 h, 12 h, 2 days, 8 days and 32 days (n=5 in each group). One additional animal in each group was sham-operated. At each scheduled time, the CBD was mechanically tested in vitro with a computer-controlled volume infusion system to study the pressure,volume relationship of the CBD segment. A video camera provided simultaneous measurements of the outer dimensions of the CBD at the various pressures. The diameter and wall thickness of the CBD increased about three-fold in the 32-day group compared to the sham group (P < 0.001). The circumferential stress,strain relationship differed between groups (P < 0.001); it was shifted to the right, indicating softening, in the 3-h, 12-h, and 2-day groups and to the left, indicating stiffening, in the 8-day and 32-day group, compared to the sham group. The longitudinal stress,strain curves were all shifted to the left of the circumferential stress,strain curves (P < 0.05). The collagen area increased during obstruction (P < 0.001) but no correlation between the size of the collagen area and the biomechanical parameters was found. A practical implication of the present study serves as a warning to surgeons. A reduction in the wall stiffness in the first several days of obstruction along with an increased duct diameter and a decreased wall thickness suggest that operative procedures such as suturing, anastomosis and procedures related to ERCP must be performed with special care to avoid damage to the CBD. [source]

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma extending into the common bile and main pancreatic ducts

    Rin Yamaguchi
    Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is relatively rare, accounting for only approximately 1% of all exocrine pancreatic tumors. A 69-year-old man was found to have a mass lesion measuring approximately 4 cm in diameter in the pancreatic head on ultrasound, abdominal dynamic CT, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed defect of the lower common bile duct (CBD) due to obstruction by the tumor cast. Histopathologically, the pancreatic head tumor invaded the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and CBD with extension into the CBD in a form of tumor cast. The tumor cells consisted of a solid proliferation with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei in an acinar and trabecular fashion. A 55-year-old man with upper abdominal pain and nausea, had a cystic lesion approximately 3 cm in size in the pancreatic tail on CT. Histopathologically, the tumor was encapsulated by fibrous capsule and had extensive central necrosis with solid areas in the tumor periphery, and invaded with extension into the MPD in a form of tumor cast. The tumor cells resembled acinar cells in solid growths. Two resected cases of ACC with unusual tumor extension into the CBD and the MPD, respectively, are reported. [source]

    Small cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct: Case report and immunohistochemical analysis

    Kazuya Kuraoka
    A small cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct in a 75-year-old Japanese man is reported. The patient suffered from obstructive jaundice, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography-drainage (PTCD) revealed a massive lesion in the lower common bile duct. Because it was diagnosed as a malignant tumor, pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. A nodular infiltrating tumor measuring 4.5 × 3.0 × 2.0 cm was located in the intrapancreatic portion of the extrahepatic bile duct. Histologically, the tumor was composed of a dense proliferation of small atypical cells with a little region of high-grade dysplasia in the adjacent epithelium of the common bile duct. Tumor cells were immunoreactive to neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CD56, and Leu7. Although carcinoma cells invaded into pancreas and duodenum, there were no histological findings that indicated the carcinoma arose from the mucosa of either the pancreatic duct or duodenum. These results indicated that the tumor was a small cell carcinoma derived from the epithelium of the extrahepatic bile duct; a rare neoplasm with only a few cases reported. A few neuroendocrine cells were recognized in the adjacent epithelium of the extrahepatic bile duct, suggesting that the tumor cells might be derived from them. Using immunohistochemical examination, no p53 abnormality was found. Tumor cells showed positive nuclear staining for p16, while negative for cyclin D1, suggesting that functional retinoblastoma protein (pRB) might be lost in the p16/pRB pathway, as in small cell lung cancer. [source]

    Marked diffuse dilations of the biliary tree associated with intrahepatic calculi, biliary sludges and a mucinous cyst of the pancreatic head in a 99-year-old woman

    Tadashi Terada
    A 99-year-old woman was admitted to Shizuoka Shimizu Municipal Hospital because of fever and anasarca. Imaging and laboratory tests showed pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and cardiac failure. The patient died 20 days after admission. An autopsy revealed marked diffuse dilations of the biliary tree ranging from the lower common bile duct to intrahepatic bile ducts. Intrahepatic calcium bilirubinate stones and biliary sludges were recognized within the dilated bile ducts. A unilocular cyst (2 cm in diameter) was present in the pancreatic head adjacent to the lower common bile duct, and it appeared to compress the common bile duct. Histologically, the walls of the dilated biliary tree showed proliferation of peribiliary glands, fibrosis, and infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils (cholangitis). The lumens of the dilated biliary ducts contained neutral and acidic mucins, fibrinous materials, bacteria, neutrophils, and Aspergillus fungi, in addition to the calculi and sludges. The background liver showed atrophy (400 g). The pancreatic unilocular cyst was composed of mucous columnar cells with a few infoldings, and the pancreas also showed foci of mucinous duct hyperplasia and ectasia; the pathological diagnosis of the cyst was cystic dilations of a pancreatic duct branch (mucinous ductal ectasia or mucinous cyst). Other lesions included aspiration pneumonia, emaciation, atrophy of systemic organs, gastric leiomyoma, serous cystadenoma of the right ovary, and arteriosclerotic nephrosclerosis. The present case suggests that a mucinous cyst of the pancreas may compress the biliary tree and lead to marked diffuse dilations of the biliary tree. Alternatively, the dilations of the bile ducts may be associated with aging or may be of congenital origin. The dilated bile ducts may, in turn, give rise to bacterial and fungal cholangitis and formation of biliary sludges and intrahepatic calcium bilirubinate stones. [source]

    Congenital dilatation of the bile duct: Changes in diagnostic tools over the past 19 years

    Junji Takaya
    Abstract Background:,Because of recent improvements in diagnostic procedures, many cases of congenital dilatation of the bile duct (CDBD) have been diagnosed in early life. To determine the mode of presentation and changes in diagnostic tools, medical records of 34 children (25 girls, nine boys) with CDBD who were treated between 1982 and 2000 were reviewed. Results:,The age at presentation ranged from 0 to 16 years (median 4.9 ± 0.7 years), with two patients being diagnosed using prenatal ultrasonography. Of the 32 patients diagnosed post-natally, 21 (66%) complained of abdominal pain. There were also 21 (66%) cases of vomiting. Sixteen patients (50%) experienced both these symptoms. Ten (31%) cases presented with jaundice and three (9%) presented with a palpable mass. Ultrasonography was used as a diagnostic tool in 29 cases (85%). The finding of a dilated common bile duct on abdominal ultrasonography was helpful for early diagnosis. Spiral computed tomography was also a useful and accurate imaging method for diagnosis. Anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (PBJ) was demonstrated in 44% of patients with CDBD. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, which can be performed non-invasively, is useful for the diagnosis and pre-operative assessment of CDBD in children. The average length of time from presentation to diagnosis could be shortened from 46 days (1982,1988) to 13 days (1995,2000). Conclusion:,Recent improvements in diagnostic procedures make immediate, non-invasive diagnosis of CDBD and PBJ possible. [source]

    Cost-effective method for laparoscopic choledochotomy

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1-2 2005
    John Griniatsos
    Background: Recent reports have noted that postoperative complications following open or laparoscopic choledochotomy for common bile duct (CBD) exploration are mainly related to the T-tube presence, and that there has been no trend of decrease in the laparoscopic era. Laparoscopic endobiliary stent placement with primary closure of the CBD has been proposed as a safe and effective alternative to T-tube placement. Methods: Between January 1999 and January 2003, 53 consecutive patients suffering from proven choledocholithiasis underwent laparoscopic common bile exploration (LCBDE) via choledochotomy. In the early period, a T-tube was placed at the end of the procedure (group A, n = 32) while, from June 2001 onwards, laparoscopic biliary stent placement and primary CBD closure were chosen as the drainage method (group B, n = 21). Results: Six patients developed T-tube-related complications postoperatively. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant lower morbidity rate and shorter postoperative hospital stay for the stent group. Although not statistically significant, a median saving of £780 per patient was observed in the stent group. Conclusion: Biliary endoprosthesis placement following laparoscopic choledochotomy avoids the well-known complications of a T-tube, leading to a shorter postoperative hospital stay. The method is safe and effective and it should also be considered as cost-effective compared to T-tube placement. Further studies are required in order to document cost-effectiveness of the method. [source]

    Surgical strategies in the laparoscopic therapy of cholecystolithiasis and common duct stones

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 8 2002
    Kaja Ludwig
    Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the current approach and different strategies adopted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Germany. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted at 859 (n = 1200; 67.6%) hospitals in Germany. Data from 123 090 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy were analysed. Results: 71.9% of the operations were finished laparoscopically (n= 88 537) whereas 22.5% were carried out using the open technique. Conversion to open surgery was required in 7.1% of the laparoscopically started operations. When common bile duct stones were diagnosed preoperatively, 74.4% of the participants favoured the primary endoscopic extraction, following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In cases of intraoperative diagnoses, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was finished and postoperative primary endoscopic extraction was carried out in more than half of the hospitals (58.4%). Sixteen per cent converted to an open operation with simultaneous exploration of the common duct. Laparoscopic desobstruction of the common bile duct was extremely rare (4.4%). Compared with open cholecystectomy, the results show a lower incidence of postoperative reinterventions (0.9 vs 1.8%) and fatal outcomes (0.04 vs 0.53%) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In contrast, common bile duct injuries were more frequent in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy group (0.32 vs 0.12%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6.1 days (range: 2.8,12) in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy group compared with 10.4 days (range: 3,28) in the open cholecystectomy group. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard procedure for the treatment of uncomplicated gallstone disease. There are reasonable differences between the hospitals in type of cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, management of common duct stones and intraoperative diagnostics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, even after adjustment for differences in patient comorbidities. [source]

    Cyst of the common bile duct in a cat

    J-G Grand
    A cyst of the common bile duct (CBD) is reported in a 9-year-old cat that presented with a 1-week history of anorexia, weight loss and vomiting. Diagnosis was established by ultrasound examination and laparotomy, and was ultimately confirmed by histological analysis. Chronic cholangitis and an Escherichia coli species were detected concurrently according to the histopathological findings and bile culture, respectively. The case was managed by suturing the borders of the ostium of the cyst over a stent, using a temporary cholecystostomy tube and antibiotic therapy. At 7 months following the surgery, the cat was in excellent physical condition with no clinical evidence of recurrence of cholangitis or of the cyst after ultrasonographic evaluation. According to the human literature, cysts of the CBD require treatment because of their common association with cholangitis, pancreatitis, and cystic rupture. We were unable to confirm a link between the cyst and cholangitis in this case. It is possible that detection of this anomaly was an incidental finding unrelated to bacterbilia. Histological examination of cyst tissue is mandatory for a definitive diagnosis and to differentiate it from neoplasia. This is the first description of a cyst of the CBD in the cat. [source]

    Identical p53 gene mutation in malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour of the scalp and small cell carcinoma of the common bile duct: the necessity for therapeutic caution?

    N. Nakai
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